This Week in History
HISTORY, 25 May 2015
Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service
QUOTE OF THE WEEK:
“Here is the test to find whether your mission on Earth is finished: if you’re alive, it isn’t.” – Richard Bach (Richard Bach Official Site)
2013 Suspected Maoist rebels kill at least 28 people and injure 32 others in an attack on a convoy of Indian National Congress politicians in Chhattisgarh, India.
2009 North Korea allegedly tests its second nuclear device. Following the nuclear test, Pyongyang also conducted several missile tests building tensions in the international community.
2001 Erik Weihenmayer, 32 years old, of Boulder, Colorado, becomes the first blind person to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
2000 Liberation Day of Lebanon. Israel withdraws its army from most of the Lebanese territory after 22 years of its first invasion in 1978.
1999 The United States House of Representatives releases the Cox Report which details the People’s Republic of China‘s nuclear espionage against the U.S. over the prior two decades.
1997 A military coup in Sierra Leone replaces President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah with Major Johnny Paul Koromah.
1989 Mikhail Gorbachev elected Executive President in the Soviet Union.
1986 Hands Across America takes place.
1981 In Riyadh, the Gulf Cooperation Council is created between Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
1977 Chinese government removes a decade old ban on William Shakespeare‘s work, effectively ending the Cultural Revolution started in 1966.
1973 HNS Velos (D-16), while participating in a NATO exercise and in order to protest against the dictatorship in Greece, anchored at Fiumicino, Italy, refusing to return to Greece.
1972 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1966 The first prominent dàzìbào during the Cultural Revolution in China is posted at Peking University.
1963 In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, the Organisation of African Unity is established.
1962 US performs nuclear test at Christmas Island (atmospheric).
1953 The first public television station in the United States officially begins broadcasting as KUHT from the campus of the University of Houston.
1953 Nuclear testing: At the Nevada Test Site, the United States conduct their first and only nuclear artillery test.
1946 The parliament of Transjordan makes Abdullah I of Jordan their Emir.
1940 World War II: The German 2nd Panzer Division captures the port of Boulogne-sur-Mer; the surrender of the last French and British troops marks the end of the Battle of Boulogne.
1938 Spanish Civil War: The bombing of Alicante takes place, with 313 deaths.
1926 Sholom Schwartzbard assassinates Symon Petliura, the head of the government of the Ukrainian People’s Republic, which is in government-in-exile in Paris.
1925 Scopes Trial: John T. Scopes is indicted for teaching Charles Darwin‘s theory of evolution in Tennessee.
1914 The United Kingdom’s House of Commons passes the Home Rule Act for devolution in Ireland.
1895 The Republic of Formosa is formed, with Tang Ching-sung as its president.
1837 The Rebels of Lower Canada (Quebec) rebel against the British for freedom.
1810 May Revolution: citizens of Buenos Aires expel Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros during the May week, starting the Argentine War of Independence.
1809 Chuquisaca Revolution: a group of patriots in Chuquisaca (modern day Sucre) revolt against the Spanish Empire, starting the South American Wars of Independence.
1798 United Irishmen Rebellion: The Carnew massacre, Dunlavin massacre and Carlow massacre take place.
1998 The first “National Sorry Day” was held in Australia, and reconciliation events were held nationally, and attended by over a million people.
1992 The blockade of Dubrovnik is broken. Following this, the siege of Dubrovnik ends in the next months.
1991 Zviad Gamsakhurdia becomes the first elected President of the Republic of Georgia in the post-Soviet era.
1989 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1986 The European Community adopts the European flag.
1981 Italian Prime Minister Arnaldo Forlani and his coalition cabinet resign following a scandal over membership of the pseudo-masonic lodge P2 (Propaganda Due).
1972 The United States and the Soviet Union sign the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
1972 Willandra National Park is established in Australia.
1972 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1972 In Moscow, President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I) Interim Agreement which placed a ceiling on strategic offensive nuclear weapons.
1971 Bangladesh Liberation War: The Pakistan Army slaughters at least 71 Hindus in Burunga, Sylhet, Bangladesh.
1967 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1966 British Guiana gains independence, becoming Guyana.
1958 US performs nuclear test at Enwetak (atmospheric tests).
1945 US drop fire bombs on Tokyo.
1942 World War II: The Battle of Gazala takes place.
1940 World War II: The Siege of Calais ends with the surrender of the British and French garrison.
1940 World War II: Operation Dynamo – In northern France, Allied forces begin a massive evacuation from Dunkirk, France.
1918 The Democratic Republic of Georgia is established.
1908 At Masjed Soleyman (مسجد سليمان) in southwest Persia, the first major commercial oil strike in the Middle East is made. The rights to the resource are quickly acquired by the Anglo-Persian Oil Company.
1900 Thousand Days’ War: The Colombian Conservative Party turns the tide of war in their favor with victory against the Colombian Liberal Party in the Battle of Palonegro.
1896 Nicholas II becomes the last Tsar of Imperial Russia.
1879 Russia and the United Kingdom sign the Treaty of Gandamak establishing an Afghan state.
1830 The Indian Removal Act is passed by the U.S. Congress; it is signed into law by President Andrew Jackson two days later.
1805 Napoléon Bonaparte assumes the title of King of Italy and is crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy in Milan Cathedral, the gothic cathedral in Milan.
2006 The May 2006 Java earthquake strikes devastating Bantul and the city of Yogyakarta killing over 6,600 people.
2001 Members of the Islamist separatist group Abu Sayyaf seize twenty hostages from an affluent island resort on Palawan in the Philippines; the hostage crisis would not be resolved until June 2002.
1999 The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia or ICTY in The Hague, Netherlands indicts Slobodan Milošević and four others for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Kosovo.
1997 Russian President Boris Yeltsin signs a historic treaty with NATO.
1996 First Chechnya War: the Russian President Boris Yeltsin meets with Chechnyan rebels for the first time and negotiates a cease-fire.
1981 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk, USSR.
1980 The Gwangju Massacre: Airborne and army troops of South Korea retake the city of Gwangju from civil militias, killing at least 207 and possibly many more.
1970 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk, USSR.
1968 The meeting of the Union Nationale des Étudiants de France (National Union of the Students of France) takes place. 30,000 to 50,000 people gather in the Stade Sebastien Charlety.
1967 Australians vote in favor of a constitutional referendum granting the Australian government the power to make laws to benefit Indigenous Australians and to count them in the national census.
1965 Vietnam War: American warships begin the first bombardment of National Liberation Front targets within South Vietnam.
1960 In Turkey, a military coup removes President Celal Bayar and the rest of the democratic government from office.
1956 US performs nuclear test at Enwetak (atmospheric tests).
1942 World War II: In Operation Anthropoid, Reinhard Heydrich is fatally wounded in Prague; he dies of his injuries eight days later.
1941 World War II: The German battleship Bismarck is sunk in the North Atlantic killing almost 2,100 men.
1941 World War II: The U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaims an “unlimited national emergency”.
1940 World War II: In the Le Paradis massacre, 99 soldiers from a Royal Norfolk Regiment unit are shot after surrendering to German troops; two survive.
1933 New Deal: The U.S. Federal Securities Act is signed into law requiring the registration of securities with the Federal Trade Commission.
1908 Khilafat Day – the day of establishment of Khilafat in Islam Ahmadiyya.
1905 Russo-Japanese War: The Battle of Tsushima begins.
1883 Alexander III is crowned Tsar of Russia.
2012 The discovery of Flame, a complex malware program targeting computers in Middle Eastern countries, is announced.
2011 Malta votes on the introduction of divorce.
2008 The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly of Nepal formally declares Nepal a republic, ending the 240-year reign of the Shah dynasty.
2004 The Iraqi Governing Council chooses Ayad Allawi, a longtime anti-Saddam Hussein exile, as prime minister of Iraq‘s interim government.
2002 NATO declares Russia a limited partner in the Western alliance.
2002 The last steel girder is removed from the original World Trade Center site. Cleanup duties officially end with closing ceremonies at Ground Zero in Manhattan, New York City.
1999 In Milan, Italy, after 22 years of restoration work, Leonardo da Vinci‘s masterpiece The Last Supper is put back on display.
1998 Nuclear testing: Pakistan responds to a series of nuclear tests by India with five of its own codenamed Chagai-I, prompting the United States, Japan, and other nations to impose economic sanctions. Pakistan celebrates Youm-e-Takbir annually.
1997 Linda Finch completes Amelia Earhart attempted around-the-world flight.
1995 The Russian town of Neftegorsk is hit by a 7.6 magnitude earthquake that kills at least 2,000 people, half of the total population.
1993 Eritrea and Monaco join the United Nations.
1991 The capital city of Addis Ababa falls to the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front, ending both the Derg regime in Ethiopia and the Ethiopian Civil War.
1979 Konstantinos Karamanlis signs the full treaty of the accession of Greece with the European Economic Community.
1975 Fifteen West African countries sign the Treaty of Lagos, creating the Economic Community of West African States.
1974 Northern Ireland‘s power-sharing Sunningdale Agreement collapses following a general strike by loyalists.
1967 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk, USSR.
1964 The Palestine Liberation Organization is formed.
1961 Peter Benenson‘s article The Forgotten Prisoners is published in several internationally read newspapers. This will later be thought of as the founding of the human rights organization Amnesty International.
1958 Cuban Revolution: Fidel Castro‘s 26th of July Movement, heavily reinforced by Frank Pais Militia, overwhelm an army post in El Uvero.
1957 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1952 The women of Greece are granted the right to vote.
1948 Daniel François Malan is elected as Prime Minister of South Africa. He later goes on to implement Apartheid.
1942 World War II: in retaliation for the assassination attempt on Reinhard Heydrich, Nazis in Czechoslovakia kill over 1,800 people.
1940 World War II: Norwegian, French, Polish and British forces recapture Narvik in Norway. This is the first allied infantry victory of the War.
1940 World War II: Belgium surrenders to Nazi Germany to end the Battle of Belgium.
1937 Volkswagen (VW), the German automobile manufacturer is founded.
1937 The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California, is officially opened by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in Washington, D.C., who pushes a button signaling the start of vehicle traffic over the span.
1936 Klaipėda Radio Station begins regular broadcasting.
1936 Alan Turing submits On Computable Numbers for publication.
1934 Near Callander, Ontario, Canada, the Dionne quintuplets are born to Oliva and Elzire Dionne; they will be the first quintuplets to survive infancy.
1932 In the Netherlands, construction of the Afsluitdijk is completed and the Zuiderzee bay is converted to the freshwater IJsselmeer.
1926 28 May 1926 coup d’état: Ditadura Nacional is established in Portugal to suppress the unrest of the First Republic.
1918 The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and the First Republic of Armenia declare their independence.
1905 Russo-Japanese War: The Battle of Tsushima ends with the destruction of the Russian Baltic Fleet by Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō and the Imperial Japanese Navy.
1892 In San Francisco, California, John Muir organizes the Sierra Club.
1871 Fall of the Paris Commune.
1830 U.S. President Andrew Jackson signs the Indian Removal Act which relocates Native Americans.
1754 French and Indian War: in the first engagement of the war, Virginia militia under the 22-year-old Lieutenant colonel George Washington defeat a French reconnaissance party in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in what is now Fayette County in southwestern Pennsylvania.
1644 Bolton Massacre by Royalist troops under the command of James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby.
2014 Ignatius Aphrem II is enthroned as the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch.
1999 Olusegun Obasanjo takes office as President of Nigeria, the first elected and civilian head of state in Nigeria after 16 years of military rule.
1993 The Miss Sarajevo beauty pageant is held in war torn Sarajevo drawing global attention to the plight of its citizens.
1990 The Russian parliament elects Boris Yeltsin as president of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
1989 Signing of an agreement between Egypt and the United States, allowing the manufacture of parts of the F-16 jet fighter plane in Egypt.
1988 The U.S. President Ronald Reagan begins his first visit to the Soviet Union when he arrives in Moscow for a superpower summit with the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.
1982 Falklands War: British forces defeat the Argentines at the Battle of Goose Green.
1981 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1978 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk, USSR.
1977 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk, USSR.
1973 Tom Bradley is elected the first black mayor of Los Angeles, California.
1970 USSR performs underground nuclear test.
1964 The Arab League meets in East Jerusalem to discuss the Palestinian question, leading to the formation of the Palestine Liberation Organization.
1954 First of the annual Bilderberg conferences.
1953 Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay become the first people to reach the summit of Mount Everest, on Tenzing Norgay’s (adopted) 39th birthday.
1948 Creation of the United Nations peacekeeping force the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization.
1939 The Albanian fascist leader Tefik Mborja is appointed as member of the Italian Chamber of Fasces and Corporations.
1932 World War I veterans begin to assemble in Washington, D.C., in the Bonus Army to request cash bonuses promised to them to be paid in 1945.
1919 The Republic of Prekmurje is founded.
1919 Albert Einstein‘s theory of general relativity is tested (later confirmed) by Arthur Eddington and Andrew Claude de la Cherois Crommelin.
1918 Armenia defeats the Ottoman Army in the Battle of Sardarabad.
1916 U.S. forces invade Dominican Republic, stay until 1924.
1903 In the May coup d’état, Alexander I, King of Serbia, and Queen Draga, are assassinated in Belgrade by the Black Hand (Crna Ruka) organization.
1900 N’Djamena is founded as Fort-Lamy by the French commander Émile Gentil.
1868 The assassination of Michael Obrenovich III, Prince of Serbia, in Belgrade.
1867 The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (“the Compromise”) is born through Act 12, which establishes the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
1864 Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico arrives in Mexico for the first time.
1861 The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce is founded, in Hong Kong.
1807 Mustafa IV became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam.
1798 United Irishmen Rebellion: Between 300 and 500 United Irishmen are massacred by the British Army in County Kildare, Ireland.
2013 Nigeria passes a law banning same-sex marriage.
2012 Former Liberian president, Charles Taylor, is sentenced to 50 years in prison for his role in atrocities committed during the Sierra Leone Civil War.
2003 Depayin massacre: at least 70 people associated with the National League for Democracy are killed by government-sponsored mob in Burma. Aung San Suu Kyi fled the scene, but is arrested soon afterwards.
1998 Nuclear Testing: Pakistan conducts an underground test in the Kharan Desert. It is reported to be a plutonium device with yield of 20kt.
1989 Tiananmen Square protests of 1989: the 33-foot high “Goddess of Democracy” statue is unveiled in Tiananmen Square by student demonstrators.
1972 In Tel Aviv, Israel, members of the Japanese Red Army carry out the Lod Airport massacre, killing 24 people and injuring 78 others.
1972 The Angry Brigade goes on trial over a series of 25 bombings throughout the United Kingdom.
1968 Charles de Gaulle reappears publicly after his flight to Baden-Baden, Germany, and dissolves the French National Assembly by a radio appeal. Immediately after, less than one million of his supporters march on the Champs-Élysées in Paris. This is the turning point of May 1968 events in France.
1967 The Nigerian Eastern Region declares independence as the Republic of Biafra, sparking a civil war.
1966 The former Congolese Prime Minister, Évariste Kimba, and several other politicians are publicly executed in Kinshasa on the orders of President Joseph Mobutu.
1963 A protest against pro-Catholic discrimination during the Buddhist crisis is held outside South Vietnam‘s National Assembly, the first open demonstration during the eight-year rule of Ngo Dinh Diem.
1958 Memorial Day: the remains of two unidentified American servicemen, killed in action during World War II and the Korean War respectively, are buried at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington National Cemetery.
1958 US performs nuclear test at Enwetak (atmospheric tests).
1956 US performs nuclear test at Enwetak (atmospheric tests).
1942 World War II: 1000 British bombers launch a 90-minute attack on Cologne, Germany.
1941 World War II: Manolis Glezos and Apostolos Santas climb the Athenian Acropolis and tear down the Nazi swastika.
1917 Alexander I becomes king of Greece.
1913 First Balkan War: the Treaty of London (1913), is signed ending the war. Albania becomes an independent nation.
1876 Ottoman sultan Abdülaziz is deposed and succeeded by his nephew Murad V.
2011 After scientists reviewed studies on cell phone safety, the World Health Organization classifies cell phone radiation as a carcinogenic hazard, possibly carcinogenic to humans.
2010 In international waters, armed Shayetet 13 commandos, intending to force the flotilla to anchor at the Ashdod port, boarded ships trying to break the ongoing blockade of the Gaza Strip, resulting in nine civilian deaths.
2005 Vanity Fair reveals that Mark Felt was Deep Throat.
1991 Bicesse Accords in Angola lay out a transition to multi-party democracy under the supervision of the United Nations‘ UNAVEM II mission.
1989 A group of six members of the guerrilla group Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) of Peru, shoot dead eight transsexuals, in the city of Tarapoto.
1984 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1981 The burning of Jaffna library in Sri Lanka. It is one of the violent examples of ethnic biblioclasm of the twentieth century.
1977 The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System completed.
1974 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk, USSR.
1973 The United States Senate votes to cut off funding for the bombing of Khmer Rouge targets within Cambodia, hastening the end of the Cambodian Civil War.
1970 The Ancash earthquake causes a landslide that buries the town of Yungay, Peru; more than 47,000 people are killed.
1962 Adolf Eichmann is hanged in Israel.
1962 The West Indies Federation dissolves.
1961 In Moscow City Court, the Rokotov–Faibishenko show trial begins, despite the Khrushchev Thaw to reverse Stalinist elements in Soviet society.
1961 The Union of South Africa becomes the Republic of South Africa.
1958 US performs nuclear test at Bikini Island (atmospheric tests).
1942 World War II: Imperial Japanese Navy midget submarines begin a series of attacks on Sydney, Australia.
1941 Anglo-Iraqi War: The United Kingdom completes the re-occupation of Iraq and returns ‘Abd al-Ilah to power as regent for Faisal II.
1941 A Luftwaffe air raid on Dublin, Ireland, claims 38 lives.
1935 A 7.7 Mw earthquake destroys Quetta in modern-day Pakistan killing 40,000.
1924 The Soviet Union signs an agreement with the Beijing government, referring to Outer Mongolia as an “integral part of the Republic of China“, whose “sovereignty” therein the Soviet Union promises to respect.
1921 Tulsa race riot: civil unrest in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The official death toll is 39, but recent investigations suggest the actual toll may be much higher.
1916 World War I: Battle of Jutland – The British Grand Fleet under the command of John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe and David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty engage the Imperial German Navy under the command of Reinhard Scheer and Franz von Hipper in the largest naval battle of the war, which proves indecisive.
1911 The President of Mexico Porfirio Díaz flees the country during the Mexican Revolution.
1910 The creation of the Union of South Africa.
1909 The National Negro Committee, forerunner to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, convenes for the first time.
1902 Second Boer War: The Treaty of Vereeniging ends the war and ensures British control of South Africa.
1884 The arrival at Plymouth of Tāwhiao, King of Maoris, to claim the protection of Queen Victoria
1866 In the Fenian Invasion of Canada, John O’Neill leads 850 Fenian raiders across the Niagara River at Buffalo, New York/Fort Erie, Ontario, as part of an effort to free Ireland from the United Kingdom. Canadian militia and British regulars repulse the invaders in over the next three days, at a cost of 9 dead and 38 wounded to the Fenian‘s 19 dead and about 17 wounded.
Satoshi Ashikaga is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment originally from Japan.
(Sources and references: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_25 to 31; http://www.historyorb.com/events/may/25 to 31; http://www.brainyhistory.com/days/may_25.html to 31.html; and other pertinent websites and documents, mentioned above.) Note that the views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the editor/complier of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes.
This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 25 May 2015.
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