This Week in History
HISTORY, 22 Jun 2015
QUOTE OF THE WEEK:
“I love those who can smile in trouble, who can gather strength from distress, and grow brave by reflection. ‘Tis the business of little minds to shrink, but they whose heart is firm, and whose conscience approves their conduct, will pursue their principles unto death.” – Lonardo da Vinci
2006 Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture (aka OPCAT) enters into force. See also the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, (signed on December 10, 1984; in force on June 26, 1987).
- Full text of the Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture
- OPCAT: Opening up places for detention – Association for the Prevention of Torture
1990 – Nelson Mandela addresses the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid in New York.
- Speech by Mandela at a special meeting of the UN Special Committee against Apartheid, on June 22, 1990
- Nelson Mandela Gathers Support to Abolish Apartheid
1969 The Cuyahoga River catches fire in Cleveland, Ohio, drawing national attention to water pollution, and spurring the passing of the Clean Water Act and the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency.
1945 The Battle of Okinawa comes to an end.
- History of Ryukyu Islands
- History of Okinawa
- A Brief History of Okinawa
- Battle of Okinawa – History.com
- World War II: Battle of Okinawa
- Battle of Okinawa by Laura Lacey
- Battle of Okinawa by Ted Tsukiyama
1942 Pledge of Allegiance formally adopted by Congress
1941 The June Uprising in Lithuania begins.
1972 Watergate Scandal: U.S. President Richard M. Nixon and White House Chief of Staff H. R. Haldeman are taped talking about using the Central Intelligence Agency to obstruct the Federal Bureau of Investigation‘s investigation into the Watergate break-ins.
1969 Software Industry IBM announced that effective January 1970 it would price its software and services separately from hardware thus creating the modern software industry.
1961 Cold War: the Antarctic Treaty, which sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve and bans military activity on the continent, comes into force after the opening date for signature set for the December 1, 1959.
1960 SOFA (Status of Force Agreement between the United States and Japan) comes into effect.
- Full text of SOFA (formally, the “Agreement under Article VI of the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between Japan and the United States of America, Regarding Facilities and Areas and the Status of United States Armed Forces in Japan”)
- Extraterritoriality – Wikipedia
- Extraterritorial jurisdiction – Wikipedia
- SOFA: a source of sovereign conflicts – Weak jurisdiction over U.S. – linked crimes, crash sites driving Japan’s call for revisions – Japan Times July 31, 2012
- Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan – Wikipedia
1958 The Dutch Reformed Church accepts women ministers.
1956 The French National Assembly takes the first step in creating the French Community by passing the Loi Cadre, transferring a number of powers from Paris to elected territorial governments in French West Africa.
1941 The Lithuanian Activist Front declares independence from the Soviet Union and forms the Provisional Government of Lithuania; it lasts only briefly as the Nazis will occupy Lithuania a few weeks later.
2004 In New York, capital punishment is declared unconstitutional.
1973 The UpStairs Lounge arson attack takes place at a gay bar located on the second floor of the three-story building at 141 Chartres Street in the French Quarter of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Thirty-two people die as a result of fire or smoke inhalation.
1963 The United Kingdom grants Zanzibar internal self-government.
1947 American Anthropological Association issues a statement on human rights: “The problem faced by the Commission of Human Rights of the United Nations in preparing its Declaration of the Rights of Man must be approached from two points of view…”
- Also see the American Anthropological Association’s statement on human race, on May 17, 1998: “…’Race’ thus evolved as a worldview, a body of prejudgments that distorts our ideas about human differences and group behavior. Racial beliefs constitute myths about the diversity in the human species and about the abilities and behavior of people homogenized into ‘racial’ categories. The myths fused behavior and physical features together in the public mind, impeding our comprehension of both biological variations and cultural behavior, implying that both are genetically determined. Racial myths bear no relationship to the reality of human capabilities or behavior…”
- NASA: Largest meteor more than 100 years
- Meteor Showers and Shooting Stars: Formation, Facts and Discovery
- Meteor Crater in Northern Arizona
1931 USSR & Afghanistan sign neutrality treaty.
- German-Soviet Neutrality and Nonagression Pact of April 1926 (aka Treaty of Berlin of 1926)
- Full text of the Treaty of Nonaggression Between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
1762 Battle of Wilhelmsthal: The British-Hanoverian army of Ferdinand of Brunswick defeats French forces in Westphalia.
1531 The city of San Juan del Río, Mexico, is founded.
The Beginning of the Breakup of Yugoslavia:
- The Collapse of Yugoslavia 1991 -1999 (Essential Histories Series)
- The Violent Breakup of Yugoslavia – HistoryOrb.com
- The Last Ambassador: The Memoir of the Collapse of Yugoslavia, by Warren Zimmermann – Foreign Affairs
- Case Studies: The Collapse of Yugoslavia – Making the History of 1989
Independence of Slovenia and the Ten-Day War:
Independence of Croatia:
Ethnic Minority Issues of Croatia and Slovenia:
- Serbs of Croatia
- Republic of Serbian Krajina
- “Croatian” Serbs (Krajina Serbs)
- Krajina Serbs – Srpska Mreza
- There Must Be Justice – The Last Genocide of Krajina Serbs: Operation STORM, joint Croatian and USA criminal enterprise
- Report on the Conditions of Serbs in Croatia by Alice Mahon
- 1995 Human Rights Report: Croatia by U.S. Department of State
- 9 November 1995 – Security Council Condemns Continued Grave Human Rights Violations in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia – United Nations
- Slovenia Human Rights Practices, 1993 – U.S. Department of State
- Slovenia Human Rights Practices, 1995 – U.S. Department of State
- Slovenia Human Rights: The “Erased”
1976 Missouri Governor Kit Bond issues an executive order rescinding the Extermination Order, formally apologizing on behalf of the state of Missouri for the suffering it had caused to the members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.
1975 Mozambique achieves independence.
1967 Broadcasting of the first live global satellite television program: Our World
- NSA Defectors Martin and Mitchell
- Cold War Internal Security Collection (CWIS)
- NSA Secrets Revealed 1960
- Korean War: Facts and Summary – History.com
- The Korean War – Overview and Facts
- Korean War: 1950 – 1953 – Britannica
- The Korean War – The United States Army
- The Korean War – pbs.org
- Korean War – World History International
1947 The Diary of a Young Girl (better known as The Diary of Anne Frank) is published.
- The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank – readanybook.com
- The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank – onread.com
- The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank – publicdomain-books.blogspot.com
- A Young Girl’s Diary – fullbooks.com
1940 World War II: France officially surrenders to Germany at 01:35.
1910 The United States Congress passes the Mann Act, which prohibits interstate transport of females for “immoral purposes”; the ambiguous language would be used to selectively prosecute people for years to come.
2007 Benedict XVI reinstates the traditional laws of papal election in which a successful candidate must receive 2/3 of the votes.
1987 Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (aka UN Convention Against Torture or CAT) enters into force. See also the Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture (adopted on December 18, 2002; in force on June 22, 2006).
- Full text:
- UN Committee Against Torture
- How to Apply for Apply for Convention Against Torture Protection – NOLO
- The Convention Against Torture: Extraterritorial Application and Application to Military Operations – Lawfare
- FAQ – Convention Against Torture
- Real Men Don’t Torture – GeorgeWashington2.BlogSpot.com
- Torture REDUCES National Security – WashingtonsBlog.com
- ISIS Is Run By Former Iraqi Generals … Many Are Members Of Saddam Hussein’s Secular Baath Party Who Converted To Radical Islam In American Prisons – InvestmentWatchBlog.com
- FBI interrogator: Torture doesn’t work, breeds jihad –BoingBoing.net
1963 Levi Eshkol becomes the Israeli Prime Minister.
1963 U.S. President John F. Kennedy gave his “Ich bin ein Berliner” speech, underlining the support of the United States for democratic West Germany shortly after Soviet-supported East Germany erected the Berlin Wall.
1960 Madagascar gains its independence from France.
- Berlin airlift – history.com
- The Berlin Airlift 1948 – 1949 – U.S. Department of State Office of Historian
- The Berlin Airlift – Spiritoffreedom.com
- Berlin blockade and airlift: Europe [1948 – 1949] – Encyclopedia Britannica
- Berlin Airlift – United States American History
- Truman Library: The Berlin Airlift Online Research
- Berlin Blockade – History.com
1945 The United Nations Charter is signed in San Francisco.
- The Charter of the United Nations and the Covenant of the League of Nations
History of the United Nations:
- The Formation of the United Nations: 1937 – 1945 – U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian
- On the Origins of the United Nations: When and How Did it Begin? by Klaas Dykmann, Roskilde University
- History of the United Nations Charter
- United Nations History – infoplease.com
Atlantic Charter of 1941:
- Atlantic Charter, August 14, 1941
- Atlantic Charter – Totallyhistory.com
- Atlantic Charter – Wikipedia
- Milestones: 1937 – 1945: Atlantic Conference and Charter, 1941
- Atlantic Charter – History.com
Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta:
- Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta – History of the United Nations
- Dumbarton Oaks Conference – Wikipedia
- Dumbarton Oaks Conference – Encyclopedia Britannica
- Dumbarton Oaks – Wikipedia
- Yalta Conference – Wikipedia
- Yalta Conference – History.com
- Yalta Conference World War II – Encyclopedia Britannica
- Milestones 1937 – 1945: Yalta Conference – U.S. Department of State, Office of Historian
- World War II: Yalta Conference
- Yalta Conference – infoplease.com
- Yalta Conference – United States History
- The Yalta Conference, February 1945
San Francisco Conference: April 26 – June 26, 1945:
- The Making of the United Nations – the San Francisco Conference – Encyclopedia of Nations
- San Francisco 1945 – UN Web TV
- 1945 United Nations Conference on International Organsation UNICIO held in San Francisco from 25 April to 26 June
- San Francisco Conference – Encyclopedia Britannica
- UN 1945 Conference – Category Archives
- San Francisco Conference – History of the United Nations
- The San Francisco Conference 1945 – muntr.org
- Harry S. Truman’s speech in San Francisco at the Closing Session of the United Nations on 26 June 1945
1924 American occupying forces leave the Dominican Republic.
- Occupation by the United States 1916 – 24
- United States occupation of the Dominican Republic (1916 -24)
- The US Occupation of the Dominican Republic (1916 – 24)
- The Era of Trujillo
1848 End of the June Days Uprising in Paris.
2008 In a highly scrutizined election President of Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe is re-elected in a landslide after his opponent Morgan Tsvangirai had withdrawn a week earlier, citing violence against his party‘s supporters.
- The Ten-Day War
- Slovenia, Croatia Declare Freedom From Yugoslavia : Balkans Federal Parliament reacts angrily and orders the army to ‘prevent the division’ of the nation. – Los Angels Times 26 June 1991
- Slovenian War of Independence – The Ten-Day War
- Slovenian War of Independence 1991
- The Breakup of Yugoslavia 1990 – 1992 – U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian
- The Independent State – Slovenia.si
- The Former Yugoslavia – Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo and Bosnia, by Matt Rosenberg
- Slovenia profile – Timeline – BBC News
1981 African Charter on Human and People’s Rights (in force on 21 October 1986) is adopted.
Also see the following Protocols to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights:
- Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (aka Maputo Protocol), signed on 11 July 2003; in force on 25 November 2005.
- Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Establishment of the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights, into force on 25 January 2004.
- Protocol on the Statute of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights
- Official website of the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights
- Challenges and Prospects of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights, by Ogwezzy Michael C. (Ph.D)
1981 The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China issues its “Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People’s Republic of China”, laying the blame for the Cultural Revolution on Mao Zedong.
- Nixon Visits the Soviet Union – This Day in 1974
- Brezhnev Tried to Life Nixon’s Spirits
- President’s Personal File – Nixon Presidential Library
- Richard Nixon – Military Wikia
- Nixon and the Cold War
- Protests for Soviet Jews Mount on Eve of Nixon Moscow Visit
1952 Guatemala passes Decree 900, ordering the redistribution of uncultivated land.
- Truman orders U.S. forces to Korea.
- Truman orders U.S. forces to repel North Korean invasion June 27, 1950
- June 27, 1950 ǀ Truman Orders U.S. Forces to Fight in Korean War
- 27th June 1950 – The US enters the Korean War – This Day Then
- Korean War Phase 1: June 27 – 15 September 1950
- The Korean War – Week of Decision: June 27, 1950 – Truman Library
- Korean War – Wikipedia
- 62 Interesting Facts About the Korean War
- UN Security Council Resolution 83 (1950) of 27 June 1950 (S/RES/83)
1927 Prime Minister of Japan Tanaka Giichi leads a conference to discuss Japan‘s plans for China; later, a document detailing these plans, the “Tanaka Memorial” is leaked, although it is now considered a forgery.
1905 Battleship Potemkin uprising: sailors start a mutiny aboard the battleship Potemkin, denouncing the crimes of autocracy, demanding liberty and an end to war.
1743 War of the Austrian Succession: Battle of Dettingen: On the battlefield in Bavaria, George II personally leads troops into battle. The last time that a British monarch would command troops in the field.
2009 Honduran president Manuel Zelaya is ousted by a local military coup following a failed request to hold a referendum to rewrite the Honduran Constitution. This was the start of the 2009 Honduran political crisis.
- Slobodan Milošević’s case – ICTY website
- Milosevic Trial: Order Concerning the Preparation and Presentation of the Defence Case
- Slobodan Milošević Trial Public Archive
- The Trial of Slobodan Milošević
- ICTY: Milošević Trial Exposed Belgrade’s Role in Wars – hrw.org
- Constitutional Law on the Rights of National Minorities of the Republic of Croatia – Wikipedia
- Croatian Constitutional Law on the Rights of National Minorities by Antonija Petričušić
- Constitutional Law on the Rights of National Minorities of Croatia – U.S. English Foundation Research
- Croatia – Legislation – U.S. English Foundation Research
- World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Croatia: Overview – Refworld
- Report submitted by Croatia pursuant to Article 25, Paragraph 1 of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, revised on March 1999 – ACFC/SR(1999)005
- Wind of Change: The Croatian Government’s Turn towards a Policy of Ethnic Reconciliation, European Diversity and Autonomy Papers, EDAP 6/2004, by Antonja Petričušić
Milošević’s Gazimestan speech:
- Slobodan Milošević’s Gazimestan speech at Kosovo Polje in 1989, in English translation, translated by BBC
- Speech by Slobodan Milosevic, delivered to 1 million people at the central celebration marking the 600th anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo, held at Gazimestan on 28 June, 1989. Compiled by the National Technical Information Service of the Department of Commerce of the U.S.
- YouTube video: Slobodan Milišević’s Gazimestan speech with the English subtitle: His speech begins from 3 min. 18 sec. of this video.
- Gazimestan speech – Wikipedia
Why Is Kosovo Important to Serbs?
- What is Vidovdan, and why is it so important to Serbs?
- Why Kosovo so important for Serbs?
- Why is Kosovo important for Serbs more than Serbia?
History of Kosovo and Kosovo Serbs:
- History of Kosovo – Wikipedia
- Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo: An Abbreviated History, by G. Richard Jansen
- Serbian and Albanian Contrasting History
- History of Kosovo up to 1918
- Kosovo History – Infoplease.com
- Kosovo’s Conflict – Historytoday.com
- Between Serb and Albanian – A History of Kosovo, by Miranda Vickers
- Kosovo Conflict 1998 – 1999 – Encyclopedia Britannica
- Best-Selling Kosovo History Upsets Albanians and Serbs (19 June 2012) – Balkaninsight.com
- June 28, 1987: First Use of Chemical Weapons Against Civilians
- Chemical Weapons – Iran
- Chemical Weapon – Military Wiki
- The Chemical Victims of Iran: the forgotten casualties of the Iran-Iraq war
Chemical Weapon Convention:
- Chemical Weapon Convention – Wikipedia
- Chemical Weapon Convention full text – Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
- Chemical Weapon Convention Signatories and State-Parties – Arms Control Association
- Non-State Members to the Chemical Weapon Convention – Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
- Chemicals – United Nations Environmental Programme
- East Jerusalem – Wikipedia
- Background of East Jerusalem – Bitselem.org
- Six-Day War – Wikipedia
- Pertinent articles on East Jerusalem – HAARETZ
1950 Korean War: Suspected communist sympathizers, argued to be between 100,000 and 200,000 are executed in the Bodo League massacre.
1948 The Cominform circulates the “Resolution on the situation in the Communist Party of Yugoslavia”; Yugoslavia is expelled from the Communist bloc.
- Yugoslavia expelled from COMINFORM June 28, 1948 – History.com
- Why Yugoslavia was Expelled from the Cominform – The Espresso Stalinist
- Cominform – Infoplease.com
- Tito-Stalin Split – Wikipedia
- Tito and Yugoslavia – Johndclare.net
- Yugoslavia was expelled from Cominform because it wanted to a. remain democratic. c. join the UN. b. resist Soviet domination. d. accept Marshall Plan aid. – Weegy.com
1936 The Japanese puppet state of Mengjiang is formed in northern China.
King Alexander I:
- HM King Alexander I – The Royal Family of Serbia
- Alexander I King of Yugoslavia – Encyclopedia Britannica
- Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes is founded 1919
- Creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, 1914 – 1918, by Vladislav B. Sotirović
- The Legacy of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia, the Unifier, by Slobodan G. Markovich
- Who’s Who: King Alexander I – The First World War.com
1919 The Treaty of Versailles is signed ending World War I.
- Sarajevo, June 28, 1914
- Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated – This Day in History – History.com
- June 28, 1914, Two Gunshots, One World War
- 28-Jun-1914 – Assassination in Sarajevo
1881 Secret treaty between Austria and Serbia. “June 28, 1881, a secret treaty between Austria-Hungary and Serbia is signed with Serbia earning the right to be recognized as a monarchy in exchange of surrendering its independence to the Habsburg Empire.”
1389 The Ottoman Empire defeated the Serbian army in the Battle of Kosovo on the Kosovo field. Both Sultan Murad and Prince Lazar were slain in battle. The Kosovo Myth became important in forming Serbian identity.
Satoshi Ashikaga is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment.
(Sources and references: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_22 to 28; http://www.historyorb.com/events/june/22 to 28; http://www.brainyhistory.com/days/june_22.html to 28.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)
- The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
- One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace” through peace journalism.
This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 22 Jun 2015.
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