This Week in History

HISTORY, 9 Oct 2023

Satoshi Ashikaga - TRANSCEND Media Service


9-15 October 2023

Quote of the Week:
Once you make a decision, the universe conspires to make it happen.
Ralph Waldo Emerson


9 October

1446  The Hangul alphabet is published in Korea.

1594  Troops of the Portuguese Empire are defeated on Sri Lanka, bringing an end to the Campaign of Danture.

1604   Kepler’s Supernova is the most recent supernova to be observed within the Milky Way.

1740  Dutch colonists and Javanese natives begin a massacre of the ethnic Chinese population in Batavia, eventually killing at least 10,000.

1760  Seven Years’ War: Russian and Austrian troops briefly occupy Berlin.

1806  Prussia begins the War of the Fourth Coalition against France.

1802  Guayaquil declares independence from Spain.

1874  The Universal Postal Union is created by the Treaty of Bern.

1900  The Cook Islands become a territory of the United Kingdom.

1914  World War I: The Siege of Antwerp comes to an end.

1941  A coup in Panama declares Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia Arango the new president.

1950  The Goyang Geumjeong Cave massacre in Korea begins.

1962  Uganda becomes an independent Commonwealth realm.

1966  Vietnam War: the Republic of Korea Army commits the Binh Tai Massacre.

1967  A day after his capture, Ernesto “Che” Guevara is executed for attempting to incite a revolution in Bolivia. Che Guevara Executed

1980  Pope John Paul II greets the Dalai Lama during a private audience in Vatican City.

1981  President François Mitterrand abolishes capital punishment in France.

2006  North Korea conducts its first nuclear test.

[1]      North Korean Nuclear Program:

[2]      Rumsfeld and North Korea:

[3]      Investment to Natural Resource Rich North Korea:

2007  The Dow Jones Industrial Average reaches its all-time high of 14,164 points before rapidly declining due to the 2007-2008 financial crises.

[1]      Financial/Economic Crisis:

[2]      Financial Crisis and War/Conflict:

2012  Pakistani Taliban attempt to assassinate outspoken schoolgirl Malala Yousafzai.

2016  The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army launches its first attack on Myanmar security forces along the Bangladesh–Myanmar border.

2019  Turkey begins its military offensive in north-eastern Syria.

[1]      Turkey and North-Eastern Syria:

[2]      Turkish Invasion and Kurds:


10 October

1631  Thirty Years’ War: An army of the Electorate of Saxony seizes Prague.

1868  The Ten Years’ War begins against Spanish rule in Cuba.

1903  The Women’s Social and Political Union is founded in support of the enfranchisement of British women.

1938  Abiding by the Munich AgreementCzechoslovakia completes its withdrawal from the Sudetenland.

1963  The Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty comes into effect.

1967  The Outer Space Treaty comes into force.

1980  The Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front is founded in El Salvador.

2002  Iraq War: The United States Congress approves the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002.

[1]      Iraq War of 2002:

[2]      Iraq War and Its Justification:

[3]      Protests Against the Iraq War:

[4]      Behind the Iraq War:

2009  Armenia and Turkey sign the Zurich Protocols, intended to normalize relations. However, they are never ratified by either side.

2010  The Netherlands Antilles are dissolved as a country.


11 October

1142  A peace treaty ends the Jin–Song wars.

1899  The Second Boer War erupts in South Africa between the British-ruled Cape Colony, and the Boer-ruled Transvaal and Orange Free State.

1906  San Francisco sparks a diplomatic crisis between the United States and Japan by ordering segregated schools for Japanese students.

1912  First Balkan War: The day after the Battle of Sarantaporo, Greek troops liberate the city of Kozani.

1942  World War II: Off Guadalcanal, United States Navy ships intercept and defeat a Japanese force.

1944  The Tuvan People’s Republic is annexed by the Soviet Union.

1954  In accord with the 1954 Geneva Conference, French troops complete their withdrawal from North Vietnam.

1961  The 1st Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement is held in BelgradeSFR Yugoslavia, resulting in the establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement.

1962  The Second Vatican Council (Vatican II) becomes the first ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church in 92 years.

[1]      Vatican II: Its Significance and Summary:

[2]      Vatican II in the Cold War Era:

[3]      Vatican II and Unpublished Condemnations of Communism:

[4]      CIA Behind Vatican II:

[5]      CIA, Sister Lucy and Vatican II:

[6]      Vatican II, CIA, Liberation Theology, and KGB:

1986  Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev meet in Iceland to continue discussions about scaling back IRBM arsenals in Europe.

1987  Start of Operation Pawan by Indian forces in Sri Lanka. Thousands of civilians, insurgents, soldiers die.


12 October

539BC         The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon, ending the Babylonian empire. (Julian calendar)

1848  War of Jenkins’ Ear: A British squadron wins a tactical victory over a Spanish squadron off Havana.

1798  Flemish and Luxembourgish peasants launch the rebellion against French rule known as the Peasants’ War.

1822  Pedro I of Brazil is proclaimed the emperor.

1917  World War I: The First Battle of Passchendaele takes place resulting in the largest single-day loss of life in New Zealand history.

1944  World War II: The Axis occupation of Athens comes to an end.

1960  Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev pounds his shoe on a desk at the United Nations to protest a Philippine assertion.

1970  Vietnam War: Vietnamization continues as President Richard Nixon announces that the United States will withdraw 40,000 more troops before Christmas.

1971  The 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire begins.

1977  Hua Guofeng succeeds Mao Zedong as paramount leader of China.

1983  Japan’s former Prime Minister Tanaka Kakuei is found guilty of taking a $2 million bribe from the Lockheed Corporation, and is sentenced to four years in jail.

1984  The Provisional Irish Republican Army fail to assassinate Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her cabinet. The bomb kills five people and wounds 31.

1999  Pervez Musharraf takes power in Pakistan from Nawaz Sharif through a bloodless coup.

2002  Terrorists detonate bombs in two nightclubs in KutaBali, Indonesia, killing 202 and wounding over 300.


13 October

1307  Hundreds of the Knights Templar in France are arrested at dawn by King Philip the Fair, and later confess under torture to heresy.

1793  French Revolutionary Wars: Austro-Prussian victory over Republican France at the First Battle of Wissembourg.

1812  War of 1812: Sir Isaac Brock’s British and native forces repel an invasion of Canada by General Rensselaer‘s United States forces.

1821  The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire is publicly proclaimed.

1843  In New York City, B’nai B’rith, the oldest Jewish service organization in the world, is founded.

1881  First known conversation in modern Hebrew by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda and friends.

1915  First World War: The Battle of the Hohenzollern Redoubt marks the end of the Battle of Loos.

1917  The “Miracle of the Sun” is witnessed by an estimated 70,000 people in the Cova da Iria in Portugal.

1921  Soviet republics sign the Treaty of Kars to formalize the borders between Turkey and the South Caucasus states.

1943  World War II: Marshal Pietro Badoglio announces that Italy has officially declared war on Germany.

1990  Syrian forces attack free areas of Lebanon, removing General Michel Aoun from the presidential palace.

2016  The Maldives announces its decision to withdraw from the Commonwealth of Nations.


14 October

1322  Robert the Bruce of Scotland defeats King Edward II of England at the Battle of Old Byland, forcing Edward to accept Scotland’s independence

1758  Seven Years’ WarFrederick the Great suffers a rare defeat at the Battle of Hochkirch.

1805  War of the Third Coalition: A French corps defeats an Austrian attempt to escape encirclement at Ulm.

1806  War of the Fourth Coalition: Napoleon decisively defeats Prussia at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt.

1915  World War I: Bulgaria joins the Central Powers.

1920  Finland and Soviet Russia sign the Treaty of Tartu, exchanging some territories.

1933  Germany withdraws from the League of Nations and World Disarmament Conference.

1943  World War II: The Second Philippine Republic, a puppet state of Japan, is inaugurated with José P. Laurel as its president.

1952  Korean War: The Battle of Triangle Hill is the biggest and bloodiest battle of 1952.

1962  The Cuban Missile Crisis begins when an American reconnaissance aircraft takes photographs of Soviet ballistic missiles being installed in Cuba.

[1]      Cuban Missile Crisis:

[2]      Heroes in the Cuban Missile Crisis:

1981  Vice President Hosni Mubarak is elected as the President of Egypt, one week after the assassination of Anwar Sadat.

1982  U.S. President Ronald Reagan proclaims a War on Drugs.

[1]      Reagan’s War on Drugs:

[2]      War on Drugs in the Structural Racism:

2015  A suicide bomb attack in Pakistan kills at least seven people and injures 13 others.

2017  A massive truck bombing in Somalia kills 358 people and injures more than 400 others.


15 October

1529  The Siege of Vienna ends when Austria routs the invading Ottoman forces, ending its European expansion.

1582  Adoption of the Gregorian calendar begins, eventually leading to near-universal adoption.

1783  The Montgolfier brothers‘ hot air balloon makes the first human ascent, piloted by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier.

1793  Queen Marie Antoinette of France is tried and convicted of treason.

1815  Napoleon begins his exile on Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean.

1944  World War II: Germany replaces the Hungarian government after Hungary announces an armistice with the Soviet Union

1965  Vietnam War: A draft card is burned during an anti-war rally by the Catholic Worker Movement, resulting in the first arrest under a new law.

[1]      U.S. Conscription During the Vietnam War Era:

[2]      Protest Against the Vietnam War:

1979  A coup d’état in El Salvador overthrows President Carlos Humberto Romero and begins the 12 year-long Salvadoran Civil War

1987  A coup d’état in Burkina Faso overthrows and kills then President Thomas Sankara.

1991  The leaders of the Baltic StatesArnold Rüütel of EstoniaAnatolijs Gorbunovs of Latvia and Vytautas Landsbergis of Lithuania, signed the OSCE Final Act in Helsinki, Finland.

1994  The United States, under the Clinton administration, returns Haiti’s first democratically elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, to the island.

[1]      Clinton Administration and Haiti in 1994:

[2]      Haiti After 1994:

2016  One hundred and ninety-seven nations amend the Montreal Protocol to include a phase-out of hydrofluorocarbons.


Satoshi Ashikaga is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment. Having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, he prefers a peaceful and prudent life.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, constantly remind him of the invaluableness of peace.


This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 9 Oct 2023.

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