21st Century Biology Refutes Darwinian Abiology


Bhakti Niskama Shanta, PhD – TRANSCEND Media Service

Natural Selection Lost in the Midst of Genetic Forest and Epigenetic Trees

Darwin’s Morphological Tree of Life (TOL) is Replaced with Genetic ‘Forest of Life’

The morphologically based Tree of Life (TOL)  representation ha d o m i n a t e d evolutionary biology from the time when Darwin first established it as a suf ficient description of the total history of life forms on Earth. Later,  a  three- d o m a i n   t r e e   o f ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was introduced by constructing trees of other universal genes, such as ribosomal proteins and core RNA polymerase subunits.

Thus, TOL was perceived as an authentic victory of tree thinking in biology. However, genome-wide analysis of gene phylogenies (phylogenomics), revealed  an  additional  intricate  image  of  evolution. The discovery of HGT (Horizontal Gene Transfer) has completely changed the whole picture. There are cases reported where phylogenetic trees of individual genes commonly have dissimilar topologies and this variety of tree topologies cannot be elucidated by artifacts of phylogenetic rebuilding.

These research studies recommend that TOL should be replaced by a “net of life” or a “forest of life”. With further advancements in research, evolutionary genomics successfully knocked down the simple idea of the TOL by enlightening the dynamic,  reticulated n a t u r e   o f   e v o l u t i o n where   HGT,   genome  fusion, and interaction among genomes of cellular life forms and diverse selfish genetic elements play a vital role.

Hence, phylogenetic TOL becomes the genetic “forest of life” and this genetic “forest of life” includes trees, bushes, thickets of lianas, and obviously, several dead trunks and branches. Darwinism does not encompass within its framework the complex mechanisms needed for creating a “forest of life” to support its presumption of objective evolution.

Epigenetic Tree’s Tenacious Roots Cruelly Pierce into the Heart of Overwrought Darwinism



This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 25 Feb 2013.

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