ON OLYMPICS, WORLD CUPS AND HUMAN RIGHTS
Just after the 2010 Olympic Games closing ceremonies took place, UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Adequate Housing Raquel Rolnik, presented a comprehensive report to the UN Human Rights Council in March 2010 on the impacts of mega-events that went largely unnoticed.
In it, she cited the era of the 1970’s as point where the use of international sporting events and processes of urban transformation became more evident. By the 1980’s, the massive expansion of corporate funding further distorted global sporting events. By the 1990’s, the report stated, “organizing mega-events as a component of cities’ strategic planning, with a view to repositioning them in a globalized economy, became the hegemonic practice. Staging international games as an economic development strategy, which includes urban infrastructure renewal and real estate investments, became the contemporary approach by cities and states to mega-events.”
There are myriad examples of mass forced evictions, displacement and gentrification caused by an amplification and acceleration of urban development paths. Furthermore, the state of exception caused by these mega-events results in criminalization of poverty, sweeping operations against the homeless through new policing and fining methods and disproportionate targeting of marginalized communities.
While the 2010 Olympic hurricane ran through Vancouver, most of the media here were asleep at the wheel as they castigated activists to provide proof of what was happening on the ground. Rather than take my word for it, here are some quotes from her report.
BIG PROMISES, NO FOLLOW THROUGH
Ms. Rolnik pulls no punches her criticism of mega-events like the World Cup and Olympic Games:
“In the period between the designation of the host city and the staging of the event, cities normally undergo a series of transformations that not only affect their urban infrastructure, but also bring about economic, social and demographic changes that have long-term consequences for the local population. While analysis of the impact of these events usually focuses on the economic benefits for the host city, less attention goes into evaluating the effect on the lives of the residents, especially the most disadvantaged sectors of society. Regrettably, the legacy of hallmark events on the situation of these people has been far from positive. The alleged economic benefits of staging the games are not spread evenly throughout the local population. Instead, old disparities appear to be exacerbated as the processes of regeneration and beautification of the city usually focus on areas mostly populated by poor and vulnerable groups.”
DISPLACEMENT AND FORCED EVICTIONS
“Displacement and forced evictions are common features of preparations for mega-events. The heightened demand for space to construct sports venues, accommodation and roads is channelled through urban redevelopment projects that often require the demolition of existing dwellings and the opening of space for new construction. The importance given to the creation of a new international image for the cities, as an integral part of the preparations for the games, often implies the removal of signs of poverty and underdevelopment through reurbanization projects that prioritize city beautification over the needs of local residents. As public authorities use the organization of mega-events as a catalyst for the regeneration of their city, residents of the affected areas may face mass displacement, forced evictions and the demolition of their homes. Displacement may also result from the measures taken by local authorities to quickly remove unsightly slums from areas exposed to visitors, even without being framed within larger redevelopment projects.
Although not directly a consequence of the construction of facilities to host the games or the urbanization projects aimed at improving the image of the host city, mass displacement may also result from indirect processes, such as gentrification and escalating housing costs. Gentrification can be triggered by the redevelopment projects undertaken in preparation for the events. Once involved in regeneration processes, underdeveloped neighbourhoods attract high-income earners, who start moving into the area. The sudden interest of real estate investors in areas previously considered of low market value raises property and rental prices. This has an impact on affordability for local residents, and often results in their de facto expulsion from the area. In particular, tenants who have no means to rent the new premises are forced to resettle in other regions, and often receive no compensation, alternative housing or financial aid.”
GENTRIFICATION AND CRIMINALIZATION
“Consequently, gentrification and escalating prices have the effect of forcing out low-income communities in favour of middle- and upper-class residents. The community thus suffers a major change in its demographic composition. While middle- and high- income populations move into former poor areas and find housing increasingly available, former residents are pushed to the outskirts of the city, losing their communal ties and enduring further impoverishment owing to the reduction of employment and schooling opportunities, as well as the increase in their commuting costs.
The situation of homeless people also deteriorates in the context of mega-events. Shortly before the events are staged, some local authorities take measures to remove homeless people from areas exposed to visitors. The homeless are sometimes offered incentives to leave these areas, but in most cases they are subject to forced removal and relocation during the events. Specific legislation is introduced, criminalizing acts such as sleeping in the street and begging. Similarly, street vendors and sex workers are targeted by laws that forbid them to carry out their activities in the city while the event is taking place. There are reported cases in which camps or large facilities have been used to accommodate homeless people and other “unsightly” groups during the duration of an event. In this context, some observers have highlighted a disquieting trend in host cities to introduce a “rationale of exception” in the management of public life in preparation for the event, where restrictions of rights and standards of due process are allowed, if considered
necessary, to ensure the realization of the event.32 In addition, as displacement increases and the availability of social housing, informal settlements and temporary residences decreases, the number of homeless persons may grow.
Examples of the criminalization of homeless persons and marginalized activities include (a) in Seoul, beautification efforts for the 1988 Olympic Games included the detention of homeless people in facilities outside the city;33 in preparation for the 2002 Football World Cup, local authorities in Seoul created a list of places where homeless persons were banned;34 (b) in Barcelona, the homeless were removed outside the city during the staging of the games;35 (c) in Atlanta, homelessness and related activities were made illegal and over 9,000 citations were issued against homeless people.”
DISPROPROPORTIONATE IMPACTS ON VULNERABLE PEOPLE
“The negative legacy of mega-events is particularly felt by the most disadvantaged sectors of society. These groups are disproportionately affected by trends such as forced evictions, displacements, decreased availability of social housing, reduced affordability of housing, homelessness, dislocation from existing community and social networks, restriction of civil liberties and criminalization of homelessness and marginalized activities. Displacement and forced evictions due to beautification and gentrification tend to affect low-income populations, ethnic minorities, migrants and the elderly, who are forced to leave their homes and relocate in areas far from the centre of the city. Likewise, policies and special laws adopted to “cleanse” the city result in the removal of homeless persons, beggars, street vendors, sex workers and other marginalized groups from central areas and their relocation into special sites or outside the city.
Examples of the disproportionate impact on groups particularly vulnerable to discrimination include (a) in Athens, Roma communities were the main target of displacement;37 (b) in Atlanta, displacement was predominantly experienced by African-Americans;38 (c) in Sydney, aboriginal communities were displaced from areas close to the Olympic sites in an effort to beautify the city;39 (d) in Beijing; most victims of evictions were migrant workers;40 (e) in Vancouver, the city is funding private security guards to remove homeless persons and beggars from commercial areas”
FIFA AWOL ON HUMAN RIGHTS
Despite invitations to participate in discussion on human rights impacts of the World Cup, FIFA has basically put its head in the sand. The UN Special Rapporteur wrote in her report, “Given the lack of transparency and accountability of any relevant procedures, it is difficult to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the existing methods and mechanisms, and to identify the good and bad practices of the institution with regard to selection procedures.”
NEXT STOP: HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA, LONDON, SOCHI, RIO DI JANEIRO
The human rights and civil liberties train wreck that is the Olympic Games and the World Cup are continuing their carnival in other global cities soon and are no closer to recognizing human rights standards. They are still incapable of reining in the corporate sponsors and their desire for a sanitized public sphere that places a higher value on their target market rather on citizens’ rights to express themselves and engage in free speech.
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