This Week in History
HISTORY, 11 Sep 2023
Satoshi Ashikaga - TRANSCEND Media Service
11-17 September 2023
Quote of the Week:
“Spirituality enters when an Einstein or a Picasso forge time and space into deeper unions, or a mathematician creates a new math with the old ones as special cases.”
– Johan Galtung
Year 9 – The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends: The Roman Empire suffers the greatest defeat of its history and the Rhine is established as the border between the Empire and the so-called barbarians for the next four hundred years.
1683 Battle of Vienna: Coalition forces, including the famous winged Hussars, led by Polish King John III Sobieski lift the siege laid by Ottoman forces.
1697 Battle of Zenta: a major engagement in the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) and one of the most decisive defeats in Ottoman history.
1709 Battle of Malplaquet: Great Britain, Netherlands, and Austria fight against France.
1758 Battle of Saint Cast: France repels British invasion during the Seven Years’ War.
1776 British–American peace conference on Staten Island fails to stop nascent American Revolutionary War.
1914 World War I: Australia invades German New Guinea, defeating a German contingent at the Battle of Bita Paka.
1914 The Second Period of Russification: The teaching of the Russian language and Russian history in Finnish schools is ordered to be considerably increased as part of the forced Russification program in Finland run by Tsar Nicholas II
1919 The Second Period of Russification: The teaching of the Russian language and Russian history in Finnish schools is ordered to be considerably increased as part of the forced Russification program in Finland run by Tsar Nicholas II
1919 United States Marine Corps invades Honduras.
1921 Nahalal, the first moshav in Palestine, is settled as part of a Zionist plan of creating a Jewish state, later to be Israel.
1922 The Treaty of Kars is ratified in Yerevan, Armenia.
1941 Construction begins on The Pentagon.
1941 Charles Lindbergh’s Des Moines Speech accusing the British, Jews and FDR’s administration of pressing for war with Germany.
1943 World War II: German troops occupy Corsica and Kosovo–Metohija ending the Italian occupation of Corsica.
1944 World War II: RAF bombing raid on Darmstadt and the following firestorm kill 11,500.
1965 Indo-Pakistani War: The Indian Army captures the town of Burki, just southeast of Lahore.
– Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts – Wikipedia
– Conflict Between India and Pakistan | Global Conflict Tracker (cfr.org)
– Kashmir: Why India and Pakistan fight over it – BBC News
– India and Pakistan came close to nuclear war: Pompeo – BBC News
– List of wars between India and Pakistan in chronological order (jagranjosh.com)
1967 China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) launched an attack on Indian posts at Nathu La, Sikkim, India, which resulted in military clashes.
1971 The Egyptian Constitution becomes official.
1973 A coup in Chile, headed by General Augusto Pinochet, topples the democratically elected president Salvador Allende. Pinochet exercises dictatorial power until ousted in a referendum in 1988, staying in power until 1990.
1980 A new constitution of Chile is established under the influence of then Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet, which is subject to controversy in Chile today.
1982 The international forces that were guaranteeing the safety of Palestinian refugees following Israel‘s 1982 Invasion of Lebanon leave Beirut. Five days later, several thousand refugees are massacred in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps by Phalange forces.
2001 The September 11 attacks, a series of coordinated terrorist attacks killing 2,996 people using four aircraft hijacked by 19 members of al-Qaeda. Two aircraft crash into the World Trade Center in New York City, a third crashes into The Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, and a fourth into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
– 9/11 Commission Report – Wikipedia
– Planning of the September 11 attacks – Wikipedia
– 9/11 conspiracy theories – Wikipedia
– September 11 intelligence before the attacks – Wikipedia
– CIA Agent Confesses on Deathbed: ‘We Blew Up WTC7 on 9/11’? | Snopes.com
– 9/11 and the Trans Afghan Pipeline Project (TAPI): The Invasion of Afghanistan Had Been Planned Prior to 9/11. The Missing Enron Link – Global ResearchGlobal Research – Centre for Research on Globalization
– Afghanistan: The Cause and Effect of 9/11 – CounterPunch.org
– Oil and 9-11: The Connection | History News Network
– The Afghan Pipeline You Don’t Know About | The Nation
– Pipeline Politics: Oil, Gas And The US Interest In Afghanistan (outlookindia.com)
– Is the Afghan war about an oil pipeline? (slate.com)
– Operation Northwoods | Military Wiki | Fandom
– Operation Northwoods: Blueprint for 9/11? | by Brad Tracy | Medium
– Operation Northwoods, the 1960s government plan to fake terrorist attacks on the U.S. (gizmodo.com)
– “...since George H. W. Bush was involved in project Northwoods, one of the objectives of which was to stage terrorists attacks (including hijackings) in order to justify the United States going to war.” Operation Mongoose.pdf (ysmithcpallen.com)
2007 Russia tests the largest conventional weapon ever, the Father of All Bombs.
2012 The U.S. embassy in Benghazi, Libya is attacked, resulting in four deaths.
490BC Battle of Marathon: The conventionally accepted date for the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians and their Plataean allies defeat the first Persian invasion force of Greece
1213 Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Battle of Muret.
1229 Battle of Portopí: The Aragonese army under the command of James I of Aragon disembarks at Santa Ponça, Majorca, with the purpose of conquering the island.
1683 Austro-Ottoman War: Battle of Vienna: Several European armies join forces to defeat the Ottoman Empire.
1762 The Sultanate of Sulu ceded Balambangan Island to the British East India Company
1847 Mexican–American War: the Battle of Chapultepec begins.
1848 A new constitution marks the establishment of Switzerland as a federal state.
1897 Tirah Campaign: In the Battle of Saragarhi, ten thousand Pashtun tribesmen suffer several hundred casualties while attacking 21 Sikh soldiers in British service.
1915 French soldiers rescue over 4,000 Armenian genocide survivors stranded on Musa Dagh.
1923 Southern Rhodesia, today called Zimbabwe, is annexed by the United Kingdom.
1938 Adolf Hitler demands autonomy and self-determination for the Germans of the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia.
1940 Cave paintings are discovered in Lascaux, France.
1942 World War II: RMS Laconia, carrying civilians, Allied soldiers and Italian POWs is torpedoed off the coast of West Africa and sinks with a heavy loss of life.
1942 World War II: First day of the Battle of Edson’s Ridge during the Guadalcanal Campaign. U.S. Marines protecting Henderson Field are attacked by Imperial Japanese Army troops.
1943 World War II: Benito Mussolini is rescued from house arrest by German commando forces led by Otto Skorzeny.
1944 World War II: The liberation of Yugoslavia from Axis occupation continues. Bajina Bašta in western Serbia is among the liberated cities.
1945 The People’s Republic of Korea is proclaimed, bringing an end to Japanese rule over Korea
1948 Chinese Civil War: Marshal Lin Biao, commander-in-chief of the Chinese communist Northeast Field Army, launched a massive offensive toward Jinzhou, Liaoshen Campaign has begun
1959 The Soviet Union launches a large rocket, Lunik II, at the Moon.
1961 The African and Malagasy Union is founded.
1962 President John F. Kennedy delivers his “We choose to go to the Moon” speech at Rice University.
– JFK – We choose to go to the Moon, full length – YouTube
1977 South African anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko dies in police custody.
1980 The 43rd government of Turkey is overthrown in a coup d’état led by General Kenan Evren.
1983 The USSR vetoes a United Nations Security Council Resolution deploring the Soviet destruction of Korean Air Lines Flight 007.
1990 The two German states and the Four Powers sign the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in Moscow, paving the way for German reunification.
1990 The Red Cross organizations of mainland China and Taiwan sign Kinmen Agreement on repatriation of illegal immigrants and criminal suspects after two days of talks in Kinmen, Fujian Province in response to the two tragedies in repatriation in the previous two months. It is the first agreement reached by private organizations across the Taiwan Strait.
2003 The United Nations lifts sanctions against Libya after that country agreed to accept responsibility and recompense the families of victims in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103.
2003 Iraq War: In Fallujah, U.S. forces mistakenly shoot and kill eight Iraqi police officers.
– Timeline of the Iraq War – Wikipedia
– 2003 invasion of Iraq – Wikipedia
– Rationale for the Iraq War – Wikipedia
– WHY DID THE UNITED STATES INVADE IRAQ IN 2003?
– The Lies that Led to the Iraq War and the Myth of ‘Intelligence Failure’ (foreignpolicyjournal.com)
– 2. The Iraq war: the enduring controversies and challenges | SIPRI
– How the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Affected the Middle East (thoughtco.com)
– The Costs of War in Iraq | Costs of War (brown.edu)
– “More than one million Iraqis have died as a result of the conflict in their country since the U.S.-led invasion in 2003, according to research conducted by one of Britain’s leading polling groups.”
– Iraqi Civilians | Costs of War (brown.edu)
– The Human Cost of the War in Iraq (mit.edu)
2005 Israeli-Palestinian conflict: the Israeli disengagement from Gaza is completed, leaving some 2,530 homes demolished.
2013 NASA confirms that its Voyager 1 probe has become the first manmade object to enter interstellar space
585BC Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, king of Rome, celebrates a triumph for his victories over the Sabines, and the surrender of Collatia.
1759 Battle of the Plains of Abraham: the British defeat the French near Quebec City in the Seven Years’ War, known in the United States as the French and Indian War.
1847 Mexican–American War: Six teenage military cadets known as Niños Héroes die defending Chapultepec Castle in the Battle of Chapultepec. American troops under General Winfield Scott capture Mexico City in the Mexican–American War.
1914 World War I: The Battle of Aisne begins between Germany and France.
1922 The final act of the Greco-Turkish War, the Great Fire of Smyrna, commences.
1923 Following a military coup in Spain, Miguel Primo de Rivera takes over, setting up a dictatorship.
1942 World War II: Second day of the Battle of Edson’s Ridge in the Guadalcanal Campaign. U.S. Marines successfully defeat attacks by the Japanese with heavy losses for the Japanese forces.
1944 World War II: Start of the Battle of Meligalas between the Greek Resistance forces of the Greek People’s Liberation Army (ELAS) and the collaborationist security battalions.
1953 Nikita Khrushchev is appointed General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
1962 An appeals court orders the University of Mississippi to admit James Meredith, the first African-American student admitted to the segregated university.
1964 Martin Luther King Jr. addresses a crowd of 20,000 West Berliners on Sunday, in Waldbühne
1968 Cold War: Albania leaves the Warsaw Pact.
– Albanian–Soviet split – Wikipedia
– Albania leaves Warsaw Pact (famousdaily.com)
– Why did Albania withdraw from the Warsaw Pact in 1968? : r/AskHistorians (reddit.com)
– Albania in the Warsaw Pact | Wilson Center
– What Was the Warsaw Pact and Why Was It Important? | Sporcle Blog
– NATO and the Warsaw Pact | History of Western Civilization II (lumenlearning.com)
1971 Chairman Mao Zedong‘s second in command and successor Marshal Lin Biao flees China after the failure of an alleged coup. His plane crashes in Mongolia, killing all aboard.
1979 South Africa grants independence to the “homeland” of Venda (not recognised outside South Africa).
1989 Largest anti-Apartheid march in South Africa, led by Desmond Tutu.
– Anti-Apartheid Movement – Wikipedia
– The Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM) | South African History Online (sahistory.org.za)
– Anti-Apartheid Movement – Leaders, Activists, And Notable Supporters – WorldAtlas
– 31 Mind Blowing Desmond Tutu Quotes (2023) | Wealthy Gorilla
– The Tragic Truth About Desmond Tutu (grunge.com)
– Desmond Tutu – The Forgiveness Project
1993 Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin shakes hands with Palestine Liberation Organization chairman Yasser Arafat at the White House after signing the Oslo Accords granting limited Palestinian autonomy.
– The Negotiations | Shattered Dreams Of Peace | FRONTLINE | PBS
– Oslo Timeline: 20 Years Of Failed US-Led Peace Talks | IMEU
– Oslo Accords: the full story and all the secrets (aljazeera.com)
– The Failure of the Oslo Accords – UC Press Blog
– Israelis and Palestinians Need to Face the Truth – The Atlantic
– Who killed the Oslo Accords? | Palestinian Authority | Al Jazeera
2007 The Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples is adopted by the United Nations General Assembly.
2013 Taliban insurgents attack the United States consulate in Herat, Afghanistan, with two members of the Afghan National Police reported dead and about 20 civilians injured.
629 Emperor Heraclius enters Constantinople in triumph after his victory over the Persian Empire.
1763 Seneca warriors defeat British forces at the Battle of Devil’s Hole during Pontiac’s War.
1808 Finnish War: Russians defeat the Swedes at the Battle of Oravais.
1812 Napoleonic Wars: The French Grande Armée enters Moscow. The Fire of Moscow begins as soon as Russian troops leave the city.
1829 The Ottoman Empire signs the Treaty of Adrianople with Russia, thus ending the Russo-Turkish War.
1917 The Russian Empire is formally replaced by the Russian Republic.
1939 World War II: The Estonian military boards the Polish submarine ORP Orzeł in Tallinn, sparking a diplomatic incident that the Soviet Union will later use to justify the annexation of Estonia.
1940 Ip massacre: The Hungarian Army, supported by local Hungarians, kill 158 Romanian civilians in Ip, Sălaj, a village in Northern Transylvania, an act of ethnic cleansing.
1943 World War II: The Wehrmacht starts a three-day retaliatory operation targeting several Greek villages in the region of Viannos, whose death toll would eventually exceed 500 persons.
1944 World War II: Maastricht becomes the first Dutch city to be liberated by allied forces.
1948 The Indian Army captures the city of Aurangabad as part of Operation Polo.
1954 In a top secret nuclear test, a Soviet Tu-4 bomber drops a 40 kiloton atomic weapon just north of Totskoye village.
1960 The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is founded.
1960 Congo Crisis: Mobutu Sese Seko seizes power in a military coup, suspending parliament and the constitution.
1992 The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina declares the breakaway Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia to be illegal.
1999 Kiribati, Nauru and Tonga join the United Nations.
2000 Microsoft releases Windows Me.
2001 Historic National Prayer Service held at Washington National Cathedral for victims of the September 11 attacks. A similar service is held in Canada on Parliament Hill, the largest vigil ever held in the nation’s capital.
2003 In a referendum, Estonia approves joining the European Union.
2003 Bissau-Guinean President Kumba Ialá is ousted from power in a bloodless military coup led by General Veríssimo Correia Seabra.
2007 Financial crisis of 2007–2008: The Northern Rock bank experiences the first bank run in the United Kingdom in 150 years.
– 2007 Financial Crisis: Explanation, Causes, Timeline (thebalancemoney.com)
– What Was the Financial Crisis of 2007–2008? Causes, Outcomes & Lessons Learned – TheStreet
– The 2007–2008 Financial Crisis in Review (investopedia.com)
– The 2008 Crash: What Happened to All That Money? | HISTORY
– Defense Spending During Economic Crisis | Council on Foreign Relations (cfr.org)
– Fiscal Year 2007: Army Budget: An Analysis: Association of the United States Army
– Defense FY 2008 Budget Analysis: Four Percent for Freedom | The Heritage Foundation
– NATO in the aftermath of the financial crisis
984 Major Fatimid victory over the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of the Orontes.
1794 French Revolutionary Wars: Arthur Wellesley (later Duke of Wellington) sees his first combat at the Battle of Boxtel during the Flanders Campaign.
1795 Britain seizes the Dutch Cape Colony in southern Africa to prevent its use by the Batavian Republic.
1812 The Grande Armée under Napoleon reaches the Kremlin in Moscow.
1873 Franco-Prussian War: The last Imperial German Army troops leave France upon completion of payment of indemnity.
1894 First Sino-Japanese War: Japan defeats Qing dynasty China in the Battle of Pyongyang.
1916 World War I: Tanks are used for the first time in battle, at the Battle of the Somme.
1935 Nazi Germany adopts a new national flag bearing the swastika.
1948 The F-86 Sabre sets the world aircraft speed record at 671 miles per hour (1,080 km/h).
1950 Korean War: The U.S. X Corps lands at Inchon.
– Korean War Timeline | Britannica
– Inch’ŏn landing | Korean War, MacArthur’s Plan, U.S. Victory | Britannica
– Inchon Invasion in the Korean War (Operation Chromite) (thoughtco.com)
– The Korean War (1950-1953): Inchon Invasion | SparkNotes
– Korean War 1950-1953 – Battle of Inchon 1950 – COLD WAR DOCUMENTARY – YouTube
1952 The United Nations cedes Eritrea to Ethiopia.
1959 Nikita Khrushchev becomes the first Soviet leader to visit the United States.
1971 The first Greenpeace ship departs from Vancouver to protest against the upcoming Cannikin nuclear weapon test in Alaska.
1983 Israeli premier Menachem Begin resigns.
2008 Lehman Brothers files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, the largest bankruptcy filing in U.S. history.
2020 Signing of the Bahrain–Israel normalization agreement occurs in Washington, D.C., normalizing relations between Israel and two Arab nations, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain.
1822 French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel, in a “note” read to the Academy of Sciences, reports a direct refraction experiment verifying David Brewster‘s hypothesis that photoelasticity (as it is now known) is stress-induced birefringence
1908 The General Motors Corporation is founded.
1914 World War I: The Siege of Przemyśl (present-day Poland) begins.
1940 World War II: Italian troops conquer Sidi Barrani.
1945 World War II: The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong comes to an end.
1955 The military coup to unseat President Juan Perón of Argentina is launched at midnight.
1955 A Soviet Zulu-class submarine becomes the first to launch a ballistic missile.
1959 The first successful photocopier, the Xerox 914, is introduced in a demonstration on live television from New York City.
1961 Pakistan establishes its Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission with Abdus Salam as its head.
1975 Papua New Guinea gains independence from Australia.
1982 Lebanon War: The Sabra and Shatila massacre in Lebanon takes place.
– The Lebanon War 1982 | ADL
– Timeline of the Lebanese Civil War From 1975-1990 (thoughtco.com)
– Timeline: Lebanon’s ordeal from civil war to port blast | Reuters
– Lebanese Civil War | History, & Significance | Britannica
– List of wars involving Lebanon – Wikipedia
1992 The trial of the deposed Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega ends in the United States with a 40-year sentence for drug trafficking and money laundering.
1992 Black Wednesday: The British pound is forced out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism by currency speculators and is forced to devalue against the German mark.
1994 The British government lifts the broadcasting ban imposed against members of Sinn Féin and Irish paramilitary groups in 1988.
– History of Sinn Féin – Wikipedia
– Provisional Irish Republican Army – Wikipedia
– IRA Army Council – Wikipedia
– IRA Timeline: The Troubles, Attacks & Ceasefire (history.com)
– What’s behind Sinn Fein’s victory in Northern Ireland? | Politics | Al Jazeera
– Gerry Adams – Wikipedia
– List of bombings during the Troubles – Wikipedia
2014 The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant launches its Kobani offensive against Syrian–Kurdish forces.
2019 Five months before the COVID-19 stock market crash, an overnight spike in lending rates in the United States prompts the Federal Reserve to conduct operations in the repo market.
2022 During the Let Yet Kone massacre, the Burmese military kills 13 villagers, including 8 children, after attacking a school in Sagaing Region, Myanmar.
1176 The Battle of Myriokephalon is the last attempt by the Byzantine Empire to recover central Anatolia from the Seljuk Turks.
1462 Thirteen Years’ War: A Polish army under Piotr Dunin decisively defeats the Teutonic Order at the Battle of Świecino.
1577 The Treaty of Bergerac is signed between King Henry III of France and the Huguenots.
1620 Polish–Ottoman War: The Ottoman Empire defeats the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Battle of Cecora.
1631 Sweden wins a major victory at the Battle of Breitenfeld against the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years’ War.
1778 The Treaty of Fort Pitt is signed. It is the first formal treaty between the United States and a Native American tribe.
– Native American History Timeline
– Native American History and Culture – Partnership With Native Americans (nativepartnership.org)
– Genocide and American Indian History | Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History
– Colonial America Depended on the Enslavement of Indigenous People | Smart News| Smithsonian Magazine
– Understanding Historical Trauma and Native Americans (nativehope.org)
– Native tribes have lost 99% of their land in the United States | Science | AAAS
– Exploitation of Native Americans – Life for Native Americans – CCEA – GCSE History Revision – CCEA – BBC Bitesize
1787 The United States Constitution is signed in Philadelphia.
1793 War of the Pyrenees: France defeats a Spanish force at the Battle of Peyrestortes.
1794 Flanders Campaign: France completes its conquest of the Austrian Netherlands at the Battle of Sprimont.
1809 Peace between Sweden and Russia in the Finnish War; the territory that will become Finland is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn.
– Timeline of the Finnish War – Wikipedia
– Russo-Finnish War | Summary, Combatants, & Facts | Britannica
– Timeline of Finnish history – Wikipedia
– “The Grand Duchy of Finland, also translated as Grand Principality of Native tribes have lost 99% of their land in the United States Finland,[a] was the predecessor state of modern Finland. It existed between 1809 and 1917 as an autonomous state within the former Russian Empire.”
– Russification of Finland – Wikipedia
– A Look at Finland’s Troubled History with Russia Through Photos (un-aligned.org)
1849 American abolitionist Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery.
1901 Second Boer War: A Boer column defeats a British force at the Battle of Blood River Poort.
1901 Second Boer War: Boers capture a squadron of the 17th Lancers at the Battle of Elands River.
1908 The Wright Flyer flown by Orville Wright, with Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge as passenger, crashes, killing Selfridge, who becomes the first airplane fatality.
1914 World War I: The Race to the Sea begins.
1916 World War I: Manfred von Richthofen (“The Red Baron”), a flying ace of the German Luftstreitkräfte, wins his first aerial combat near Cambrai, France.
1924 The Border Protection Corps is established in the Second Polish Republic for the defence of the eastern border against armed Soviet raids and local bandits.
1930 The Kurdish Ararat rebellion is suppressed by the Turks.
1939 World War II: The Soviet invasion of Poland begins.
1939 World War II: German submarine U-29 sinks the British aircraft carrier HMS Courageous.
1944 World War II: Soviet troops launch the Tallinn Offensive against Germany and pro-independence Estonian units.
1948 The Nizam of Hyderabad surrenders his sovereignty over the Hyderabad State and joins the Indian Union.
1974 Bangladesh, Grenada and Guinea-Bissau join the United Nations.
1978 The Camp David Accords are signed by Israel and Egypt.
– The Avalon Project : Camp David Accords; September 17, 1978 (yale.edu)
– Significance of the Camp David Accords | Britannica
– How Jimmy Carter Brokered a Hard-Won Peace Deal Between Israel and Egypt | HISTORY
– Camp David Accords: Thirteen Days After Twenty-Five Years | Jimmy Carter Library
1991 Estonia, North Korea, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands and Micronesia join the United Nations.
1991 The first version of the Linux kernel (0.01) is released to the Internet.
2001 The New York Stock Exchange reopens for trading after the September 11 attacks, the longest closure since the Great Depression.
2011 Occupy Wall Street movement begins in Zuccotti Park, New York City.
2018 A Russian reconnaissance aircraft carrying 15 people on board is brought down by a Syrian surface-to-air missile over the Mediterranean Sea.
Satoshi Ashikaga is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment. Having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, he prefers a peaceful and prudent life. His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, constantly remind him of the invaluableness of peace.
This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 11 Sep 2023.
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