Grow Man (Human) for Peace: The Role of Peace Education
EDUCATION, 7 Mar 2022
We have developed tremendously in science, humanities, technology, medicine, agriculture, transportation, communication, and the other fields of knowledge except man (human), hence we have violence of others and selves, war, exploitation of each other. Peace Education developed by me based on universally inherent five elements, viz. body, vitality, mind, intellect and spirit, in every man and woman without any type of discrimination everywhere is the only genuine remedy of these ills, and means for manifestation of these elements integrally leading them to be man (human) for sustainable peace. In the mean time of effects and results of implementation and practice of this peace education, true saints and sages, scientists and creators, persons of altruistic nature, and alike persons are suggested to take leadership for guiding the rest ignorant people, and responsibility for governance in all elective and nominated bodies.
Genuine Arguments on the topic of the Paper
Let me start my arguments on the topic of my paper with the introductory remarks made by me in my speech given at the World Conference at Pondicherry Ashram, Pondicherry in 1973 on the theme: ‘Education as the Way to Achieve World Peace and Unity’, which are still relevant today. I told, “It is foolish to talk world unity without attaining world peace, and it will be more foolish to talk world peace without attaining peace at the individual level. It means if we set right the man, we can set right the whole right. And it is easy to set right the man rather than to set right the world. And there is the possibility that if man is set right, the world would automatically be set right.”1
But alas! Thinkers of the past thought of an ideal society, but not of an ideal man. Certainly their approach was to make man ideal but through an ideal society. Plato (Ideal State), Leibnitz (The Best World), More (Utopia), Kant (Theological Kingdom), Confucius (Great Cooperation Society), Mencius (The Kingly Way), and Hsunpzu (The Good World), and many wise men offered ideal societies but failed to make their societies ideal or make ideal men and women out of them. If their search had been to transform individuals into ideal men – what man inherently is – their societies would have been realized.
After learning, training and doing research in the disciplines of sociology, education, and nonviolence and peace studies for 12 years for getting Bachelor, Master, M. Phil. and Doctoral degrees, and for teaching and guiding research in education and peace studies for three decades, I have been focusing on the concept of man including for the last about four decades founding an International Journal Peace Education in 1975 for dialogue distributing free of charge, and studying the views of different thinkers of the world on their concepts of man, viz. Alexis Carrel’s Man, The Unknown2 Paul Brunton’s The Spiritual Crisis of Man3 Ravindranath Tagore’s The Religion of Man4, K. Damodaran’s Man and Society in Indian Philosophy5, S. Radhakrishnan & P. T. Raju’s The Concept of Man6 (edited) including The Concept of Man in Greek Thought by John Wild, The Concept of Man in Jewish Thought by A. J. Heschel, The Concept of Man in Chinese Thought by W. T. Chan, The Concept of Man in Indian Thought by P. T. Raju, The Concept of Man in Christian Thought by Ernst Benz, The Concept of Man in Islamic Thought by Ibrahim Madkour, and The Concept of Man in Marxist Thought.
Besides these, I studied, reflected and meditated on two half truths about the concept of man told by a great renowned thinker, poet and philosopher Muhammad Iqbal , and a very popular school of Sufism, and I tried to join them to give the full meaning of man. And they are:
Khudi Ko Kar Buland Itna
Ki Har Tadbir Se Pahle
Khuda Bande Se Pucche
Bata Teri Raja Kya Hai. (Iqbal) 7
Develop your individuality utmost so that even God Almighty
Before to decide his fate asks: O man, tell me what do you want? (Iqbal)
According to Iqbal, every individual should develop his or her individuality utmost so that his or her ability could be properly honored and awarded. However, proper environment should be provided to every man and woman so that they can develop their ability and capacity to control their environment which surrounds them for their betterment. But there is a highest possibility for such individual to be autocrat, dictator and tyrant. This nature will produce personality like Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin and alike persons. It means that Iqbal conviction about man’s nature tells us half truth. And half left truth about human nature can be supplemented by the sayings of Sufi:
Nukte Ke Her Pher Se Khuda Juda Hua
Nikal De Khudi KoTuhi Khuda Hua. (Sufi) 8
The change of place of a dot, the word ‘Khuda’ in Urdu (means God)
Becomes ‘Juda’ in Urdu (means Separated),
Merge your ego into collectivity, you will be the God.(Khuda). (Sufi)
If a man achieves individuality he should transcend it to the whole humanity irrespective of caste, creed, color, language, culture and even nationality. Then he or she becomes altruist and his or her self merges into selves of all, which is God. This is why it is said that self of an individual is soul and selves of all are God (Apni Atma, Atma Hai; Sabki Atma, Paramatma Hai). This type of collective self is altruistic in nature which is peaceful. Both individuality and collectivity are essential for the good of self and society. Iqbal and Sufi conceptions about man’s nature are true. If a person has no two breads how he or she can extend one bread to the needy one. It means every man must be capable of livelihood for betterment of self. Man is not made up for self only. Hence, what he or she has become capable for himself or herself he or she should extend his or her services for the benefit of others also. This is true of altruistic nature of man which is a condition for sustainable peace.
Maslow9 thinks about man in terms of hierarchy of his five needs, viz.:
- Biological and Physiological needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep.
- Safety needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear.
- Social Needs – belongingness, affection and love, – from work group, family, friends, romantic relationships.
- Esteem needs – achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, self-respect, respect from others.
- Self-Actualization needs – realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.
Galtung and Wirak10 talks about man on his 12 human needs plus ecology, viz.: 1. food and water, 2. clothing, 3. housing, 4. health, 5. education, 6. social contact, 7. work, 8. liberty, 9. politics, 10. new experience, 11. self-realization, and 12. meaningful life, and ecology. Galtung and Wirak consider these needs as essential for life of everyman. They say that if the needs cited under S. No. 1 to 6 are threatened, there will be violence of poverty, and if fulfilled, there will be security of well-being. If the needs stated under S. No. 7 to 9 are threatened, there will be violence of suppression, and if fulfilled, there will be security of freedom. And if the needs mentioned under the S. No. 10 to 12 are threatened, there will be violence of alienation, and if fulfilled, there will be security of identity. Last one is ecological need for life. If it is threatened, there will be violence of ecological imbalance, and if it is fulfilled, there will be security of ecological balance.
Now I would like to share my study and experience with you all about the concept of man with reference to education defined by the great educationists of the world. Swami Vivekanand11 considers education as manifestation of perfection already in man. Pestalozzi12 understands education as natural, harmonious and progressive development of man’s innate powers. Dewey13 defines education as the development of all those capacities in the individual which enables him to control his environment and fulfill his possibilities. According to Mahatma Gandhi14, education is drawing out of the best in child and man-body, mind and spirit.
One may draw the inference from the above cited definitions that the very definitions of education is the definitions of man, means what a man stands for or what a man is made of to be harmoniously grown, evolved or unfolded.
Here I would like to cite two more definitions of man which I have discovered from two sources, viz. Taittiriyopanishad and Shri Ramcharitmanas of Saint Tulsidas. Though in these definitions the word ‘education’ is not used manifestly, but it is very much implied. They are: according to Taittiriyopanishad15, “Man is made of five sheaths, viz. body, vitality, mind, intellect and spirit.” Tulsidas16 defining man said through Lord Rama: “The five elements, viz. earth, air, water, fire and space constitute the man.” I have tried to give the corresponding meaning of five sheaths and elements of man described by Taittriopanishad and Tulsidasa. And they are:
Five Sheaths of Man – Tattiriopanishad Five Elements of Man – Ramcharitmanas
Every male and female will grow throughout their lives to be man (human) for peace through Integral manifestation of universally inherent sheaths/elements/energies without any discrimination. What was possible for Buddha, Krishna, Jesus Christ, Mohammed, Socrates, John Huss, Bruno, and other spiritual saints, scientists and sages can be possible for all men and women irrespective any discrimination. They attained their perfection and we shall attain ours. The attainment of perfection already within us is to be human that is peace. And in future, no more like Socrates will be poisoned to death, no more like Christ will be crucified, no more like John Huss will be burned to stake, no more like Bruno, no more like Galileo will be forced to recant, no more like Thomas Garret will be convicted and fined, no more like Mahatma Gandhi will be assassinated, and no more alike creative persons will be punished at the hands of their own ignorant fellow beings, because there will be no place for persecution or intolerance or privilege of any types. The idea of privilege is brutal and tyrannical. No man or woman is superior to another. No person is privileged to any one of elements – either physical or vital or mental or intellectual or spiritual – or a few or all. Hence, peace education (developed by me) based on five elements within every man and woman is utterly against all privileges, as all men and women are equally endowed with these five elements. The matter is that all should have opportunity and resources for manifestation of these elements.
If the education based on these universal energies within everyone would have been applied and practiced everywhere in the past, there would have not been so many wars and killings, exploitation and oppression. And still the policy makers everywhere are unaware and very far from to give any heed to implement it. Though in 700 B. C., the Vedanta17 (the ancient Indian literature) observed and advised the people, “Know Thyself”. Lord Buddha18 in 500 B. C. advised the similar to his disciples, “Know Thyself”, saying: “Accept not because it is written in a great book, accept not because it is said by a great man, accept not because Buddha himself tells you, but accept when your own selves allow you to accept it”. In 400 B. C., Socrates19 also said to his students: Gnothi seauton – “Know Yourself”. A few centuries later, when Jesus20 of Nazareth was asked a similar question, he gave the same reply: Nosce te ipsum – “Know Yourself”. Therefore there is a great need to have knowledge about ourselves and to realize inherent energies to grow as man (humans). Swami Vivekanand21writes in the Chapter on “Religious Education” of his book Education:
The ideal of faith in ourselves is of the greatest help to us.
If faith in ourselves had been more extensively taught and practiced, I am sure a very large portion of the evils and miseries that we have would have vanished. (p. 42)
The foundation of the Global Energy Parliament made in 2000 by His Holiness Jagadguru Swami Isa is praiseworthy especially the creation and understanding of his “I Theorem” which is a detailed explanation of the makeup of the universe down to its most basic element: tiny units of vibration (one of which is called the “I”), and in his in own words, “The Theorem explains the composition, interaction and arrangement of these basic units and how the energy is negatively or positively affected. The aim of the Global Energy Parliament is to understand how this energy works and how to balance the imbalances in energy that are the cause of the current crises and sufferings facing the world (Swami Isa, 2000)22. The theme: The Science of Peace in Humans and Humans in Peace for the Geneva 2014 Global Energy Parliament is also highly commendable because the truth lies on the understanding of ‘I Theorem’ developed by Swami Isa, conviction of Swami Vivekanand about ‘the ideal of faith in ourselves’ and the advices for ‘Know Thyself’ given by Vedanta, Lord Buddha, Socrates and Jesus Christ.
The science of peace in humans, humans in peace depends on the understanding and realization of man (human). It is true that peace prevails in humans (man) only, and only humans (man) would be in peace. But there is a big but basic question how everyone would be human. Because except education of man – what he or she is – we have all types of education, but for a few privileged only in all times, ages and space. And these educations make a few doctors, engineers, lawyers, teachers and other professionals minus man (human), and many are deprived of even these educations. In this sense, the present education destroys both – those to whom it reaches, and those to whom it is denied. We are people of different nations, faiths (sects), relations, races, but we are not man (human). Man (humanity) is missing from us. Hence, we are exploiting, oppressing, fighting and killing each other, and sometimes we are killing ourselves also.
The solution is such type of education which will enable every man and woman to evolve/manifest/grow the inherent elements/sheaths/seeds/needs to be human for peace. And this can be known as peace education. Existing well-to-do privileged generation and the generations of the past in minority had been the product of mis-education. But the majority poor were/are product of non-education leading them to violence and exploitation. However, both of them .were/are deprived of peace education.
Disagreement with Current Peace Education
Though now peace education has become the subject of policy of the United Nations, research and training by UNESCO, The Council of Europe and ministries of Education, various universities throughout the world and world-wide trans-nationally conceived and conducted NGO Global Campaign for Peace Education, and I have been one of the first three signatories in the movement of Global Campaign for Peace Education on behalf of International Association of Educators for World Peace as its then President, I am not satisfied with the current peace education in the sense of its concept as inculcation of the predetermined values in the minds of learners considering peace as one of the values, making their attitude favorable towards these values and preparing them skilled in these values to practice, use of pedagogy as methodology (pedagogy is the science of teaching, and I consider teaching as violence because no one teaches anybody, if one teaches any one, he/she commits violence), and availability of its access to a few affluent people who can afford its high fees ( in this regard one may refer to my paper ‘Access to Peace Education’23 published in Online Encyclopedia of Peace Education by Teachers College Columbia University), and being limited for a certain period of 1, 2 and 4 years maximum as per the levels of the course like other conventional courses which are limited for certain period, they are not for life-long.. However, Current peace education may be one of the types of remedial educations like disarmament education, tolerance education, women education, education for international understanding, education for nonviolence and education for other similar problems, because in future, we may have education for anti-terrorism and other forms of anti-violence. But it does not mean that these all are peace education. And the exiting peace education may cure the symptoms of violence, not the cause of violence.
Peace Education based on Man’s Five Elements
Therefore I propose my universal concept of peace education for sustainable peace for everywhere. My definition of peace education is knowledge, awareness and integral manifestation of physical, vital, mental, intellectual and spiritual energies already in every man and woman irrespective of any discrimination of caste, creed, race, gender, nation, and of other differences. My peace education is awareness for its theoretical concept thoroughly and deeply, and it is more for practice. It is self-education. It is education of the self, by the self and for the self – for living together through mutual co-operation and help for co-existence, co-prosperity and co-peace. Peace and other values are by-products or secondary products of my peace education. Primary product of my peace education is integral manifestation of five elements in men and women. Once the learners are aware in the course of this peace education, they will not need any further guidance from the teachers because they become experts to practice it for whole life. Thus my peace education is part and parcel of life for everybody. It is equally based on theory and practice for perpetually lifelong learning process to be man (human). Just as grains requires the time for one year to grow, a tree requires the time for ten years to grow, but man requires the time for whole life to grow perpetually to be human .
In my definition of peace education, the inherent five energies, as stated above,
in every man and woman are very prone to be known and evolved/manifested/grown integrally and perpetually by everyone to be man (human) for peace, if he or she has the awareness towards them, having opportunity and resources. This lifelong peace education should be core-subject in all educations from nursery, primary, secondary to higher education-which are limited for certain periods. And this peace education will go beyond campus education and will continue till the end of life of all men and women through their continued practice leading to sustainable peace everywhere.
This man-making perpetual integral peace education will be for all including for parents, teachers, current peace educators, preachers, bureaucrats, rulers, representatives of people, other professionals, and all minor and adult who have no access to educational institutions for perpetual peace everywhere. But non-unfoldment or even partial unfoldment of these five elements in men and women leads to creation of violence, war, inequality and exploitation..
Methodology of my peace education will be mathetics (the science of learning). I consider learning as peace because we all learn from each other. I always compare a teacher or peace educator with a doctor. A doctor operates a wound of a patient, puts some medicines and makes the bandage, that’s all. But no doctor can enter into the process of healing of the wound of the patient. The healing of the wound will take it own course. However, the importance of the doctor does not diminish. He/she must be specialized and trained in operation, knowledgeable in proper medicines and skilled in making bandages. Similarly an educator or a peace educator arranges the things through variety of methods, techniques, devices and audio-visual aids so that learning in the learners may occur. But no educator or peace educator can enter in to the process of learning of the learners. Learning will take it own course. Here also, the importance of the educator or peace educator does not minimize. He/she is supposed to be well-educated in the concept and learning of and about man (especially about his or her constituent parts) in global perspective through the knowledge and practice of variety of disciplines and well-trained in various methods and techniques of learning with specialization in audio-visual aids.
And my peace education based on five elements of man and woman has two aspects: first compensatory integral peace education and purely integral peace education. Compensatory peace education will be for today’s we-crippled generation. We are all crippled: some physically, some vitally, some mentally, some intellectually, some spiritually, and many are crippled in all parts of their body. Hence we all need compensatory integral peace education for recovery of our physical, vital, mental, intellectual and spiritual health integrally. Purely integral peace education will be for coming generations, who are supposed their five elements are un-corrupt, un-crippled, raw, pure, and very prone to be unfolded integrally to be man (human) making them peaceful.
Undemocratic nation-states are not allowing their educational institutions to promote exiting peace education due to fear of indoctrination and regimentation. They fear that the concept of present peace education will destabilize their system. On the other hand, in many democracies, there is lack of political will and awareness to endorse or practice exiting peace education. But nation-states should not fear peace education of mine because while people belong to different races, and nations and have different genders, beliefs, cultures, and faiths, they have the same elements–body, vitality, mind, intellect, and spirit. All individuals have the inherent ability/energy to evolve/to grow to be man (humans) for peace.
Therefore, let all people of the world be aware of peace education based on the five
elements as cited above. The world has enough resources to meet the needs 15 billion people while the world population is about 7 billion. All people must have means and opportunity to transcend the physical body and move to higher levels of existence. Through renunciation of the lower self, man achieves a higher self and finally becomes fully human. If peace education of five elements of men and women is practiced everywhere, there would be sustainable peace everywhere. And after some time of implementation of this peace education, it will help in disappearance of war, violence, crimes, exploitation, non-democracy from the world, proxy and brokers governance in democratic States, it will help also for closure of prisons, police departments, and armed forces (like Costa Rica, it is the only country in the world which has no military), and also for reducing the large number of courts (judicial) and hospitals, ultimately in future they will also disappear.
Recommendations to the United Nations
Hence I would like to strongly recommend to the United Nations through the 2014 Geneva Global Energy Parliament to notice to its all member nation-states to implement peace education based on five elements (body, vitality, mind, intellect and spirit) within every man and woman without any discrimination everywhere with the use of science of learning (mathetics) in place of science of teaching (pedagogy) in it, and arrangement for its access to all without any discrimination, and with the amendment in the current peace education.
Secondly, I would like to recommend also to the United Nations through this august Global Energy Parliament to hold Global Meet for Dialogue on the pertinent theme: Grow Man (human) for Peace: The Role of Peace Education. The members in the dialogue group should be heads of different nation-states, religious sects, global teachers, thinkers in peace education and creators of culture of peace, popular leaders among the masses and the impartial NGOs. And the leaders of violent groups including those who bear responsibility for genocide, ethnic cleansing and global terrorism should also be invited for this Global Meet, keeping the words of Jesus in mind: “Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing.”
Suggestions for Interim Arrangement
Till the peace education based on five elements inherent in every man and woman is recognized, adopted, implemented and practiced everywhere universally for existing deprived generation and coming innocent generation, I earnestly request true saints and sages, creators and scientists and above all altruists of everywhere to take responsibility for guiding ignorant people in this respect including taking part in governance. In support of my request to the saintly people, I would like to tell you the advices of great thinkers of the world in this regard. Firstly, I would like to remind you the warning given by Plato24, whose teacher Socrates was poisoned to death, he said, “The heaviest penalty for declining to rule is to be ruled by someone inferior to yourself.”
Lala Hardayal25 hoped and said, “Ministers of the world state will be sages and saints; its civil servants will be scholars and scientists.” Sorokin and Lunden26also put similar views saying, “Ascending governments of scientists of all nations, the United Nations and the future world government can be enormously improved in their moral strength and wisdom by including in all governments these sages and experts. Their presence can prevent the governments from committing moral blunders, can increase their wisdom and morality and reinforce the total moral and spiritual order in the human universe. At the end of 1992, UNESCO formed a Council of Sages27 composed of 21 of the World’s most eminent intellectuals to reflect on the vital issues of time which may affect the lives of all the planet’s inhabitants such as the “eruption of political, religious and ethnic intolerance”, which Algeria’s Mohammed Bedjaoui, jurist and member of International Court of Justice in Hague, considers to be one of the most alarming situations facing the world today. Writer and former President of Czechoslovakia, Vaclav Havel tells, “in a way the forum (the Council of Sages) is an experiment, and we cannot foresee exactly how it will develop, however it might grow into one of those institutions that will help enrich the realm of politics, international relations and international co-operation, with certain broader cultural and spiritual dimension which in my view is much needed in today’s politics…”
On the lines of justification stated by me above for my suggestions concerning responsibility to be taken by true saints and sages as interim arrangement till the results of implementation of peace education based on five elements, I appreciate wholeheartedly His Holiness Jagadguru Swami Isa for his pious initiative and effort for peace through founding Isa Viswa Prajnana Trust, the Isa Viswa Vidyalayam School, the Isalayam Ashram, and the Global Energy Parliament for understanding the working of the energy, developing his educational methodology known as “Education for Total Consciousness.”, and revealing his “I Theorem,” to know the positive or negative effects.
- Surya Nath Prasad, Education and World Peace and Unity, World Union, Vol. XIV, No. 1, January-February, 1974, 86-97.
- Alexis Carrel, Man, the Unknown (Wilco Publishing House, Bombay, 1974).
- Paul Brunton, The Spiritual Crisis of Man (B. I. Publications, New Delhi, 1975).
- Ravindranath Tagore, The Religion of Man (The MacMillan Company, New York,1931)
- Damodaran, Man and Society in Indian Philosophy (People’s Publishing House, New Delhi, 1970).
- Radhakrishnan & P. T. Raju, The Concept of Man (George Allen and Unwin Ltd., London, 1966).
- Muhammad Iqbal quoted in S. N. Prasad, Education, Altruism and Peace, The Primary Teacher (Vol. XVI, No.4, October, 1991) 1.
- Sufi, quoted in S. N. Prasad, Education, Altruism and Peace, The Primary Teacher (Vol. XVI, No.4, October, 1991) 2.
- Abraham Maslow, Quoted in S. S. Chauhan, Advanced Educational Psychology (Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, 1978) 213-217.
- Galtung & A. Wirak, The Concept of Peace, in Sissel Volan, Teachers’ Kit on Peace Education, in Peace Education: An International Journal (1986) X, 60-61.
- Swami Vivekanand, Education (Sri Ramkrishna Mission Vidyalaya, Coimbatore, 1943) 1.
- H. Pestalozzi, quoted in Sitaram Jayswal, Pashchimi Shiksha Ka Itihas – History of Western Education – (Nandkishore & Brothers, Varanasi, 1951) 481.
- Dewey, quoted in Saryu Prasad Chaubey, Pashchatya Shiksha Ka Itihas – History of Western Education – (Lakshminarayan Agrawal, Agra, 1959) 424.
- Mahatma Gandhi, Sarvodaya, (Navjivan Prakashan Mandir, Ahmadabad, 1955) 156.
- Taittiriyopanishad, Translated by Swami Sarvadananda (Sri Ramkrishna Math, Madras, 1965) 89-109.
- Sant Tulsidas, Shri Ramcharitmanas (Gita Press, Gorakhpur, 1963) 769.
- Vedanta (Upanishads), in S. N. Prasad, Shanti Shiksha (Peace Education), in Ahimsa Vishwakosh (Encyclopedia of Nonviolence), ed. Nandkishore Acharya (Prakrit Bhar ati Academy, Jaipur, 2010).
- Lord Buddha, Following the Buddha’s Footsteps,
- Socrates, Diplomacy Journal (May 2008) 44.
- Jesus, Diplomacy Journal (May 2008) 44.
- Swami Vivekanand, Religious Education, in Education, author Swami Vivekanand (Sri Ramkrishna Mission Vidyalaya, Coimbatore, 1943) 42
- Swami Isa, Information Pack: www.global-energy-parliament.net/images/gep_infopack_2014-sm.pdf
- N. Prasad, Access to Peace Education, in Encyclopedia of Peace Education, ed. M. Bajaj (Teachers College Columbia University, New York, 2008).
- Plato, The Republic: http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/government
- Lala Hardayal, Hints for Self Culture (Jaico Press Pvt. Ltd., Bombay,1977) 275
- A. Sorokin & W. A. Lunden, Power and Morality (Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay, 1951) 171.
- UNESCO’s Council of Sages, cited in S. N. Prasad, Global Governance for Security and Peace: The Role of Peace Education, in Global Governance in the 21st Century, ed. Young Seek Choue (Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2000) 160-61.
Dr. Surya Nath Prasad, former president & currently executive vice president of International Association of Educators for World Peace (IAEWP), associate professor of education emeritus, former visiting professor, the graduate institute of peace studies, Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea, founder & editor-in-chief, Peace Education: An International Journal. email@example.com
Paper submitted at The Global Energy Parliament on 05 September, 2014 in Geneva, Switzerland on the theme: The Science of Peace in Humans and Humans in Peace organized by Swami Isa Prajnana, Trust (India) and co-organized by the World Council of Churches (Geneva) and the International Association of Educators for World Peace (as a Partner).
Tags: Peace Education
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