This Week in History

HISTORY, 13 Nov 2023

Satoshi Ashikaga - TRANSCEND Media Service

13-19 November 2023

Quote & Video of the Week:

There is never a humanitarian solution for a humanitarian crisis. The solutions for the humanitarian crisis are always political ones.

Antonio Guterres

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13 November

1914  Zaian War: Berber tribesmen inflict the heaviest defeat of French forces in Morocco at the Battle of El Herri.

[1]      Importance of the Zaian War in Modern History:

[2]      Morocco-France Relations:

1917  World War I: beginning of the First Battle of Monte Grappa (in Italy known as the “First Battle of the Piave”). The Austro-Hungarian Armed Forces, despite help from the German Alpenkorps and numerical superiority, will fail their offensive against the Italian Army now led by its new chief of staff Armando Diaz.

1947  The Soviet Union completes development of the AK-47, one of the first proper assault rifles.

[1]      AK-47:

[2]      AK-47: A world’s most used assault rifle in modern history:

1966  In response to Fatah raids against Israelis near the West Bank border, Israel launches an attack on the village of As-Samu.

1969  Vietnam WarAnti-war protesters in Washington, D.C. stage a symbolic March Against Death.

[1]      Vietnam War Protests:

[2]      Vietnam War:

1994  n a referendum, voters in Sweden decide to join the European Union.

1995  Mozambique becomes the first state to join the Commonwealth of Nations without having been part of the former British Empire.

2001  War on Terror: In the first such act since World War II, US President George W. Bush signs an executive order allowing military tribunals against foreigners suspected of connections to terrorist acts or planned acts on the United States.

2002  Iraq disarmament crisisIraq agrees to the terms of the UN Security Council Resolution 1441.

2013  Hawaii legalizes same-sex marriage.

2013  4 World Trade Center officially opens.

2015  Paris Attack by Islamic State, making it the deadliest attack in France since the Second World War.

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14 November

1941  World War II: German troops, aided by local auxiliaries, murder nine thousand residents of the Słonim Ghetto in a single day.

1960  Ruby Bridges becomes the first Black child to attend an all-White elementary school in Louisiana.

1960  Vietnam War: The Battle of Ia Drang begins: The first major engagement between regular American and North Vietnamese forces.

[1]      Timeline of America’s Vietnam War:

[2]      From Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, to Nixon:

[3]      The U.S. Eventually Abandons South Vietnam:

1967  The Congress of Colombia, in commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the death of Policarpa Salavarrieta, declares this day as “Day of the Colombian Woman”.

1967  American physicist Theodore Maiman is given a patent for his ruby laser systems, the world’s first laser.

1978  France conducts the Aphrodite nuclear test in the area of Mruroa, as 25th in the group of 29 1975–78 French nuclear tests.

1979   US President Jimmy Carter issues Executive Order 12170, freezing all Iranian assets in the United States in response to the hostage crisis.

1982  Lech Wałęsa, the leader of Poland’s outlawed Solidarity movement, is released after eleven months of internment near the Soviet border.

[1]      Solidarity Movement in Poland:

[2]      CIA and “Solidarity”:

[3]      Catholic Church and “Solidarity”:

1990  After German reunification, the Federal Republic of Germany and Poland sign a treaty confirming the Oder–Neisse line as the border between Germany and Poland.

1991  American and British authorities announce indictments against two Libyan intelligence officials in connection with the downing of the Pan Am Flight 103.

1991  Cambodian Prince Norodom Sihanouk returns to Phnom Penh after thirteen years in exile.

2001  War in Afghanistan: Afghan Northern Alliance fighters take over the capital Kabul.

[1]      From the 1980s to the War in Afghanistan (2001-2021):

[2]      From 9/11 To the War in Afghanistan:

[3]      Bush Administration, Enron, UNOCAL, Cheney and Halliburton:

[4]      War in Afghanistan, Oil, Gas and Minerals:

2008  The first G-20 economic summit opens in Washington, D.C.

2012  Israel launches a major military operation in the Gaza Strip in response to an escalation of rocket attacks by Hamas.

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15 November

1889  Brazil is declared a republic by Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca as Emperor Pedro II is deposed in a military coup.

[Proclamation of the Republic (Brazil)]

1917  Eduskunta declares itself the supreme state power of Finland, prompting its declaration of independence and secession from Russia.

1920  The first assembly of the League of Nations is held in GenevaSwitzerland.

[1]      League of Nations and Its Failure:

[2]      From the League of Nations to the United Nations:

1920  The Free City of Danzig is established.

1943  The Holocaust: German SS leader Heinrich Himmler orders that Gypsies are to be put “on the same level as Jews and placed in concentration camps

[1]      Romani Holocaust:

[2]      Romanis and Jews, in Holocaust:

[3]      Timeline and Data of the Holocaust:

1969  Vietnam War: In Washington, D.C., 250,000-500,000 protesters staged a peaceful demonstration against the war, including a symbolic “March Against Death”.

[1]      The US Anti-Vietnam War Movement (1964-1973):

[2]      Outline and Timeline of the Vietnam War:

1983  Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus declares independence; it is only recognized by Turkey.

1985  The Anglo-Irish Agreement is signed at Hillsborough Castle by British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Irish Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald.

1987  In BrașovRomaniaworkers rebel against the communist regime of Nicolae Ceaușescu.

1988  Israeli–Palestinian conflict: An independent State of Palestine is proclaimed by the Palestinian National Council.

[1]      History of the State of Palestine:

[2]      From the Balfour Declaration, to Nakba and to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict:

1990  The Communist People’s Republic of Bulgaria is disestablished and a new republican government is instituted.

2022  The world population reached 8 billion.

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16 November

1828  Greek War of Independence: The London Protocol entails the creation of an autonomous Greek state under Ottoman suzerainty.

1907  Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory join to form Oklahoma, which is admitted as the 46th U.S. state.

1914  The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States officially opens.

[1]      History of the Federal Reserve Bank and System:

[2]      Problems, Secrets and Ownership of the Federal Reserve:

1933  The United States and the Soviet Union establish formal diplomatic relations.

1940  The Holocaust: In occupied Poland, the Nazis close off the Warsaw Ghetto from the outside world.

1945   UNESCO is founded.

[UNESCO: History, Mandate and Problems]

———————-

17 November

1831  Ecuador and Venezuela are separated from Gran Colombia.

1869  In Egypt, the Suez Canal, linking the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea, is inaugurated.

1885  Serbo-Bulgarian War: The decisive Battle of Slivnitsa begins.

1903  The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party splits into two groups: The Bolsheviks (Russian for “majority”) and Mensheviks (Russian for “minority”).

1947  American scientists John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain observe the basic principles of the transistor, a key element for the electronics revolution of the 20th century.

1950  Lhamo Dondrub is officially named the 14th Dalai Lama.

[14th Dalai Lama]

1950  United Nations Security Council Resolution 89 relating to the Palestine Question is adopted.

1969  Cold War: Negotiators from the Soviet Union and the United States meet in Helsinki, Finland to begin SALT I negotiations aimed at limiting the number of strategic weapons on both sides.

1970  Vietnam War: Lieutenant William Calley goes on trial for the My Lai Massacre.

[1]      My Lai Massacre:

[2]      My Lai Courts Martial:

1973  The Athens Polytechnic uprising against the military regime ends in a bloodshed in the Greek capital.

1983  The Zapatista Army of National Liberation is founded in Mexico.

1993  United States House of Representatives passes a resolution to establish the North American Free Trade Agreement.

1993   In Nigeria, General Sani Abacha ousts the government of Ernest Shonekan in a military coup.

———————-

18 November

1872  Susan B. Anthony and 14 other women are arrested for voting illegally in the United States presidential election of 1872.

[1]      Women’s Suffrage in the United States:

[2]      Women’s Suffrage in the World:

1901  Britain and the United States sign the Hay–Pauncefote Treaty, which nullifies the Clayton–Bulwer Treaty and withdraws British objections to an American-controlled canal in Panama.

1903  The Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty is signed by the United States and Panama, giving the United States exclusive rights over the Panama Canal Zone.

1918  Latvia declares its independence from Russia.

1961  United States President John F. Kennedy sends 18,000 military advisors to South Vietnam.

1970  U.S. President Richard Nixon asks the U.S. Congress for $155 million in supplemental aid for the Cambodian government.

1991  After an 87-day siege, the Croatian city of Vukovar capitulates to the besieging Yugoslav People’s Army and allied Serb paramilitary forces.

1991  The autonomous Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia, which would in 1993 become a republic, was established in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

1993  In the United States, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is approved by the House of Representatives.

2002  Iraq disarmament crisisUnited Nations weapons inspectors led by Hans Blix arrive in Iraq.

———————-

19 November

1912  First Balkan War: The Serbian Army captures Bitola, ending the five-century-long Ottoman rule of Macedonia.

1943  Holocaust: Nazis liquidate Janowska concentration camp in Lemberg (Lviv), western Ukraine, murdering at least 6,000 Jews after a failed uprising and mass escape attempt.

[1]      Holocaust in Ukraine:

[2]      Janowska Concentration Camp:

1946  AfghanistanIceland and Sweden join the United Nations.

1950  US General Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes Supreme Commander of NATO-Europe.

1979  Iran hostage crisisIranian leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini orders the release of 13 female and black American hostages being held at the US Embassy in Tehran.

1985  Cold War: In Geneva, U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Union General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev meet for the first time.

1988  Serbian communist representative and future Serbian and Yugoslav president Slobodan Milošević publicly declares that Serbia is under attack from Albanian separatists in Kosovo.

[1]      Kosovo in the 1980s and 1990s:

[2]      U.S. Media and the Ignored Facts About Kosovo:

[3]      Kosovo/Yugoslavia, the U.S. (CIA) and the Britain (MI6):

[4]      The U.S.-led NATO in Kosovo:

[5]     Natural resources of Kosovo:

[6]      Personal Advantages and the Kosovo War:

__________________________________________________

Satoshi Ashikaga is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment. Having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, he prefers a peaceful and prudent life.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, constantly remind him of the invaluableness of peace.


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This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 13 Nov 2023.

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