This Week in History

HISTORY, 20 Jul 2015

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

July 20-26


“Progress is impossible without change, and those who cannot change their minds cannot change anything.” – George Bernard Shaw


2014  The Israeli Defence Forces enter Shuja’iyya, a populous neighbourhood of Gaza City, as part of their ground offensive focused on destroying tunnels crossing the Israel border.

1999  The Chinese Communist Party begins a persecution campaign against Falun Gong, arresting thousands nationwide.

1992  Václav Havel resigns as president of Czechoslovakia.

1989  Burma‘s ruling junta puts opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest.

1985  The government of Aruba passes legislation to secede from the Netherlands Antilles.

1983  France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island.

1982  Hyde Park and Regents Park bombings: The Provisional IRA detonates two bombs in Hyde Park and Regent’s Park in central London, killing eight soldiers, wounding forty-seven people, and leading to the deaths of seven horses.

1977  The Central Intelligence Agency releases documents under the Freedom of Information Act revealing it had engaged in mind control experiments.

1976  The American Viking 1 lander successfully lands on Mars.

1976  Vietnam War: The US military completes its troop withdrawal from Thailand.

1974  Turkish occupation of Cyprus: Forces from Turkey invade Cyprus after a coup d’état, organized by the dictator of Greece, against president Makarios.

1972  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1969  A cease fire is announced between Honduras and El Salvador, six days after the beginning of the “Football War“.

1969  Apollo program: Apollo 11‘s crew successfully makes the first landing on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first humans to walk on the Moon later that day (Eastern Time Zone).

1964  Vietnam War: Viet Cong forces attack the capital of Dinh Tuong Province, Cai Be, killing 11 South Vietnamese military personnel and 40 civilians (30 of which are children).

1961  French military forces break the Tunisian siege of Bizerte.

1960  The Polaris missile is successfully launched from a submarine, the USS George Washington, for the first time.

1960  Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) elects Sirimavo Bandaranaike Prime Minister, the world’s first elected female head of government.

1956  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Bikini Island.

1954  Germany: Otto John, head of West Germany‘s secret service, defects to East Germany.

1951  King Abdullah I of Jordan is assassinated by a Palestinian while attending Friday prayers in Jerusalem.

1950  Cold War: In Philadelphia, Harry Gold pleads guilty to spying for the Soviet Union by passing secrets from atomic scientist Klaus Fuchs.

1949  Israel and Syria sign a truce to end their nineteen-month war.

1944  World War II: Adolf Hitler survives an assassination attempt led by German Army Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg.

1941  Soviet leader Joseph Stalin consolidates the Commissariats of Home Affairs and National Security to form the NKVD and names Lavrenti Beria its chief.

1940  Denmark leaves the League of Nations.

1938  The United States Department of Justice files suit in New York, New York against the motion picture industry charging violations of the Sherman Antitrust Act in regards to the studio system. The case would eventually result in a break-up of the industry in 1948.

1936  The Montreux Convention is signed in Switzerland, authorizing Turkey to fortify the Dardanelles and Bosphorus but guaranteeing free passage to ships of all nations in peacetime.

1922  The League of Nations awards mandates of Togoland to France and Tanganyika to the United Kingdom.

1917  World War I: The Corfu Declaration, which leads to the creation of the post-war Kingdom of Yugoslavia, is signed by the Yugoslav Committee and Kingdom of Serbia.

1866  Austro-Prussian War: Battle of Lissa – The Austrian Navy , led by Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff, defeats the Italian Navy near the island of Vis in the Adriatic Sea.




 2008  Ram Baran Yadav is declared the first president of Nepal.

1995  Third Taiwan Strait Crisis: The People’s Liberation Army begins firing missiles into the waters north of Taiwan.

1984  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

1983  The world’s lowest temperature in an inhabited location is recorded at Vostok Station, Antarctica at −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F).

1977  The start of the four-day-long Libyan–Egyptian War.

1976  Christopher Ewart-Biggs, the British ambassador to the Republic of Ireland, is assassinated by the Provisional IRA.

1973  In the Lillehammer affair in Norway, Israeli Mossad agents kill a waiter whom they mistakenly thought was involved in the 1972 Munich Olympics Massacre.

1972  The Troubles: Bloody Friday – the Provisional IRA detonate 22 bombs in central Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom in the space of 80 minutes, killing nine and injuring 130.

1971  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1970  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1970  After 11 years of construction, the Aswan High Dam in Egypt is completed.

1966  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1961  Mercury program: Mercury-Redstone 4 Mission – Gus Grissom piloting Liberty Bell 7 becomes the second American to go into space (in a suborbital mission).

1959  Elijah Jerry “Pumpsie” Green becomes the first African-American to play for the Boston Red Sox, the last team to integrate. He came in as a pinch runner for Vic Wertz and stayed in as shortstop in a 2–1 loss to the Chicago White Sox.

1959  NS Savannah, the first nuclear-powered cargo-passenger ship, is launched as a showcase for Dwight D. Eisenhower‘s “Atoms for Peace” initiative.

1956  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Enwetak.

1954  First Indochina War: The Geneva Conference partitions Vietnam into North Vietnam and South Vietnam.

1949  The United States Senate ratifies the North Atlantic Treaty.

1944  World War II: Claus von Stauffenberg and fellow conspirators are executed in Berlin, Germany for the July 20 plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler.

1944  World War II: Battle of Guam – American troops land on Guam starting the battle. It would end on August 10.

1925  Scopes Trial: In Dayton, Tennessee, high school biology teacher John T. Scopes is found guilty of teaching evolution in class and fined $100.

1914  The Crown council of Romania decides for the country to remain neutral in World War I.

1774  Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774): Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca ending the war.

1718  The Treaty of Passarowitz between the Ottoman Empire, Austria and the Republic of Venice is signed.




2011  Norway is the victim of twin terror attacks, the first being a bomb blast which targeted government buildings in central Oslo, the second being a massacre at a youth camp on the island of Utøya.

2005  Jean Charles de Menezes is killed by police as the hunt begins for the London Bombers responsible for the 7 July 2005 London bombings and the 21 July 2005 London bombings.

2003  Members of 101st Airborne of the United States, aided by Special Forces, attack a compound in Iraq, killing Saddam Hussein‘s sons Uday and Qusay, along with Mustapha Hussein, Qusay’s 14-year-old son, and a bodyguard.

1992  Near Medellín, Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar escapes from his luxury prison fearing extradition to the United States.

1983  Martial law in Poland is officially revoked.

1977  Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping is restored to power.

1976  Japan completes its last reparation to the Philippines for war crimes committed during the imperial Japan‘s conquest of the country in the Second World War.

1963  Sarawak achieve independence.

1958  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Bikini Island.

1946  King David Hotel bombing: A Zionist underground organisation, the Irgun, bombs the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, site of the civil administration and military headquarters for Mandate Palestine, resulting in 91 deaths.

1944  The Polish Committee of National Liberation publishes its manifesto, starting the period of Communist rule in Poland

1943  World War II: Allied forces capture the Italian city of Palermo.

1942  Holocaust: The systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto begins.

1942  The United States government begins compulsory civilian gasoline rationing due to the wartime demands.

1937  New Deal: The United States Senate votes down President Franklin D. Roosevelt‘s proposal to add more justices to the Supreme Court of the United States.

1812  Napoleonic Wars: Peninsular WarBattle of SalamancaBritish forces led by Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington) defeat French troops near Salamanca, Spain.

1805  Napoleonic Wars: War of the Third CoalitionBattle of Cape Finisterre – An inconclusive naval action is fought between a combined French and Spanish fleet under Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve of Spain and a British fleet under Admiral Robert Calder.

1797  Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Battle between Spanish and British naval forces during the French Revolutionary Wars. During the Battle, Rear-Admiral Nelson is wounded in the arm and the arm had to be partially amputated.




1999  Mohammed VI becomes King of Morocco.

1997  Digital Equipment Corporation files antitrust charges against chipmaker Intel.

1995  Comet Hale–Bopp is discovered; it becomes visible to the naked eye on Earth nearly a year later.

1993  Agdam was occupied by Armenian separatists.

1992  Abkhazia declares independence from Georgia.

1992  A Vatican commission, led by Joseph Ratzinger, establishes that limiting certain rights of homosexual people and non-married couples is not equivalent to discrimination on grounds of race or gender.

1988  General Ne Win, effective ruler of Burma since 1962, resigns after pro-democracy protests.

1983  13 Sri Lanka Army soldiers are killed after a deadly ambush by the militant Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.

1982  The International Whaling Commission decides to end commercial whaling by 1985-86.

1976  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1976  France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island.

1974  The Greek military junta collapses, and former Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis is invited to lead the new government, beginning Greece’s metapolitefsi era.

1973  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1970  Qaboos bin Said al Said becomes Sultan of Oman after overthrowing his father, Said bin Taimur initiating massive reforms, modernization programs and end to a decade long civil war.

1969  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1968  The only successful hijacking of an El Al aircraft takes place when a Boeing 707 carrying ten crew and 38 passengers is taken over by three members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. The aircraft was en route from Rome, Italy, to Lod, Israel.

1967  12th Street Riot: In Detroit, Michigan, one of the worst riots in United States history begins on 12th Street in the predominantly African American inner city. It ultimately kills 43 people, injures 342 and burns about 1,400 buildings.

1962  The International Agreement on the Neutrality of Laos is signed.

1962  Telstar relays the first publicly transmitted, live trans-Atlantic television program, featuring Walter Cronkite.

1961  The Sandinista National Liberation Front is founded in Nicaragua.

1952  General Muhammad Naguib leads the Free Officers Movement (formed by Gamal Abdel Nasser, the real power behind the coup) in overthrowing King Farouk of Egypt.

1952  The European Coal and Steel Community is established.

1945  The post-war legal processes against Philippe Pétain begin.

1944  US forces invade Japanese-held Tinian in WW II.

1944  US troops occupy Pisa Italy.

1943  World War II: The British destroyers HMS Eclipse and HMS Laforey sink the Italian submarine Ascianghi in the Mediterranean after she torpedoes the cruiser HMS Newfoundland.

1942  Bulgarian poet and Communist leader Nikola Vaptsarov is executed by firing squad.

1942  World War II: The German offensives Operation Edelweiss and Operation Braunschweig begin.

1942  The Holocaust: The Treblinka extermination camp is opened.

1940  The United States’ Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles issues a declaration on the US non-recognition policy of the Soviet annexation and incorporation of three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

1936  In Catalonia, Spain, the Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia is founded through the merger of Socialist and Communist parties.

1929  The Fascist government in Italy bans the use of foreign words.

1914  Austria-Hungary issues a series of demands in an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia demanding Serbia to allow the Austrians to determine who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Serbia accepts all but one of those demands and Austria declares war on July 28.

1908  The Second Constitution accepted by the Ottomans.

1881  The Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina is signed in Buenos Aires.

1833  Cornerstones are laid for the construction of the Kirtland Temple in Kirtland, Ohio.

1829  In the United States, William Austin Burt patents the typographer, a precursor to the typewriter.

1821  While the Mora Rebellion continues, Greeks capture Monemvasia Castle. Turkish troops and citizens are transferred to Minor Asia coasts.

1793  Kingdom of Prussia re-conquers Mainz from France.




2001  Bandaranaike Airport attack is carried out by 14 Tamil Tiger commandos, all died in this attack. They destroyed 11 Aircraft (mostly military) and damaged 15, there are no civilian casualties. This incident slowed down Sri Lankan economy.

2001  Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the last Tsar of Bulgaria when he was a child, is sworn in as Prime Minister of Bulgaria, becoming the first monarch in history to regain political power through democratic election to a different office.

1991  Manmohan Singh presents his budget speech to the Indian Parliament which led to economic liberalisation in India

1990  Iraqi forces start massing on the KuwaitIraq border.

1983  The Black July anti-Tamil riots begin in Sri Lanka, killing between 400 and 3,000. Black July is generally regarded as the beginning of the Sri Lankan Civil War.

1977  End of a four day long Libyan–Egyptian War.

1974  Watergate scandal: The United States Supreme Court unanimously ruled that President Richard Nixon did not have the authority to withhold subpoenaed White House tapes and they order him to surrender the tapes to the Watergate special prosecutor.

1972  Bugojno group is caught by Yugoslav security forces.

1969  Apollo program: Apollo 11 splashes down safely in the Pacific Ocean.

1967  During an official state visit to Canada, French President Charles de Gaulle declares to a crowd of over 100,000 in Montreal: Vive le Québec libre! (“Long live free Quebec!”). The statement, interpreted as support for Quebec independence, delighted many Quebecers but angered the Canadian government and many English Canadians.

1959  At the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow, U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev have a “Kitchen Debate“.

1950  Cape Canaveral Air Force Station begins operations with the launch of a Bumper rocket.

1943  World War II: Operation Gomorrah begins: British and Canadian aeroplanes bomb Hamburg by night, and American planes by day. By the end of the operation in November, 9,000 tons of explosives will have killed more than 30,000 people and destroyed 280,000 buildings.

1938  First ascent of the Eiger north face.

1929  The Kellogg–Briand Pact, a.k.a. the Pact of Paris, renouncing war as an instrument of foreign policy, goes into effect (it is first signed in Paris on August 27, 1928 by most leading world powers).

1924  Archeologist Themistoklis Sofoulis becomes Prime Minister of Greece.

1923  The Treaty of Lausanne, settling the boundaries of modern Turkey, is signed in Switzerland by Greece, Bulgaria and other countries that fought in World War I.

1922  The draft of the British Mandate of Palestine was formally confirmed by the Council of the League of Nations; it came into effect on 26 September 1923.

1911  Hiram Bingham III re-discovers Machu Picchu, “the Lost City of the Incas“.

1910  The Ottoman Empire captures the city of Shkodër, putting down the Albanian Revolt of 1910.

1847  After 17 months of travel, Brigham Young leads 148 Mormon pioneers into Salt Lake Valley, resulting in the establishment of Salt Lake City. Celebrations of this event include the Pioneer Day Utah state holiday and the Days of ’47 Parade.

1823  In Maracaibo, Venezuela the naval Battle of Lake Maracaibo takes place, where Admiral José Prudencio Padilla, defeats the Spanish Navy, thus culminating the independence for the Gran Colombia.

1823  Slavery is abolished in Chile.




2012  Pranab Mukherjee became the 13th president of India.

2010  WikiLeaks publishes classified documents about the War in Afghanistan, one of the largest leaks in U.S. military history.

2002  APJ Abdul Kalam became the 11th president of India.

2000  Concorde Air France Flight 4590 crashes at Paris Charles de Gaulle airport, killing 113 passengers.

1996  In a military coup in Burundi, Pierre Buyoya deposes Sylvestre Ntibantunganya.

1994  Israel and Jordan sign the Washington Declaration, that formally ends the state of war that had existed between the nations since 1948.

1993  The Saint James Church massacre occurs in Kenilworth, Cape Town, South Africa.

1993  Israel launches a massive attack against Lebanon in what the Israelis call Operation Accountability, and the Lebanese call the Seven-Day War.

1990  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1985  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1985  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1984 Salyut 7 cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya becomes the first woman to perform a space walk.

1983  Black July: Thirty-seven Tamil political prisoners at the Welikada high security prison in Colombo are massacred by the fellow Sinhalese prisoners.

1980  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1979  Another section of the Sinai Peninsula is peacefully returned by Israel to Egypt.

1978  Louise Brown, the world’s first “test tube baby” is born.

1978  Puerto Rico police assassinate two nationalists in the Cerro Maravilla murders.

1976  Viking program: Viking 1 takes the famous Face on Mars photo.

1973  Soviet Mars 5 space probe is launched.

1969  Vietnam War: U.S. President Richard Nixon declares the Nixon Doctrine, stating that the United States now expects its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense. This is the start of the “Vietnamization” of the war.

1961  In a speech John F. Kennedy emphasizes that any attack on Berlin is an attack on NATO.

1959  Lloyd J. Old introduced BCG, a tuberculosis vaccine, into experimental cancer research as a way to stimulate non-specific resistance to tumor growth. BCG was FDA-approved in 1991 and is now widely used as a first line treatment for superficial bladder cancer.

1959  SR.N1 hovercraft crosses the English Channel from Calais, France to Dover, England in just over two hours.

1958  The African Regroupment Party (PRA) holds its first congress in Cotonou.

1957  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1957  The Republic of Tunisia is proclaimed.

1952  The US non-incorporated territory of Puerto Rico adopts a constitution.

1950  The Korean People’s Army crossed the 38th parallel starting The Korean War.

1947  US Department of Army created.

1946  Operation Crossroads: An atomic bomb is detonated underwater in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll.

1944  World War II: Operation Spring – one of the bloodiest days for the First Canadian Army during the war: One thousand five hundred casualties, including 500 killed.

1943  World War II: Benito Mussolini is forced out of office by his own Italian Grand Council and is replaced by Pietro Badoglio.

1942  Norwegian Manifesto calls for nonviolent resistance to the Nazis.

Nonviolence resistance:

Nonviolence and Religions:

1940  General Henri Guisan orders the Swiss Army to resist German invasion and makes surrender illegal.

1934  The Nazis assassinate Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss in a failed coup attempt.

1925  Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) is established.

1920  France captures Damascus.

1915  RFC Captain Lanoe Hawker becomes the first British military aviator to earn the Victoria Cross, for defeating three German two-seat observation aircraft in one day, over the Western Front.

1909  Louis Blériot makes the first flight across the English Channel in a heavier-than-air machine from (Calais to Dover, England, United Kingdom) in 37 minutes.

1908  Ajinomoto is founded. Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University discovers that a key ingredient in kombu soup stock is monosodium glutamate (MSG), and patents a process for manufacturing it.

1894  After over two months of sea-based bombardment, the United States invasion of Puerto Rico begins with U.S. troops led by General Nelson Miles landing at harbor of Guánica, Puerto Rico.

1894  The First Sino-Japanese War begins when the Japanese fire upon a Chinese warship.




2007  Shambo, a black cow in Wales that had been adopted by the local Hindu community, is slaughtered due to a bovine tuberculosis infection, causing widespread controversy.

2005  Mumbai, India receives 99.5cm of rain (39.17 inches) within 24 hours, resulting in floods killing over 5,000 people.

2005  Space Shuttle program: STS-114 Mission – Launch of Discovery, NASA‘s first scheduled flight mission after the Columbia Disaster in 2003.

1990  The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is signed into law by President George Bush.

1989  A federal grand jury indicts Cornell University student Robert T. Morris, Jr. for releasing the Morris worm, thus becoming the first person to be prosecuted under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.

1977  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

1977  The National Assembly of Quebec imposes the use of French as the official language of the provincial government.

1974  Greek Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis forms the country’s first civil government after seven years of military rule.

1974  France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island.

1971  Nicolette Milnes-Walker completes sailing non-stop single-handedly across the Atlantic, becoming the first woman to successfully do so.

1971  Apollo program: launch of Apollo 15 on the first Apollo “J-Mission“, and first use of a Lunar Roving Vehicle.

1968  Vietnam War: South Vietnamese opposition leader Truong Dinh Dzu is sentenced to five years hard labor for advocating the formation of a coalition government as a way to move toward an end to the war.

1965  Full independence is granted to the Maldives.

1963  The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development votes to admit Japan.

1963  An earthquake in Skopje, Yugoslavia (now in Macedonia) leaves 1,100 dead.

1963  Syncom 2, the world’s first geosynchronous satellite, is launched from Cape Canaveral on a Delta B booster.

1958  Explorer program: Explorer 4 is launched.

1957  USSR launches 1st intercontinental multistage ballistic missile.

1957  Carlos Castillo Armas, dictator of Guatemala, is assassinated.

1956  Following the World Bank‘s refusal to fund building the Aswan Dam, Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal, sparking international condemnation.

1953  Soldiers from the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment repel a number of Chinese assaults against a key position known as The Hook during the Battle of the Samichon River, just hours before the Armistice Agreement is signed on 27 July 1953, ending the Korean War.

1953  Arizona Governor John Howard Pyle orders an anti-polygamy law enforcement crackdown on residents of Short Creek, Arizona, which becomes known as the Short Creek raid.

1953  Fidel Castro leads an unsuccessful attack on the Moncada Barracks, thus beginning the Cuban Revolution. The movement took the name of the date: 26th of July Movement

1948  US President Harry S Truman signs Executive Order 9981 desegregating the military of the United States.

1947  Cold War: US President Harry S. Truman signs the National Security Act of 1947 into United States law creating the Central Intelligence Agency, United States Department of Defense, United States Air Force, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the United States National Security Council.

1946  Aloha Airlines begins service from Honolulu International Airport

1945  The US Navy cruiser USS Indianapolis arrives at Tinian with parts of the warhead for the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

1945  The Potsdam Declaration is signed in Potsdam, Germany.

1945  The Labour Party wins the United Kingdom general election of July 5 by a landslide, removing Winston Churchill from power.

1944  World War II: the Soviet Army enters Lviv, a major city in western Ukraine, capturing it from the Nazis. Only 300 Jews survive out of 160,000 living in Lviv prior to occupation.

1941  World War II: in response to the Japanese occupation of French Indochina, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the seizure of all Japanese assets in the United States.

1937  End of the Battle of Brunete in the Spanish Civil War.

1936  The Axis powers decide to intervene in the Spanish Civil War.

1914  Serbia and Bulgaria interrupt diplomatic relationship.

1908  United States Attorney General Charles Joseph Bonaparte issues an order to immediately staff the Office of the Chief Examiner (later renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation).

1897  Anglo-Afghan War: The Pashtun fakir Saidullah leads an army of more than 10,000 to begin a siege of the British garrison in the Malakand Agency of the North West Frontier Province of India.

1891  France annexes Tahiti.

1890  In Buenos Aires, Argentina the Revolución del Parque takes place, forcing President Miguel Ángel Juárez Celman‘s resignation.

1887  Publication of the Unua Libro, founding the Esperanto movement.

1882  The Republic of Stellaland is founded in Southern Africa.

1847  Liberia declares its independence.

1822  First day of the three-day Battle of Dervenakia, between the Ottoman Empire force led by Mahmud Dramali Pasha and the Greek Revolutionary force led by Theodoros Kolokotronis.

1822  José de San Martín arrives in Guayaquil, Ecuador, to meet with Simón Bolívar.


Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war-zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

(Sources and references: to 26; to 26; to 26.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace” through peace journalism.


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