This Week in History

HISTORY, 26 Dec 2016

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

TWH logo history

Dec 26-Jan 1


“The ultimate lesson all of us have to learn is unconditional love, which includes not only others but ourselves as well.” – Elisabeth Kübler-Ross



2009  China opens the world’s longest high-speed rail route, which links Beijing and Guangzhou.

2006  An oil pipeline in Lagos, Nigeria explodes, killing at least 260.

2004  Orange Revolution: The final run-off election in Ukraine is held under heavy international scrutiny.

Orange Revolution in Ukraine of 2004:

History of Ukraine:

Ukraine-Russian Relations:

Relations: Ukraine, the West and Russia:

2004  An earthquake of magnitude 9.3 creates a tsunami causing devastation in Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, the Maldives and many other areas around the rim of the Indian Ocean, killing over 230,000.

2003  An earthquake of magnitude 6.6 devastates southeast Iranian city of Bam, killing tens of thousands and destroying the citadel of Arg-é Bam.

1998  Iraq announces its intention to fire upon US and British warplanes that patrol the northern and southern no-fly zones.

1997  The Soufrière Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat explodes, creating a small tsunami offshore.

1996  Start of the largest strike in South Korean history.

1994  Four Armed Islamic Group hijackers seize control of Air France Flight 8969. When the plane lands at Marseille, a French Gendarmerie assault team boards the aircraft and kills the hijackers.

1991  The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union meets and formally dissolves the Soviet Union.

Dissolution of the Soviet Union:

198USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1983:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1982  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1982  Time‘s Man of the Year is for the first time a non-human, the personal computer.

1977  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1976  The Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist) is founded.

1972  Vietnam War: As part of Operation Linebacker II, 120 American B-52 Stratofortress bombers attacked Hanoi, including 78 launched from Andersen Air Force Base in Guam, the largest single combat launch in Strategic Air Command history.

Vietnam War in 1972:

Operation Linebacker II:

1966  The first Kwanzaa is celebrated by Maulana Karenga, the chair of Black Studies at California State University, Long Beach.

1948  Cardinal József Mindszenty is arrested in Hungary and accused of treason and conspiracy.

1944 World War II: George S Patton‘s Third Army breaks the encirclement of surrounded U.S. forces at Bastogne, Belgium.

1943  World War II: German warship Scharnhorst is sunk off of Norway’s North Cape after a battle against major Royal Navy forces.

1941  US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a bill establishing the fourth Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day in the United States.

1925  Turkey adopts the Gregorian calendar.

1898  Marie and Pierre Curie announce the isolation of radium.

1883  The Harbour Grace Affray between Irish Catholics and Protestant Orangemen causes five deaths in Newfoundland.

1862  The largest mass-hanging in U.S. history took place in Mankato, Minnesota, 38 Native Americans died.

1846  Trapped in snow in the Sierra Nevadas and without food, members of the Donner Party resort to cannibalism.

1825  Advocates of liberalism in Russia rise up against Czar Nicholas I and are put down in the Decembrist revolt in Saint Petersburg.

1811  A theater fire in Richmond, Virginia kills the Governor of Virginia George William Smith and the president of the First National Bank of Virginia Abraham B. Venable.

1806  Battles of Pultusk and Golymin: Russian forces hold French forces under Napoleon.

1805  Austria and France sign the Treaty of Pressburg.

1799  Four thousand people attend George Washington‘s funeral where Henry Lee III declares him as “first in war, first in peace and first in the hearts of his countrymen.”

1793 Second Battle of Wissembourg: France defeat Austria.




2009  Iranian election protests: On the Day of Ashura in Tehran, Iran, government security forces fire upon demonstrators.

2008  Operation Cast Lead: Israel launches 3-week operation on Gaza.

2007  Riots erupt in Mombasa, Kenya, after Mwai Kibaki is declared the winner of the presidential election, triggering a political, economic, and humanitarian crisis.

2007  Former Pakistani prime minister Benazir Bhutto is assassinated in a shooting incident.

2004  Radiation from an explosion on the magnetar SGR 1806-20 reaches Earth. It is the brightest extrasolar event known to have been witnessed on the planet.

2002  Two truck bombs kill 72 and wound 200 at the pro-Moscow headquarters of the Chechen government in Grozny, Chechnya, Russia.

2001  China is granted permanent normal trade relations with the United States.

1997  Taliban forces retake the strategic Bagram Airfield which solidifies their buffer zone around Kabul, Afghanistan.

1996  Taliban forces retake the strategic Bagram Airfield which solidifies their buffer zone around Kabul, Afghanistan.

1989  The Romanian Revolution concludes, as the last minor street confrontations and stray shootings abruptly end in the country’s capital, Bucharest.

198USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1987:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1985  Palestinian guerrillas kill eighteen people inside the airports of Rome, Italy, and Vienna, Austria.

Rome and Vienna Airport Attacks of December 27, 1985:

1983  Pope John Paul II visits Mehmet Ali Ağca in Rebibbia‘s prison and personally forgives him for the 1981 attack on him in St. Peter’s Square.

1981  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1979  The Soviet Union invades the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.

Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan in 1979:

Afghan War (1979-1992):

Relations between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union:

Foreign Relations of Afghanistan:

Afghanistan and the United Nations:


History of Afghanistan:

Economy of Afghanistan:

1978  Spain becomes a democracy after 40 years of fascist dictatorship.

Democratization of Spain in 1978:

1974  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1968  Apollo program: Apollo 8 splashes down in the Pacific Ocean, ending the first orbital manned mission to the Moon.

1968  China detonates its first nuclear weapon at Lop Nor (Lop Nur).

Lop Nor Nuclear Weapons Test Site:

China’s Nuclear Weapon Programs:

1966  The Cave of Swallows, the largest known cave shaft in the world, is discovered in Aquismón, San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

1961 Belgium and Congo resume diplomatic relations.

Belgian Congo:

1960  France performs nuclear test at Reggane, Algeria.

French Nuclear Tests in Reggane, Algeria:

Some Pertinent YouTube Videos:

Pertinent Reports:

Radiation Contaminations in Reggane:

France’s Nuclear Tests:

1949  Indonesian National Revolution: The Netherlands officially recognizes Indonesian independence. End of the Dutch East Indies.

History of Indonesia:


Foreign Relations of Indonesia:

Indonesia and the United Nations:

Economy of Indonesia:

1945  The World Bank and International Monetary Fund are created with the signing of an agreement by 29 nations.

World Bank and the IMF:

Problems of the World Bank and the IMF:

1942  The Union of Pioneers of Yugoslavia is founded.

1939  Winter War: Finland holds off a Soviet attack in the Battle of Kelja.

Battel of Kelja (Winter War):

Winter War:

Timelines of the Winter War:

1939  Erzincan, Turkey, is hit by an earthquake, killing 30,000.

1929  Soviet General Secretary Joseph Stalin orders the “liquidation of the kulaks as a class”, ostensibly as an effort to spread socialism to the countryside.

Stalin’s Liquidation of the Kulaks as a Class:

1918  The Great Poland Uprising against the Germans begins.

History of Poland:

Second Poland Republic:

1831  Charles Darwin embarks on his journey aboard the HMS Beagle, during which he will begin to formulate the theory of evolution.

1703  Portugal and England sign the Methuen Treaty which gives preference to Portuguese imported wines into England.

1657  The Flushing Remonstrance is signed.




2014  Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501 crashes into the Karimata Strait en route from Surabaya to Singapore, killing all 162 people aboard.

2011  Roboski airstrike: Turkish warplanes bomb 34 Kurds of Turkish nationality in the district of Uludere.

2010  Arab Spring: Popular protests begin in Algeria against the government.

Arab Spring:

Arab Spring in Algeria:


History of Algeria:

Economy of Algeria:

Foreign Relations of Algeria:

Algeria and the United Nations:

2009  Forty-three people die in a suicide bombing in Karachi, Pakistan, where Shia Muslims are observing the Day of Ashura.

2006  War in Somalia: The militaries of Somalia‘s Transitional Federal Government and Ethiopian troops capture Mogadishu unopposed.

2000  US retail giant Montgomery Ward announces it is going out of business after 128 years.

1988  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1988:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

198US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1984  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1976  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1973  The Endangered Species Act is passed in the United States.

1972  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1972  Kim Il-sung, already Prime Minister of North Korea and First Secretary of the Workers’ Party of Korea, becomes the first President of North Korea.

1969  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1957  USSR performs atmospheric nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk, USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1957:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1956  Chin Peng, David Marshall and Tunku Abdul Rahman meet in Baling, Malaya to try and resolve the Malayan Emergency situation.

Malayan Emergency:

History of Malaysia:


1943  World War II: After eight days of brutal house-to-house fighting, the Battle of Ortona concludes with the victory of the 1st Canadian Infantry Division over the German 1st Parachute Division and the capture of the Italian town of Ortona.

Battle of Ortona:

1941  World War II: Operation Anthropoid, the plot to assassinate high-ranking Nazi officer Reinhard Heydrich, commences.

Operation Anthropoid:

1918  Constance Markievicz, while detained in Holloway prison, became the first woman to be elected MP to the British House of Commons.

1908  An earthquake of magnitude 7.2 rocks Messina, Sicily, Italy killing over 75,000.

1895  Wilhelm Röntgen publishes a paper detailing his discovery of a new type of radiation, which later will be known as x-rays.

1885  Indian National Congress, a political party of India is founded in Bombay Presidency, British India.

1867  United States claims Midway Atoll, the first territory annexed outside Continental limits.

1836  Spain recognizes the independence of Mexico.

History of Mexico:

Independence of Mexico from Spain:

1836  South Australia and Adelaide are founded.

1835  Osceola leads his Seminole warriors in Florida into the Second Seminole War against the United States Army.

1824  The Bathurst War comes to an end with the surrender of the Wiradjuri.




2013  A suicide bomb attack at the Volgograd-1 railway station in the southern Russian city of Volgograd kills at least 18 people and wounds 40 others.

2006  UK settles its Anglo-American loan, post-WWII loan debt.

2003  The last known speaker of Akkala Sami dies, rendering the language extinct.

1998  Leaders of the Khmer Rouge apologize for the 1970s genocide in Cambodia that claimed over one million lives.

1997  Hong Kong begins to kill all the nation’s 1.25 million chickens to stop the spread of a potentially deadly influenza strain.

1996  Guatemala and leaders of Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity sign a peace accord ending a 36-year civil war.


Foreign Relations of Guatemala:

History of Guatemala:

Economy of Guatemala:

1992  Fernando Collor de Mello, president of Brazil, tries to resign amidst corruption charges, but is then impeached.

1989  Riots break-out after Hong Kong decides to forcibly repatriate Vietnamese refugees.

1983  US announces withdrawal from UNESCO.

Withdrawal of the United States from UNESCO:

1975  A bomb explodes at LaGuardia Airport in New York City, killing 11 people and injuring 74.

1972  An Eastern Air Lines Flight 401 (a Lockheed L-1011 TriStar) crashes on approach to Miami International Airport, Florida, killing 101.

1959  Physicist Richard Feynman gives a speech entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom“, which is regarded as the birth of nanotechnology.

1949  KC2XAK of Bridgeport, Connecticut becomes the first Ultra high frequency (UHF) television station to operate a daily schedule.

1940  World War II: In the Second Great Fire of London, the Luftwaffe fire-bombs London, England, UK, killing almost 200 civilians.

1937  The Irish Free State is replaced by a new state called Ireland with the adoption of a new constitution.

Irish Free State:

History of Ireland:

From Irish Civil War to the Irish War of Independence:

Irish War of Independence:

1934  Japan renounces the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930.

Naval Disarmament Treaties:

Washington Naval Treaty of 1922:

London Naval Treaty of 1930:

1930  Sir Muhammad Iqbal‘s presidential address in Allahabad introduces the two-nation theory and outlines a vision for the creation of Pakistan.

1916  A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, the first novel by James Joyce, was first published as a book by an American publishing house B. W. Huebschis after it had been serialized in The Egoist (1914–15).

1911  Sun Yat-sen becomes the provisional President of the Republic of China; he formally takes office on January 1, 1912.

1911  Mongolia gains independence from the Qing dynasty, enthroning 9th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu as Khagan of Mongolia.

1895  The botched Jameson Raid began in Johannesburg.

1890  Wounded Knee Massacre on Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, 300 Lakota killed by the United States 7th Cavalry Regiment.

1874  The military coup of Gen. Martinez Campos in Sagunto ends the failed First Spanish Republic and Prince Alfonso is proclaimed King of Spain.

1860  The first British seagoing ironclad warship, HMS Warrior is launched.

1851  The first American YMCA opens in Boston, Massachusetts.

1835  The Treaty of New Echota is signed, ceding all the lands of the Cherokee east of the Mississippi River to the United States.




2013  More than 100 people are killed when anti-government forces attack key buildings in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

2011  Owing to a change of time zone the day is skipped in Samoa and Tokelau.

2009  A suicide bomber kills nine people at Forward Operating Base Chapman, a key facility of the Central Intelligence Agency in Afghanistan.

2009  A segment of the Lanzhou–Zhengzhou–Changsha pipeline ruptures in Shaanxi, China, and approximately 150,000 l (40,000 US gal) of diesel oil flows down the Wei River before finally reaching the Yellow River.

2006  Former President of Iraq Saddam Hussein is executed.

Saddam Hussein’s Execution:

Saddam Hussein:

Saddam Hussein’s Trial:

2006  The Indonesian passenger ferry MV Senopati Nusantara sinks in a storm, resulting in at least 400 deaths.

2004  A fire in the República Cromagnon nightclub in Buenos Aires, Argentina kills 194.

2000  Rizal Day bombings: A series of bombs explode in various places in Metro Manila, Philippines within a period of a few hours, killing 22 and injuring about a hundred.

1997  In the worst incident in Algeria‘s insurgency, the Wilaya of Relizane massacres, 400 people from four villages are killed.

1996  Proposed budget cuts by Benjamin Netanyahu spark protests from 250,000 workers who shut down services across Israel.

1996  In the Indian state of Assam, a passenger train is bombed by Bodo separatists, killing 26.

1993  Israel and Vatican City establish diplomatic relations.

Israel-Vatican Relations:

1976  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1976:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1972  Vietnam War: The United States halts heavy bombing of North Vietnam.

Vietnam War in 1972:

1971  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1965  Ferdinand Marcos becomes President of the Philippines.

1958  The Guatemalan Air Force sinks several Mexican fishing boats alleged to have breached maritime borders, killing three and sparking international tension.

1947  King Michael I of Romania is forced to abdicate by the Soviet Union-backed Communist government of Romania.

1944  King George II of Greece declares a regency, leaving the throne vacant.

1943  Subhas Chandra Bose raises the flag of Indian independence at Port Blair.

1922  The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is formed.

1916  The last coronation in Hungary is performed for King Charles IV and Queen Zita.

1906  The All-India Muslim League is founded in Dacca, East Bengal, British India. It went on to lay the foundations of Pakistan.

1905  Former Idaho Governor Frank Steunenberg is assassinated at the front gate of his home in Caldwell.

1903  A fire at the Iroquois Theater in Chicago, Illinois kills at least 605.

1897  The British Colony of Natal annexes Zululand.

1896  Filipino patriot and reform advocate José Rizal is executed by a Spanish firing squad in Manila, Philippines.

1825  The Treaty of St. Louis between the United States and the Shawnee Nation is proclaimed.

1813  War of 1812: British soldiers burn Buffalo, New York.

Buffalo, New York in 1813:

War of 1812:

Timelines of the War of 1812:

1702  Queen Anne’s War: James Moore, Governor of the Province of Carolina, abandons the Siege of St. Augustine.

1460  Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield.

1419  Hundred Years’ War: Battle of La Rochelle

1066  Granada massacre: A Muslim mob storms the royal palace in Granada, crucifies Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacres most of the Jewish population of the city.




2011  NASA succeeds in putting the first of two Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory satellites in orbit around the Moon.

2009  Both a blue moon and a lunar eclipse occur.

2004  The official opening of Taipei 101, the tallest skyscraper at that time in the world, standing at a height of 509 metres (1,670 ft).

1999  Indian Airlines Flight 814 hijacking ended after seven days with the release of 190 survivors at Kandahar Airport, Afghanistan.

1999  The United States Government hands control of the Panama Canal (as well all the adjacent land to the canal known as the Panama Canal Zone) to Panama. This act complied with the signing of the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties.

1999  First President of Russia, Boris Yeltsin, resigns from office, leaving Prime Minister Vladimir Putin as the acting President and successor.

1998  The European Exchange Rate Mechanism freezes the values of the legacy currencies in the Eurozone, and establishes the value of the euro currency.

1994  The First Chechen War: Russian army began a New Year’s storming of Grozny.

First Chechen War:

Chechen Wars:

Russia, Chechnya and Terrorism:

Civilians under International Humanitarian Law:

1994  This date is skipped altogether in Kiribati as the Phoenix Islands and Line Islands change time zones from UTC−11:00 to UTC+13:00 and UTC−10:00 to UTC+14:00, respectively.

1992  Czechoslovakia is peacefully dissolved in what is dubbed by media as the Velvet Divorce, resulting in the creation of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

1991  All official Soviet Union institutions have ceased operations by this date and the Soviet Union is officially dissolved.

1984  US leaves UNESCO.

Withdrawal of the United States from UNESCO:

1983  In Nigeria a coup d’état led by Major General Muhammadu Buhari ends the Second Nigerian Republic.

Coup d’état of 1983:

History of Nigeria:


Economy of Nigeria:

1983  The AT&T Bell System is broken up by the United States Government.

1981  A coup d’état in Ghana removes President Hilla Limann‘s PNP government and replaces it with the Provisional National Defence Council led by Flight lieutenant Jerry Rawlings.

Coup in Ghana of 1981:

1967  The Youth International Party, popularly known as the “Yippies”, is founded.

1965  Jean-Bédel Bokassa, leader of the Central African Republic army, and his military officers begins a coup d’état against the government of President David Dacko.

1961  RTÉ, Ireland’s state broadcaster, launches its first national television service.

1960  The farthing coin ceases to be legal tender in the United Kingdom.

1955  General Motors becomes the first U.S. corporation to make over US$1 billion in a year.

1951  The Marshall Plan expires after distributing more than US$13.3 billion in foreign aid to rebuild Europe.

1946  President Harry S Truman officially proclaims the end of hostilities in World War II.

1944  World War II: Operation Nordwind, the last major German offensive on the Western Front begins.

1944  World War II: Hungary declares war on Nazi Germany.

1923  The chimes of Big Ben are broadcast on radio for the first time by the BBC.

1909  Manhattan Bridge opens.

1907  The first New Year’s Eve celebration is held in Times Square (then known as Longacre Square) in New York, New York.

1906  Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar signs the Persian Constitution of 1906.

1879  Thomas Edison demonstrates incandescent lighting to the public for the first time, in Menlo Park, New Jersey.

1878  Karl Benz, working in Mannheim, Germany, filed for a patent on his first reliable two-stroke gas engine, and he was granted the patent in 1879.

1857  Queen Victoria chooses Ottawa, then a small logging town, as the capital of Canada.




Today is the NEW YEAR’S DAY in the Gregorian calendar.

2015  Lithuania becomes the 19th member of the Eurozone.

2015  The Eurasian Economic Union comes into effect, creating a political and economic union between Russia, Belarus, Armenia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

2014  Asteroid 2014 AA impacts the Earth over the Atlantic Ocean.

2014  Latvia becomes the 18th member of the Eurozone.

2013  At least 60 people are killed and 200 injured in a stampede after celebrations at Félix Houphouët-Boigny Stadium in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

2012  A Moldovan civilian is fatally wounded by a Russian peacekeeper in the Transnistrian security zone, leading to demonstrations against Russia.

2011  Estonia becomes the 17th member of the Eurozone.

2011  The Kallikratis plan becomes the new administrative system of Greece.

2011  A bomb explodes as Coptic Christians in Alexandria, Egypt, leave a new year service, killing 23 people.

2010  A suicide car bomber detonates at a volleyball tournament in Lakki Marwat, Pakistan, killing 105 and injuring 100 more.

2009  Slovakia joins the Eurozone.

2008  Cyprus and Malta join the Eurozone.

2007  Adam Air Flight 574 disappears over Indonesia with 102 people on board.

2007  Bulgaria and Romania officially join the European Union. Slovenia joins Eurozone.

2004  In a vote of confidence, General Pervez Musharraf wins 658 out of 1,170 votes in the Electoral College of Pakistan, and according to Article 41(8) of the Constitution of Pakistan, is “deemed to be elected” to the office of President until October 2007.

2002  The Open Skies mutual surveillance treaty, initially signed in 1992, officially comes into force.

2002  Taiwan officially joins the World Trade Organization, as Chinese Taipei.

2002  Euro banknotes and coins become legal tender in twelve of the European Union’s member states.

1999  The Euro currency is introduced in 11 countries – members of the European Union (with the exception of the United Kingdom, Denmark, Greece and Sweden).

1998  The European Central Bank is established.

European Central Bank:

1998  Russia begins to circulate new rubles to stem inflation and promote confidence.

1997  Ghanaian diplomat Kofi Annan is appointed Secretary-General of the United Nations.

1997  Zaire officially joins the World Trade Organization.

Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo):

Foreign Relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:

Democratic Republic of the Congo and the World Trade Organization:

World Trade Organization:

Economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:

History of the Democratic Republic of the Congo):

1996  Curaçao gains limited self-government, though it remains within free association with the Netherlands.

1995  The Draupner wave in the North Sea in Norway is detected, confirming the existence of freak waves.

1995  The Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe becomes the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE):

1995  Sweden, Austria, and Finland are admitted into the European Union.

1995  The World Trade Organization goes into effect.

World Trade Organization (WTO):


History of Globalization:

The End of Globalization? :

1994  The North American Free Trade Agreement comes into effect.

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA):

Some Relevant Issues on NAFTA:

Pros and Cons of NAFTA:

History of NAFTA:

1994  The Zapatista Army of National Liberation initiates twelve days of armed conflict in the Mexican state of Chiapas.

1993  A single market within the European Community is introduced.

1993  Dissolution of Czechoslovakia: Czechoslovakia is divided into Slovakia and the Czech Republic.

1992  The Russian Federation is formally established.

Some Aspects of the Russian Federation:

1990  David Dinkins is sworn in as New York City’s first black mayor.

1989  The Montreal Protocol comes into force, stopping the use of chemicals contributing to ozone depletion.

Montreal Protocol:

1988  The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America comes into existence, creating the largest Lutheran denomination in the United States.

1987  A value-added tax is introduced in Greece for the first time.

1986  Spain and Portugal are admitted into the European Community.

1986  Aruba becomes independent of Curaçao, though it remains in free association with the Netherlands.

1985  The first British mobile phone call is made by Michael Harrison to his father Sir Ernest Harrison, chairman of Vodafone.

1984  Brunei becomes independent of the United Kingdom.

Independence of Brunei:


History of Brunei:

Economy of Brunei:

1984  The original American Telephone & Telegraph Company is divested of its 22 Bell System companies as a result of the settlement of the 1974 United States Department of Justice antitrust suit against AT&T.

1983  The ARPANET officially changes to using the Internet Protocol, creating the Internet.

1982  Peruvian Javier Pérez de Cuéllar becomes the first Latin American to hold the title of Secretary-General of the United Nations.

1981  Palau achieves self-government though it is not independent from the United States.

1981  Greece is admitted into the European Community.

1979  – Formal diplomatic relations are established between China and the United States.

1978  The Constitution of the Northern Mariana Islands becomes effective.

1978  Air India Flight 855 Boeing 747 crashes into the sea, due to instrument failure and pilot disorientation, off the coast of Bombay, India, killing 213.

1977  Charter 77 published its first document.

1973  Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Ireland are admitted into the European Economic Community.

1970  Unix time begins at 00:00:00 UTC/GMT.

1966  After a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa assumes power as president of the Central African Republic.

1965  The People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan is founded in Kabul, Afghanistan.

History of Afghanistan:


Afghanistan and the United Nations:

Economy of Afghanistan:

Foreign Relations of Afghanistan:

Foreign Relations of Afghanistan and the Soviet Union:

1964  The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland is divided into the independent republics of Zambia and Malawi, and the British-controlled Rhodesia.

1962  United States Navy SEALs established.

1962  Western Samoa achieves independence from New Zealand; its name is changed to the Independent State of Western Samoa.


Foreign Relations of Samoa:

Western Samoa and the United Nations:

History of Samoa:

Economy of Samoa:

1960  Cameroon achieves independence from France and the United Kingdom.

1959  Fulgencio Batista, dictator of Cuba, is overthrown by Fidel Castro‘s forces during the Cuban Revolution.

1958  The European Economic Community is established.

European Integration and Its History:

Hague Congress of 1948:

Treaty of London of 1949:

Council of Europe:

Robert Schuman:

Schuman Declaration:

1957  An Irish Republican Army (IRA) unit attacks Brookeborough RUC barracks during Operation Harvest; two IRA volunteers killed.

Operation Harvest:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

IRA’s Terrorism:

History of the IRA:

1956  Sudan achieves independence from Egypt and the United Kingdom.


Foreign Relations of Sudan:

Sudan and the United Nations:

Human Rights in Sudan:

History of Sudan:

Economy of Sudan:

1954  NBC makes the first coast-to-coast NTSC color broadcast when it telecast the Tournament of Roses Parade, with public demonstrations given across the United States on prototype color receivers.

1950  Standard practice uses this day as the origin of the age scale Before Present

1949  United Nations cease-fire takes effect in Kashmir from one minute before midnight. War between India and Pakistan stops accordingly.

History of the India-Pakistan Wars:

1948  The Constitution of Italy comes into force.

Constitution of Italy of 1948:

1947  The American and British occupation zones in Germany, after World War II, merge to form the Bizone, which later (with the French zone) became part of West Germany.

1945  World War II: The German Luftwaffe launches Operation Bodenplatte, a massive, but failed attempt to knock out Allied air power in northern Europe in a single blow.

1945  World War II: In retaliation for the Malmedy massacre, US troops massacre 30 SS prisoners at Chenogne.

1942  The Declaration by United Nations is signed by twenty-six nations.

Declaration of the United Nations:

1934  Nazi Germany passes the “Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring”.

History of Nazi Germany:

1928  Boris Bazhanov defects through Iran. He is the only assistant of Joseph Stalin‘s secretariat to have defected from the Eastern Bloc.

1927  Turkey adopts the Gregorian calendar: December 18, 1926 (Julian), is immediately followed by January 1, 1927 (Gregorian).

1927  The Cristero War begins in Mexico.

1920  The Belorussian Communist Organisation is founded as a separate party.

1916  German troops abandon Yaoundé and their Kamerun colony to British forces and begin the long march to Spanish Guinea.

1913  The British Board of Censors is established.

1912  The Republic of China is established.

Republic of China:

1911  Northern Territory is separated from South Australia and transferred to Commonwealth control.

1909  Drilling begins on the Lakeview Gusher.

1906  British India officially adopts Indian Standard Time.

1901 The British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, and Western Australia federate as the Commonwealth of Australia; Edmund Barton is appointed the first Prime Minister.

1901  Nigeria becomes a British protectorate.

British Protectorate:

Nigeria and the British Protectorate:

History of Nigeria:


Foreign Relations of Nigeria:

Nigeria and the United Nations:

Human Rights in Nigeria:

Economy of Nigeria:

1899  Spanish rule ends in Cuba.

History of Cuba:

1890  Eritrea is consolidated into a colony by the Italian government.

Eritrea and Its History:

Eritrean War of Independence:

1885  Twenty-five nations adopt Sandford Fleming‘s proposal for standard time (and also, time zones)

1880  Ferdinand de Lesseps begins French construction of the Panama Canal.

1877  Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom is proclaimed Empress of India.

1873  Japan begins using the Gregorian calendar.

1861  Porfirio Díaz conquers Mexico City, Mexico.

1833  The United Kingdom claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.

1822  The Greek Constitution of 1822 is adopted by the First National Assembly at Epidaurus.

Modern History of Greece:

1808  The importation of slaves into the United States is banned.

1806  The French Republican Calendar is abolished.

1804  French rule ends in Haiti. Haiti becomes the first black republic and second independent country in North America after the United States

History of Haiti:


Foreign Relations of Haiti:

Economy of Haiti:


(Sources and references:   january_1;   to january/1;   to january_1.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 26 Dec 2016.

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