This Week in History

HISTORY, 31 Oct 2016

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

TWH logo history

Oct 31- Nov 6


“Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life.  Don’t be trapped by dogma – which is living with the results of other people’s thinking.  Don’t let the noise of others’ opinions drown out your own inner voice.  And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition.” – Steve Jobs




2014  Virgin Galactic‘s SpaceShipTwo crashes in the Mojave Desert during a test flight,

2011  The global population of humans reaches seven billion. This day is now recognized by the United Nations as Seven Billion Day.

2003  Mahathir bin Mohamad resigns as Prime Minister of Malaysia and is replaced by Deputy Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, marking an end to Mahathir’s 22 years in power.

2002  A federal grand jury in Houston, Texas indicts former Enron chief financial officer Andrew Fastow on 78 counts of wire fraud, money laundering, conspiracy and obstruction of justice related to the collapse of his ex-employer.

2000  Singapore Airlines Flight 006 crashes on takeoff in Taipei killing 83 people.

2000  Soyuz TM-31 launches, carrying the first resident crew to the International Space Station. The ISS has been crewed continuously since then.

1999  EgyptAir Flight 990 crashes into the Atlantic Ocean killing all 217 people on board.

1999  Yachtsman Jesse Martin returns to Melbourne after 11 months of circumnavigating the world, solo, non-stop and unassisted.

1998  Iraq disarmament crisis begins: Iraq announces it would no longer cooperate with United Nations weapons inspectors.

1989  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1984  Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi is assassinated by two Sikh security guards. Riots break out in New Delhi and other cities and nearly 10,000 Sikhs are killed.

1973  Mountjoy Prison helicopter escape. Three Provisional Irish Republican Army members escape from Mountjoy Prison, Dublin, Republic of Ireland aboard a hijacked helicopter that lands in the exercise yard.

1969  The Disappearance of Patricia Spencer and Pamela Hobley occurs.

1968  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1968  Vietnam War October surprise: Citing progress with the Paris peace talks, US President Lyndon B. Johnson announces to the nation that he has ordered a complete cessation of “all air, naval, and artillery bombardment of North Vietnam” effective November 1.

1961  In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin‘s body is removed from Vladimir Lenin’s Tomb.

1956  Suez Crisis: The United Kingdom and France begin bombing Egypt to force the reopening of the Suez Canal.

Suez Crisis of 1956:

1944  Erich Göstl, a member of the Waffen-SS, is awarded the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross, to recognize extreme battlefield bravery, after losing his face and eyes during the Battle of Normandy.

1943  World War II: An F4U Corsair accomplishes the first successful radar-guided interception by a USN or USMC aircraft.

1941  World War II: The destroyer USS Reuben James is torpedoed by a German U-boat near Iceland, killing more than 100 U.S. Navy sailors. It is the first US Navy vessel sunk by enemy action in WWII.

1941  After 14 years of work, Mount Rushmore is completed.

1940  World War II: The Battle of Britain ends: The United Kingdom prevents a possible German invasion.

1938  Great Depression: In an effort to restore investor confidence, the New York Stock Exchange unveils a fifteen-point program aimed to upgrade protection for the investing public.

Great Depression:

1924  World Savings Day is announced in Milan, Italy by the Members of the Association at the 1st International Savings Bank Congress (World Society of Savings Banks).

1923  The first of 160 consecutive days of 100° Fahrenheit at Marble Bar, Western Australia.

1922  Benito Mussolini is made Prime Minister of Italy

Benito Mussolini:

Timeline – Mussolini:

Mussolini’s Doctrine:

1918  World War I: Dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) Empire:

History of the Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) Empire:

1917  World War I: Battle of Beersheba: The “last successful cavalry charge in history”.

Battle of Beechsheba of 1917:

1876  A monster cyclone ravages India, resulting in over 200,000 deaths.

1863  The Maori Wars resume as British forces in New Zealand led by General Duncan Cameron begin their Invasion of the Waikato.

Maori Wars a.k.a. New Zealand Wars:



2012  A fuel tank truck crashes and explodes in the Saudi Arabian capital Riyadh killing 26 people and injuring 135.

2000  Serbia and Montenegro joins the United Nations.

1993  The Maastricht Treaty takes effect, formally establishing the European Union.

Maastricht Treaty:

1982  Honda becomes the first Asian automobile company to produce cars in the United States with the opening of its factory in Marysville, Ohio. The Honda Accord is the first car produced there.

1981  Antigua and Barbuda gains independence from the United Kingdom.

Antigua and Barbuda:

Foreign Relations of Antigua and Barbuda:

History of Antigua and Barbuda:

Economy of Antigua and Barbuda:

1980  USSR performs underground nuclear test at Krasnoyarsk.


Nuclear Weapons Tests if the Soviet Union:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1979  In Bolivia, Colonel Alberto Natusch executes a bloody coup d’état against the constitutional government of Dr. Wálter Guevara.

1977  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1973  Watergate scandal: Leon Jaworski is appointed as the new Watergate Special Prosecutor.

Aftermath of Saturday Night Massacre:

Saturday Night Massacre:

Watergate Scandal:

Watergate Tapes:

1962  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1962:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1962  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1962:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

1962  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Johnston Island.

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Johnston Atoll:

Various Weapons Tests and Storage at Johnston Atoll, and Permanent Contamination:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1963  The 1963 South Vietnamese coup begins.

1963 South Vietnamese Coup:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

1963  The Arecibo Observatory in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, with the largest radio telescope ever constructed, officially opens.

1961  Fifty thousand women in 60 cities participate in the inaugural Women Strike for Peace (WSP) against nuclear proliferation.

1960  While campaigning for President of the United States, John F Kennedy announces his idea of the Peace Corps.

1959  In Rwanda, Hutu politician Dominique Mbonyumutwa is beaten up by Tutsi forces, leading to a period of violence known as the wind of destruction.

1958  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric).

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1958:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

1955  The bombing of United Airlines Flight 629 occurs near Longmont, Colorado, killing all 39 passengers and five crew members aboard the Douglas DC-6B airliner.

1954  The Front de Libération Nationale fires the first shots of the Algerian War of Independence.

Algerian War (of Independence):

History of Algeria:


Foreign Relations of Algeria:

Algeria and the United Nations:

Economy of Algeria:

1953  Andhra Pradesh attains statehood, with Kurnool as its capital.

1952  Operation Ivy: The United States successfully detonates the first large hydrogen bomb, codenamed “Mike” [“M” for megaton], in the Eniwetok atoll, located in the Marshall Islands in the central Pacific Ocean. The explosion had a yield of ten megatons.

First Hydrogen Bomb on November 1, 1952:

Operation Ivy:

Enewetak (Eniwetok) Atoll:

Environmental and Health Issues, and the Enewetak Atoll:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1951  Operation Buster–Jangle: Six thousand five hundred American soldiers are exposed to ‘Desert Rock’ atomic explosions for training purposes in Nevada. Participation is not voluntary.

1951  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1950 Pope Pius XII claims papal infallibility when he formally defines the dogma of the Assumption of Mary.

1950  Puerto Rican nationalists Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo attempt to assassinate US President Harry S Truman at Blair House.

1948  Athenagoras I, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is enthroned.

1948  Off southern Manchuria, 6,000 people die as a Chinese merchant ship explodes and sinks.

1946 Karol Wojtyla, the future Pope John Paul II, is ordained to the priesthood by Kraków‘s archbishop, Adam Sapieha.

Karol Wojtyla or Pope John Paul II:

1945  Australia joins the United Nations.


Foreign Relations of Australia:

Australia and the United Nations:

History of Australia:

Economy of Australia:

1945  The official North Korean newspaper, Rodong Sinmun, is first published under the name Chongro.

1944  World War II: Units of the British Army land at Walcheren in the Netherlands.

1943  World War II: In support of the landings on Bougainville, US aircraft carrier forces attack the huge Japanese base at Rabaul.

1943  World War II: In the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay, United States Marines, the 3rd Marine Division, land on Bougainville in the Solomon Islands.

1942  World War II: Matanikau Offensive begins during the Guadalcanal Campaign and ends three days later with an American victory.

1941  American photographer Ansel Adams takes a picture of a moonrise over the town of Hernandez, New Mexico that would become one of the most famous images in the history of photography.

1939  The first rabbit born after artificial insemination is exhibited to the world.

1938  Seabiscuit defeats War Admiral in an upset victory during a match race deemed “the match of the century” in horse racing.

1937  Stalinists execute Pastor Paul Hamberg and seven members of Azerbaijan’s Lutheran community.

1928  The Law on the Adoption and Implementation of the Turkish Alphabet, replacing the version of the Arabic alphabet previously used with the Latin alphabet, comes into force in Turkey.

1922  Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate: The last sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Mehmed VI, abdicates.

Ottoman Empire and World War I:

History of the Ottoman Empire:

1918  The short-lived Banat Republic is founded.

1918  Western Ukraine gains its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

History of Ukraine:

1918  Malbone Street Wreck: The worst rapid transit accident in US history occurs under the intersection of Malbone Street and Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn, New York City, with at least 102 deaths.

1916  Pavel Milyukov delivers in the State Duma the famous “stupidity or treason” speech, precipitating the downfall of the Boris Stürmer government.

1915  Parris Island is officially designated a United States Marine Corps Recruit Depot.

1914  World War I: The Australian Imperial Force (AIF) departed by ship in a single convoy from Albany, Western Australia bound for Egypt.

1914 World War I: The first British Royal Navy defeat of the war with Germany, the Battle of Coronel, is fought off of the western coast of Chile, in the Pacific, with the loss of HMS Good Hope and HMS Monmouth.

1911  The first dropping of a bomb from an aircraft in combat, during the Italo-Turkish War.

1901  Sigma Phi Epsilon, the largest national male collegiate fraternity, is established at Richmond College, in Richmond, Virginia.

1897  The first Library of Congress building opens its doors to the public. The Library had been housed in the Congressional Reading Room in the U.S. Capitol.

1894  Nicholas II becomes the new (and last) Tsar of Russia after his father, Alexander III, dies.

Nicholas II:





2014  A suicide attack killed 60 at Wagah.

2007  50,000–100,000 people demonstrate against the Georgian government in Tbilisi.

Democracy and Georgia (country):

History of Georgia:


Foreign Relations of Georgia:

Economy of Georgia:

2000  The first resident crew to the ISS docked with their Soyuz TM-31 spacecraft.

1988  The Morris worm, the first Internet-distributed computer worm to gain significant mainstream media attention, is launched from MIT.

1984  Capital punishment: Velma Barfield becomes the first woman executed in the United States since 1962.

1983  US President Ronald Reagan signs a bill creating Martin Luther King, Jr. Day.

Martin Luther King, Jr. Day:

Martin Luther King, Jr.:

1978  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1974  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1974

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

1973  The Communist Party of India (Marxist) and the Communist Party of India form a ‘United Front’ in the state of Tripura.

1972  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1972:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1967  Vietnam War: US President Lyndon B. Johnson and “The Wise Men” conclude that the American people should be given more optimistic reports on the progress of the war.

Vietnam War in 1967:

“Wise Men” on the Vietnam War:

1966  The Cuban Adjustment Act comes into force, allowing 123,000 Cubans the opportunity to apply for permanent residence in the United States.

1965  Norman Morrison, a 31-year-old Quaker, sets himself on fire in front of the river entrance to the Pentagon to protest the use of napalm in the Vietnam war.

1964  King Saud of Saudi Arabia is deposed by a family coup, and replaced by his half-brother Faisal.

Royal Family Coup of Saudi Arabia:

1963  South Vietnamese President Ngô Đình Diệm is assassinated following a military coup.

Ngô Đình Diệm:

1957  The Levelland UFO Case in Levelland, Texas, generates national publicity.

1953  The Constituent Assembly of Pakistan names the country The Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

1951  Korean War: A small platoon of 28 Canadian soldiers defend a vital area against an entire battalion of 800 Chinese troops in the Battle of the Song-gok Spur. The engagement lasts into the early hours of November 3.

1949  The Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference ends with the Netherlands agreeing to transfer sovereignty of the Dutch East Indies to the United States of Indonesia.

1947  In California, designer Howard Hughes performs the maiden (and only) flight of the Spruce Goose or H-4 The Hercules; the largest fixed-wing aircraft ever built.

1944  Auschwitz begins gassing inmates.

Gas Chamber at Auschwitz:

The Holocaust and the Auschwitz:

Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp:

1943  Jewish ghetto of Riga, Latvia, is destroyed.

Riga Ghetto:

1940  World War II: First day of Battle of Elaia–Kalamas between the Greeks and the Italians.

Battle of Elaia-Kalamas of 1940:

1936  The British Broadcasting Corporation initiates the BBC Television Service, the world’s first regular, “high-definition” (then defined as at least 200 lines) service. Renamed BBC1 in 1964, the channel still runs to this day.

1936  The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation is established.

1930  Haile Selassie is crowned emperor of Ethiopia.

1920  In the United States, KDKA of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania starts broadcasting as the first commercial radio station. The first broadcast is the result of the United States presidential election, 1920.

1917  The Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet, in charge of preparation and carrying out the Russian Revolution, holds its first meeting.

1917  The Balfour Declaration proclaims British support for the “establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people” with the clear understanding “that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities”.

Balfour Declaration:

History and Background of the Balfour Declaration:

1914  World War I: The Russian Empire declares war on the Ottoman Empire and the Dardanelles are subsequently closed.

Russia’s Declaration of War Against Ottoman of 1914:

1909  Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity is founded at Boston University.

1899  The Boers begin their 118-day siege of British-held Ladysmith during the Second Boer War.

Siege of Ladysmith:

Second Boer War:




2014  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon calls for global action on climate change after warning from scientists.

UN and the Climate Change:

2013  A solar eclipse sweeps across Africa, Europe and the Eastern United States.

2012  Syrian rebels launch a major assault on Taftanaz airbase.

Syrian Civil War:

Syrian Civil War Timeline:

1997  The United States of America imposes economic sanctions against Sudan in response to its human rights abuses of its own citizens and its material and political assistance to Islamic extremist groups across the Middle East and Eastern Africa.

1996  Death of Abdullah Çatlı, leader of the Turkish ultra-nationalist organization Grey Wolves in the Susurluk car-crash, which leads to the resignation of the Turkish Interior Minister, Mehmet Ağar (a leader of the True Path Party, DYP).

1988  Sri Lankan Tamil mercenaries try to overthrow the Maldivian government. At President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom‘s request, the Indian military suppresses the coup attempt within 24 hours.

1988  Soviet Union agrees to allow teaching of Hebrew.

Hebrew Teaching in Soviet Union:

1986  The Federated States of Micronesia gain independence from the United States of America.

1986  Iran–Contra affair: The Lebanese magazine Ash-Shiraa reports that the United States has been secretly selling weapons to Iran in order to secure the release of seven American hostages held by pro-Iranian groups in Lebanon.

1982  The Salang Tunnel fire in Afghanistan kills up to 2,000 people.

1979  Greensboro massacre: Five members of the Communist Workers Party are shot dead and seven are wounded by a group of Klansmen and neo-Nazis during a “Death to the Klan” rally in Greensboro, North Carolina, United States.

1978  Dominica gains its independence from the United Kingdom.

History of Dominica:


Foreign Relations of Dominica:

Economy of Dominica:

1975  Syed Nazrul Islam, A H M Qamaruzzaman, Tajuddin Ahmad, and Muhammad Mansur Ali, Bangladeshi politicians and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman loyalists, murdered in the Dhaka Central Jail.

1973  Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 10 toward Mercury. On March 29, 1974, it becomes the first space probe to reach that planet.

1969  Vietnam War: US President Richard M. Nixon addresses the nation on television and radio, asking the “silent majority” to join him in solidarity on the Vietnam War effort and to support his policies.

1967  Vietnam War: The Battle of Dak To begins.

1964  Washington D C residents are able to vote in a presidential election for the first time.

1962  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1962:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

1960  The land that would become the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge was established by an Act of Congress after a year-long legal battle that pitted local residents against Port Authority of New York and New Jersey officials wishing to turn the Great Swamp into a major regional airport for jet aircraft.

Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey:

1957  Sputnik program: The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 2. On board is the first animal to enter orbit, a dog named Laika.

1956  The Khan Yunis killings are perpetrated by the Israel Defense Forces in Egyptian-controlled Gaza, resulting in the deaths of 275 male Arabs.

1954  Nobel for physics awarded to Max Born & Walter Bothe.

1954  The first Godzilla film is released and marks the first appearance of the character of the same name.


1944  World War II: Two supreme commanders of the Slovak National Uprising, Generals Ján Golian and Rudolf Viest are captured, tortured and later executed by German forces.

1943  World War II: 500 aircraft of the U.S. 8th Air Force devastate Wilhelmshaven harbor in Germany.

1942  World War II: The Koli Point action begins during the Guadalcanal Campaign and ends on November 12.

1941  The order is given to bomb Pearl Harbor.

Order to Attack Pearl Harbor:

1930  Getúlio Dornelles Vargas becomes Head of the Provisional Government in Brazil after a bloodless coup on October 24.

1918  The German Revolution of 1918–19 begins when 40,000 sailors take over the port in Kiel.

1918  Poland declares its independence from Russia.

History of Poland:

Poland and Russia:


Foreign Relations of Poland:

Economy of Poland:

1918  Austria-Hungary enters into an armistice with the Allies, and the Habsburg-ruled empire dissolves.

Austria-Hungarian Empire (Hapsburg) and the Armistice with the Allies:

Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) Empire:

History of the Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) Empire:

1903  With the encouragement of the United States, Panama separates from Colombia.

Independence of Panama:

History of Panama:


Foreign Relations of Panama:

Economy of Panama:


Foreign Relations of Columbia:

Colombia and the United Nations:

History of Columbia:

Economy of Columbia:

1898  France withdraws its troops from Fashoda (now in Sudan), ending the Fashoda Incident.





2008  Barack Obama becomes the first person of African-American descent to be elected President of the United States.

2002  Chinese authorities arrest cyber-dissident He Depu for signing a pro-democracy letter to the 16th Communist Party Congress.

1995  Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated by an extremist Israeli.

Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin:

1979  Iran hostage crisis: A mob of Iranians, mostly students, overruns the US embassy in Tehran and takes 90 hostages (53 of whom are American).

Iran Hostage Crisis:

1978  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1978:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1973  The Netherlands experiences the first Car-Free Sunday caused by the 1973 oil crisis. Highways are deserted and are used only by cyclists and roller skaters.

1970  Salvador Allende takes office as President of Chile, the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.

1970  Vietnam War: Vietnamization: The United States turns control of the Binh Thuy Air Base in the Mekong Delta over to South Vietnam.

1966  The Arno River floods Florence, Italy, to a maximum depth of 6.7 m (22 ft), leaving thousands homeless and destroying millions of masterpieces of art and rare books. Also Venice was submerged on the same day at its record all-time acqua alta of 194 cm.

1962  In a test of the Nike Hercules air defense missile, Shot Dominic-Tightrope is successfully detonated 69,000 feet above Johnston Atoll. It would also be the last atmospheric nuclear test conducted by the United States.

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Johnston Atoll:

Various Weapons Tests and Storage at Johnston Atoll, and Permanent Contamination:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1960  At the Kasakela Chimpanzee Community in Tanzania, Dr. Jane Goodall observes chimpanzees creating tools, the first-ever observation in non-human animals.

1956  Soviet troops enter Hungary to end the Hungarian revolution against the Soviet Union, that started on October 23. Thousands are killed, more are wounded, and nearly a quarter million leave the country.

The End of Hungarian Revolution of 1956:

The “Hungarian Revolution of 1956” or the Struggle of Hungarians against the Soviet Power: October 23 – November 4, 1956:

History of Hungary:

1952  The United States government establishes the National Security Agency, or NSA.

National Security Agency:

1944  World War II: Bitola Liberation Day

1942  World War II: Second Battle of El Alamein: Disobeying a direct order by Adolf Hitler, General Field Marshal Erwin Rommel leads his forces on a five-month retreat.

1939  War II: US President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the United States Customs Service to implement the Neutrality Act of 1939, allowing cash-and-carry purchases of weapons by belligerents.

1924  Nellie Tayloe Ross of Wyoming is elected the first female governor in the United States.

1922  In Egypt, British archaeologist Howard Carter and his men find the entrance to Pharaoh Tutankhamun‘s tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

1921  The Italian unknown soldier is buried in the Altare della Patria (Fatherland Altar) in Rome.

1921  The Sturmabteilung or SA, whose members were known as “brownshirts”, physically assault Adolf Hitler‘s opposition after his speech in Munich.

1918  World War I: Austria-Hungary surrenders to Italy.

1890  City and South London Railway: London’s first deep-level tube railway opens between King William Street and Stockwell.

1867  Camagüey, Cuba revolts against Spain during the Ten Years’ War.

1852  Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour becomes the prime minister of PiedmontSardinia, which soon expands to become Italy.

1847  Sir James Young Simpson, a British physician, discovers the anaesthetic properties of chloroform.

1829  Newport Rising: The last large-scale armed rebellion against authority in mainland Britain.

1791  Beginning of the Russo-Ottoman siege of Corfu.

1791  The Western Confederacy of American Indians wins a major victory over the United States in the Battle of the Wabash.

1783  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart‘s Symphony No. 36 is performed for the first time in Linz, Austria.

Mozart’s Symphony No. 36:

1780  José Gabriel Condorcanqui aka Túpac Amaru II starts his Rebellion on Peru against Spain.





2013  India launches the Mars Orbiter Mission, its first interplanetary probe.

2007  Android mobile operating system is unveiled by Google.

2007  China’s first lunar satellite, Chang’e 1 goes into orbit around the Moon.

2006  Saddam Hussein, former president of Iraq, and his co-defendants Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti and Awad Hamed al-Bandar are sentenced to death in the al-Dujail trial for the role in the massacre of the 148 Shi’a Muslims in 1982.

Saddam Hussein:

Saddam Hussein’s Trial:

1996  Pakistani President Farooq Ahmed Khan Leghari dismisses the government of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and dissolves the National Assembly of Pakistan.

1995  André Dallaire attempts to assassinate Prime Minister Jean Chrétien of Canada. He is thwarted when the Prime Minister‘s wife locks the door.

1990  Rabbi Meir Kahane, founder of the far-right Kach movement, is shot dead after a speech at a New York City hotel.

1986  USS Rentz, USS Reeves and USS Oldendorf visit Qingdao (Tsing Tao) China – the first US Naval visit to China since 1949.

1977  George W Bush marries Laura Welch in Midland, Texas.

George W. Bush’s Marriage:

President George W Bush and the War Crimes:

1976  USSR performs underground nuclear test in Sakha (Yakutia), Russia.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1976:

Nuclear Test in Sakha:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1970  Vietnam War: The United States Military Assistance Command in Vietnam reports the lowest weekly American soldier death toll in five years (24).

Vietnam War in 1970:

1967  The Hither Green rail crash in the United Kingdom kills 49 people. Survivors include Robin Gibb of the Bee Gees.

1966  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1955  After being destroyed in World War II, the rebuilt Vienna State Opera reopens with a performance of Beethoven‘s Fidelio.

1953  Nobel prize for physics awarded/appended on Frederik Zernicke.

1951  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1950  Korean War: British and Australian forces from the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade successfully halted the advancing Chinese 117th Division during the Battle of Pakchon.

Battle of Pakchon:

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1945  Colombia joins the United Nations.


Foreign Relations of Columbia:

Colombia and the United Nations:

History of Columbia:

Economy of Columbia:

1943  World War II: Bombing of the Vatican.

1940  World War II: The British armed merchant cruiser, HMS Jervis Bay, is sunk by the German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer.

1937  Adolf Hitler holds a secret meeting and states his plans for acquiring “living space” for the German people.

“Lebensraum” or” Living Space”, and Nazi Germany:

Adolf Hitler:

History of Nazi Germany:

History of Germany:

1925  Secret agent Sidney Reilly, the first “super-spy” of the 20th century, is executed by the OGPU, the secret police of the Soviet Union.

Sidney Reilly:

1917  St Tikhon of Moscow is elected the Patriarch of Moscow and of the Russian Orthodox Church.

1917  October Revolution: In Tallinn, Estonia, Communist leader Jaan Anvelt leads revolutionaries in overthrowing the Provisional Government (As Estonia and Russia are still using the Julian calendar, subsequent period references show an October 23 date).

October Revolution of 1917:

History of Estonia:

1916  The Everett massacre takes place in Everett, Washington as political differences lead to a shoot-out between the Industrial Workers of the World organizers and local police.

1916  The Kingdom of Poland is proclaimed by the Act of 5th November of the emperors of Germany and Austria-Hungary.

1914  World War I: France and the British Empire declare war on the Ottoman Empire.

Ottoman Empire and World War I:

History of the Ottoman Empire:

1913  King Otto of Bavaria is deposed by his cousin, Prince Regent Ludwig, who assumes the title Ludwig III.

1912  Woodrow Wilson is elected to the presidency of the United States.

1911  After declaring war on the Ottoman Empire on September 29, 1911, Italy annexes Tripoli and Cyrenaica.

1872  Women’s suffrage in the United States: In defiance of the law, suffragist Susan B Anthony votes for the first time, and is later fined $100.

Susan B Anthony:

Women’s Suffrage:

Women’s Suffrage in the United States:

The Nineteenth Amendment and Women’s Suffrage:

History of Women’s Suffrage (Movement) in the United States:

1862  American Native People Wars: In Minnesota, 303 Dakota warriors are found guilty of rape and murder of whites and are sentenced to hang. 38 are ultimately executed and the others reprieved.

1854  Crimean War: The Battle of Inkerman.

Battle of Inkerman:

Crimean War:

Timeline of Crimean War:

History of Crimea:

1831 Nat Turner, American slave leader, is tried, convicted, and sentenced to death in Virginia.

1811  Salvadoran priest José Matías Delgado, rings the bells of La Merced church in San Salvador, calling for insurrection and launching the 1811 Independence Movement.

1768  Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the purpose of which is to adjust the boundary line between Indian lands and white settlements set forth in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 in the Thirteen Colonies.

1757  Seven Years’ War: Frederick the Great defeats the allied armies of France and the Holy Roman Empire at the Battle of Rossbach.




2012  Tammy Baldwin becomes the first openly gay politician to be elected to the United States Senate.

1999  Australians vote to keep the Head of the Commonwealth as their head of state in the Australian republic referendum.

1995  Cleveland Browns relocation controversy: Art Modell announces that he signed a deal that would relocate the Cleveland Browns to Baltimore to become the Baltimore Ravens, the first time the city had a football team since 1983 when they were the Baltimore Colts.

1995  The Rova of Antananarivo, home of the sovereigns of Madagascar from the 16th to 19th centuries, is destroyed by fire.

1991  The last Kuwaiti oil field fire is extinguished.

1986  Sumburgh disaster: A British International Helicopters Boeing 234LR Chinook crashes 212 miles east of Sumburgh Airport killing 45 people. It is the deadliest civilian helicopter crash on record.

1985  In Colombia, leftist guerrillas of the 19th of April Movement seize control of the Palace of Justice in Bogotá, eventually killing 115 people, 11 of them Supreme Court justices.

1977  The Kelly Barnes Dam, located above Toccoa Falls Bible College near Toccoa, Georgia, fails, killing 39.

1975  Green March begins: Three hundred thousand unarmed Moroccans converge on the southern city of Tarfaya and wait for a signal from King Hassan II of Morocco to cross into Western Sahara.

1971  The United States Atomic Energy Commission tests the largest US underground hydrogen bomb, code-named Cannikin, on Amchitka Island in the Aleutians. (= The United States performs underground nuclear test at Amchitka Island.)

United States Atomic Energy Commission:

Underground Nuclear Weapons Testing:

Nuclear weapons testing at Amchitka Island:

1965  Cuba and the United States formally agree to begin an airlift for Cubans who want to go to the United States. By 1971, 250,000 Cubans had made use of this program.

1963  Vietnam War: Following the November 1 coup and execution of President Ngo Dinh Diem, coup leader General Dương Văn Minh takes over leadership of South Vietnam.

November 1 (and 2), 1963 Coup:

1962  Apartheid: The United Nations General Assembly passes a resolution condemning South Africa’s apartheid policies and calls for all UN member states to cease military and economic relations with the nation.

UNGA Resolution 1761 of 6 November 1962:

1955  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1955:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1948  Deputy commander-in-chief of the Eastern China Field Army General Su Yu launches a massive offensive toward Xuzhou, defended by seven different armies under the Suppression General Headquarter of Xuzhou Garrison, the Huaihai Campaign. The largest operational campaign of the Chinese Civil War begins.

1944  Plutonium is first produced at the Hanford Atomic Facility and subsequently used in the Fat Man atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.

First Production of Plutonium:

1943  World War II: The Soviet Red Army recaptures Kiev. Before withdrawing, the Germans destroy most of the city’s ancient buildings.

Battle of Kiev of 1943:

1942  World War II: Carlson’s patrol during the Guadalcanal Campaign begins.

1941  World War II: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin addresses the Soviet Union for only the second time during his 27-year rule. He falsely states that even though 350,000 troops were killed in German attacks so far, the Germans had lost 4.5 million soldiers and that Soviet victory was near.

Joseph Stalin:

1939  World War II: Sonderaktion Krakau takes place.

1936  Edwin Armstrong presents his paper “A Method of Reducing Disturbances in Radio Signaling by a System of Frequency Modulation” to the New York section of the Institute of Radio Engineers.

1928  Arnold Rothstein, the head of the Jewish mob in New York, was shot and mortally wounded on November 4, and died on November 6. He was assassinated by George “Hump” McManus, for failing to pay a large gambling debt.

1918  The Second Polish Republic is proclaimed.

Second Poland Republic:

History of Poland:

1917  World War I: Third Battle of Ypres ends: After three months of fierce fighting, Canadian forces take Passchendaele in Belgium.

Third Battle of Ypres:

1913  Mohandas Gandhi is arrested while leading a march of Indian miners in South Africa.


India’s Independence, Nonviolence Movement, and Gandhi:

Quit India Movement:

Independence of India:

History of India:


(Sources and references:   novermber_6;   to november/6;   to november_6.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 31 Oct 2016.

Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week in History, is included. Thank you.

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