This Week in History

HISTORY, 6 Feb 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

Feb 6-12


“Real love you feel it, you see it, you show it!  But fake love is just words…”Unknown



2015  Scientists report that climate change may be influenced by the carbon dioxide released by undersea volcanoes, which have been assumed until now to have a negligible effect; further studies are needed to assess the degree of impact.

Climate Change:

Global Warming and Climate Change:

Carbon Dioxide and Climate Change:

2000  Second Chechen War: Russia captures Grozny, Chechnya, forcing the separatist Chechen Republic of Ichkeria government into exile.

Chechen Wars:

Second Chechen War:

First Chechen War:

Russia, Chechnya and Terrorism:

Civilians under International Humanitarian Law:

1998  Washington National Airport is renamed Ronald Reagan National Airport.

1996  Birgenair Flight 301 crashed off the coast of the Dominican Republic, and all 189 people inside the airplane are killed. This is the worst accident/incident involving a Boeing 757.

1989  The Round Table Talks start in Poland, thus marking the beginning of overthrow of communism in Eastern Europe.

1988  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1981:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1988  Michael Jordan makes his signature slam dunk from the free throw line inspiring Air Jordan and the Jumpman logo.

1987  Justice Mary Gaudron is appointed to the High Court of Australia, the first woman to be appointed.

1981  The National Resistance Army of Uganda launches an attack on a Ugandan Army installation in the central Mubende District to begin the Ugandan Bush War.

Uganda Bush War:

National Resistance Movement:

History of Uganda:


Foreign Relations of Uganda:

Uganda and the United Nations:

Economy of Uganda:

1976  In testimony before a United States Senate subcommittee, Lockheed Corporation president Carl Kotchian admits that the company had paid out approximately $3 million in bribes to the office of Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka.

1975  A crucial by-election is held in Kankesanthurai, Sri Lanka.

Kankesanthurai Election in Sri Lanka:

1975  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1959  At Cape Canaveral, Florida, the first successful test firing of a Titan intercontinental ballistic missile is accomplished.

1959  Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments files the first patent for an integrated circuit.

1952  Elizabeth II becomes queen regnant of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms upon the death of her father, George VI. At the exact moment of succession, she was in a tree house at the Treetops Hotel in Kenya.

1951  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site Argonne Atomic Lab (Ill), (atmospheric) to demonstrate lax in security

Argonne Atomic Lab:

Atmospheric Nuclear Testing at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1951  The Canadian Army enters combat in the Korean War.

Canadian Army in the Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

Documents on the Korean War:

1934  Far-right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon in an attempted coup against the French Third Republic, creating a political crisis in France.

1922  The Washington Naval Treaty is signed in Washington, DC, limiting the naval armaments of United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy.

Washington Naval Treaty of 1922:

Washington Naval Conference of 1921-1922:

1918  British women over the age of 30 get the right to vote.

Women’s Suffrage in the UK:

Women’s Suffrage and Its History:

Women’s Rights in General:

1914  The Bondetåget, a peasant uprising in support of the monarchy, takes place in Sweden

1900  The Permanent Court of Arbitration, an international arbitration court at The Hague, is created when the Senate of the Netherlands ratifies an 1899 peace conference decree.

Permanent Court of Arbitration:

1899  Spanish–American War: The Treaty of Paris, a peace treaty between the United States and Spain, is ratified by the United States Senate.

1862  American Civil War: Forces under the command of Ulysses S. Grant and Andrew H. Foote give the Union its first victory of the war, capturing Fort Henry, Tennessee in the Battle of Fort Henry.

1840  Signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, establishing New Zealand as a British colony.

1833  Otto becomes the first modern King of Greece.

1820  The first 86 African American immigrants sponsored by the American Colonization Society depart New York to start a settlement in present-day Liberia.

1819  Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founds Singapore.

1806  Battle of San Domingo: British naval victory against the French in the Caribbean.

1778  American Revolutionary War: In Paris the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce are signed by the United States and France signaling official recognition of the new republic.




2014  Over 350 people were injured in the anti-government unrest in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

2012  President Mohamed Nasheed of the Republic of Maldives resigns, after 23 days of anti-governmental protests calling for the release of Chief Judge unlawfully arrested by the military.

1999  Crown Prince Abdullah becomes the King of Jordan on the death of his father, King Hussein.

1997  NeXT merges with Apple Computer, starting the path to Mac OS X.

1995  Ramzi Yousef, the mastermind of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, is arrested in Islamabad, Pakistan.

1992  The Maastricht Treaty is signed, leading to the creation of the European Union.

Maastricht Treaty:

History of the European Union:

1991  Haiti‘s first democratically-elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, is sworn in.

1990  Dissolution of the Soviet Union: The Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party agrees to give up its monopoly on power.

1986  Twenty-eight years of one-family rule end in Haiti, when President Jean-Claude Duvalier flees the Caribbean nation.

1984  Space Shuttle program: STS-41-B Mission – Astronauts Bruce McCandless II and Robert L. Stewart make the first untethered space walk using the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU).

1979  Pluto moves inside Neptune‘s orbit for the first time since either was discovered.

1974  Grenada gains independence from the United Kingdom.

History of Grenada:

1962  The United States bans all Cuban imports and exports.

1951  Korean War: 705 suspected communist sympathizers are butchered by South Korean forces.

Korean War Timelines:

1944  World War II: In Anzio, Italy, German forces launch a counteroffensive during the Allied Operation Shingle.

1943  World War II: Imperial Japanese Navy forces complete the evacuation of Imperial Japanese Army troops from Guadalcanal during Operation Ke, ending Japanese attempts to retake the island from Allied forces in the Guadalcanal Campaign.

1940  The second full-length animated Walt Disney film, Pinocchio, premieres.

1935  The classic board game Monopoly is invented.

1907  The Mud March is the first large procession organized by the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS).

1900  Second Boer War: British troops fail in their third attempt to lift the Siege of Ladysmith.

Second Boer War:

Siege of Ladysmith:

1898  Dreyfus affair: Émile Zola is brought to trial for libel for publishing J’accuse.

1897  Greco-Turkish War: The first full-scale battle takes place when the Greek expeditionary force in Crete defeats a 4,000-strong Ottoman force at Livadeia.

Greco-Turkish War of 1897:

Greco-Turkish War:

1863  HMS Orpheus sinks off the coast of Auckland, New Zealand, killing 189.

1856  The colonial Tasmanian Parliament passes the second piece of legislation (the Electoral Act of 1856) anywhere in the world providing for elections by way of a secret ballot.

1842  Battle of Debre Tabor: Ras Ali Alula, Regent of the Emperor of Ethiopia defeats warlord Wube Haile Maryam of Semien.

1819  Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles leaves Singapore after just taking it over, leaving it in the hands of William Farquhar.

1813  Action of 7 February 1813: stalemate two evenly matched frigates from the French Navy and the British Royal Navy, Aréthuse and HMS Amelia.

1807  Napoleonic Wars: Battle of EylauNapoleon‘s French Empire begins fighting against Russian and Prussian forces of the Fourth Coalition at Eylau, Poland.




2014  A hotel fire in Medina, Saudi Arabia kills 15 Egyptian pilgrims with 130 also injured.

2013  A blizzard disrupts transportation and leaves hundreds of thousands of people without electricity in the Northeastern United States and parts of Canada.

2010  A freak storm in the Hindu Kush mountains of Afghanistan triggers a series of at least 36 avalanches, burying over two miles of road, killing at least 172 people and trapping over 2,000 travelers.

2005  Sri Lankan Civil War: Sri Lankan Tamil politician and former MP A. Chandranehru dies of injuries sustained in an ambush the previous day.

Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of the Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of Sri Lanka:

Sri Lanka:

Foreign Relations of Sri Lanka:

Economy of Sri Lanka:

1996  The US Congress passes the Communications Decency Act.

1979  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1978  Proceedings of the United States Senate are broadcast on radio for the first time.

1974  Military coup in Upper Volta.

Military Coup in Upper Volta, Burkina Faso of 1974:

History of Burkina Faso:

Burkina Faso:

Foreign Relations of Burkina Faso:

Economy of Burkina Faso:

1974  After 84 days in space, the crew of Skylab 4, the last crew to visit American space station Skylab, returns to Earth.

1971  South Vietnamese ground troops launch an incursion into Laos to try to cut off the Ho Chi Minh trail and stop communist infiltration.

Vietnam War in 1971:

Communism and the Vietnam War:

1971  The NASDAQ stock market index opens for the first time.

NASDAQ and Its History:

1969  Allende meteorite falls near Pueblito de Allende, Chihuahua, Mexico.

1968  American civil rights movement: The Orangeburg massacre: An attack on black students from South Carolina State University who are protesting racial segregation at the town’s only bowling alley, leaves three or four dead in Orangeburg, South Carolina.

Orangeburg Massacre of 1968:

History of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States – Overview:

Civil Rights Movements of Various Ethnic Minorities in the United States:

1967  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1963  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

Operation Storax (1962-1963):

Atmospheric Nuclear Testing at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1963  The regime of Prime Minister of Iraq, Brigadier General Abd al-Karim Qasim is overthrown by the Ba’ath Party.

Ramadan Revolution:

Ba’ath Party:

1963  The first full color television program in the world, publicly advertised, is broadcast in Mexico City by XHGC-TV, Channel 5, due to technical breakthrough advances made by Mexican engineer Guillermo González Camarena.

1963  Travel, financial and commercial transactions by United States citizens to Cuba are made illegal by the John F. Kennedy administration.

1962  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

For some more pertinent information, see1979 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site” , mentioned above.

1962  Charonne massacre. Nine trade unionists are killed by French police at the instigation of Nazi collaborator Maurice Papon, then chief of the Paris Prefecture of Police.

Charonne Metro Station Massacre:


History of Algeria:

1960  The first eight brass star plaques are installed in the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

1960  Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom issues an Order-in-Council, stating that she and her family would be known as the House of Windsor, and that her descendants will take the name “Mountbatten-Windsor“.

1955  The Government of Sindh, Pakistan, abolishes the Jagirdari system in the province. One million acres (4000 km2) of land thus acquired is to be distributed among the landless peasants.

Jagirdari/Jagirdar System:

1952  Elizabeth II is proclaimed Queen of the United Kingdom.

Queen Elizabeth II:

Queen Elizabeth II Era:

English Monarchs:

1950  The Stasi, the secret police of East Germany, is established.


1949  Cardinal Mindszenty of Hungary is sentenced for treason.

1948  The formal creation of the Korean People’s Army of North Korea is announced.

1946  The first portion of the Revised Standard Version of the Bible, the first serious challenge to the popularity of the Authorized King James Version, is published.

1945  World War II: The United Kingdom and Canada commence Operation Veritable to occupy the west bank of the Rhine.

1942  World War II: Japan invades Singapore.

Japan’s Invasion of Singapore:

Massacres in Singapore, and Some Pertinent Atrocities:

Double Tenth Incident of October 1943 – One of the Main Atrocities:

1924  Capital punishment: The first state execution in the United States by gas chamber takes place in Nevada.

Capital Punishment:

1904  Battle of Port Arthur: A surprise torpedo attack by the Japanese at Port Arthur, China starts the Russo-Japanese War.

Battle of Port Arthur:

Russo-Japanese War:

1887  The Dawes Act authorizes the President of the United States to survey Native American tribal land and divide it into individual allotments.

1885  The first government-approved Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii.

1879  Sandford Fleming first proposes adoption of Universal Standard Time at a meeting of the Royal Canadian Institute.

1856  Barbu Dimitrie Știrbei abolishes slavery in Wallachia.

1855  The Devil’s Footprints mysteriously appear in southern Devon.

1817  Las Heras crosses the Andes with an army to join San Martín and liberate Chile from Spain.

1807  Battle of EylauNapoleon defeats Russians under General Bennigsen and the Prussians under L’Estocq




2013  An earthquake of magnitude 6.9 strikes southwest Colombia causing major disruption to the region and injuring at least 15 people.

2001  The American submarine USS Greeneville accidentally strikes and sinks the Ehime-Maru, a Japanese training vessel operated by the Uwajima Fishery High School.

1996  The Provisional Irish Republican Army declares the end to its 18-month ceasefire and explodes a large bomb in London’s Canary Wharf.

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

History of the IRA:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1991  Voters in Lithuania vote for independence.

Independence of Lithuania

History and Social Issues of Lithuania:

Historical Background of the Baltic States and the Soviet Union:

Russia Reviews the 1991 Decision to Recognize the Independence of the Baltic States:

1986  Halley’s Comet last appeared in the inner Solar System.

Halley’s Comet:

1975  The Soyuz 17 Soviet spacecraft returns to Earth.

1971  Apollo program: Apollo 14 returns to Earth after the third manned Moon landing.

Apollo 14:

History of the Apollo Program:

1971  Satchel Paige becomes the first Negro League player to be voted into the USA’s Baseball Hall of Fame.

Satchel Paige:

Racism and Satchel Paige:

Sports and Racism:

1969  First test flight of the Boeing 747.

Boeing 747 and Its Maiden Flight:

1965  Vietnam War: The first United States troops with a combat mission, a Marine Corps Hawk air defense missile battalion, are sent to South Vietnam.

1965 in the Vietnam War:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1962  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

Atmospheric Nuclear Testing at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1959  The R-7 Semyorka, the first intercontinental ballistic missile, becomes operational at Plesetsk, USSR.

1951  Korean War: Geochang massacre

Geochang Massacre:

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1950  Second Red Scare: US Senator Joseph McCarthy accuses the United States Department of State of being filled with Communists.

Second Red Scare and McCarthyism:

Joseph McCarthy:

Red Scare (First Red Scare):

1945  World War II: A force of Allied aircraft unsuccessfully attacked a German destroyer in Førdefjorden, Norway.

1945  World War II: The Battle of the Atlantic: HMS Venturer sinks U-864 off the coast of Fedje, Norway, in a rare instance of submarine-to-submarine combat.

1943  World War II: Allied authorities declare Guadalcanal secure after Imperial Japan evacuates its remaining forces from the island, ending the Battle of Guadalcanal.

Battle of Guadalcanal:

1942  Year-round Daylight saving time is re-instated in the United States as a wartime measure to help conserve energy resources.

1942  World War II: Top United States military leaders hold their first formal meeting to discuss American military strategy in the war.

1934  The Balkan Entente is formed.

1922  Brazil becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.

1920  Under the terms of the Svalbard Treaty, international diplomacy recognizes Norwegian sovereignty over Arctic archipelago Svalbard, and designates it as demilitarized.

1913  A group of meteors is visible across much of the eastern seaboard of North and South America, leading astronomers to conclude the source had been a small, short-lived natural satellite of the Earth.

1904  Russo-Japanese War: Battle of Port Arthur concludes.

Battle of Port Arthur:

Russo-Japanese War:

1900  The Davis Cup competition is established.

History of the Davis Cup:

1849  New Roman Republic established.

1788  The Habsburg Empire joins the Russo-Turkish War in the Russian camp.

Habsburg Empire:

Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878):


2015  US President Barack Obama will seek approval from Congress to add force in the fight against ISIS militants; the current U.S. military campaign began without Congressional approval, raising concerns that Obama exceeded the limits of his authority.

Obama’s Request and the Fight against ISIS:

President Obama, and Use of the Military Force against ISIS/ISIL:

ISIS and the United States:

Training, Support and Funding:

ISIS and Israel:

Supply of Weapons to ISIS:

How ISIS Uses Oil to Finance Its Terror Operations

Buyers of ISIS Oil:

2009  The communications satellites Iridium 33 and Kosmos 2251 collide in orbit, destroying both.

2003  France and Belgium break the NATO procedure of silent approval concerning the timing of protective measures for Turkey in case of a possible war with Iraq.

1998  Voters in Maine repeal a gay rights law passed in 1997 becoming the first US state to abandon such a law.

1996  The IBM supercomputer Deep Blue defeats Garry Kasparov in chess for the first time.

1989  Ron Brown is elected chairman of the Democratic National Committee becoming the first African American to lead a major American political party.

1989  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1985  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1985:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1972  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1962  Roy Lichtenstein‘s first solo exhibition opened, and it included Look Mickey, which featured his first employment of Ben-Day dots, speech balloons and comic imagery sourcing, all of which he is now known for.

1962  Captured American U2 spy-plane pilot Gary Powers is exchanged for captured Soviet spy Rudolf Abel.

1954  United States President Dwight Eisenhower warns against United States intervention in Vietnam.

Eisenhower and the Vietnam War:

History of the Vietnam War (1954-1975):

1947  Italy cedes most of Venezia Giulia to Yugoslavia.

Venezia Giulia and Yogoslavia in 1947:

1943  World War II: Attempting to completely lift the Siege of Leningrad, the Soviet Red Army engages German troops and Spanish volunteers in the Battle of Krasny Bor.

Siege of Leningrad:

Battle of Krasny Bor:

1942  The first gold record is presented to Glenn Miller for “Chattanooga Choo Choo“.

Glenn Miller:

Chattanooga Choo Choo:

1940  The Soviet Union begins mass deportations of Polish citizens from occupied eastern Poland to Siberia.

Soviet Occupation of Poland:

History of Poland:

Poland and Russia:


Foreign Relations of Poland:

Economy of Poland:

1939  Spanish Civil War: The Nationalists conclude their conquest of Catalonia and seal the border with France.

Spanish Civil War:

Conquest of Catalonia:

Catalonia and Its History:

1936  Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Italian troops launched the Battle of Amba Aradam against Ethiopian defenders.

1930  Yên Bái mutiny in French Indochina

1870  The YWCA is founded in New York City.

1846  First Anglo-Sikh War: Battle of Sobraon: British defeat Sikhs in final battle of the war

Battle of Sobraon:

First Anglo-Sikh War:

Second Anglo-Sikh War:

1814  Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Champaubert ends in French victory over the Russians and the Prussians.

1763  French and Indian War: The Treaty of Paris ends the war and France cedes Quebec to Great Britain.

1567  Lord Darnley, second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, is found strangled following an explosion at the Kirk o’ Field house in Edinburgh, Scotland, a suspected assassination.





2015  A university student was murdered as she resisted an attempted rape in Turkey, sparking nationwide protests and public outcry against harassment and violence against women.

2014  After restricting its ties with Cuba since 1996, the European Union agrees to launch negotiations; the talks aim to increase the dialogue on human rights and increase trade and investment between Cuba and the EU.

2014  A military transport plane crashes in a mountainous area of Oum El Bouaghi Province in eastern Algeria, killing 77 people.

2013  Citing frail health, Pope Benedict XVI announces his resignation effective February 28, 2013; he is the first Pope to resign since Pope Gregory XII in 1415.

Pope Benedict XVI:

Announcement of Pope Benedict XVI:

Lightning Strikes the Vatican Hours after Pope’s Resignation Announcement:

Any Real Reason of the Resignation of Pope XVI? :

2011  The first wave of the Egyptian revolution culminates in the resignation of Hosni Mubarak and the transfer of power to the Supreme Military Council after 18 days of protests.

2008  Namdaemun, a 550-year-old gate in South Korea, was toppled by fire.

2008  Rebel East Timorese soldiers seriously wound President José Ramos-Horta. Rebel leader Alfredo Reinado is killed in the attack.

2001  A Dutch programmer launched the Anna Kournikova virus infecting millions of emails via a trick photo of the tennis star.

1997  Space Shuttle Discovery is launched on a mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope.

1990  Nelson Mandela is released from Victor Verster Prison outside Cape Town, South Africa after 27 years as a political prisoner.

1981  Around 100,000 US gallons (380 m3) of radioactive coolant leak into the containment building of TVA Sequoyah 1 nuclear plant in Tennessee, contaminating eight workers.

1979  The Iranian Revolution establishes an Islamic theocracy under the leadership of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

1978  Censorship: China lifts a ban on works by Aristotle, William Shakespeare and Charles Dickens.

1973  Vietnam War: First release of American prisoners of war from Vietnam takes place.

Vietnam War in 1973:

Prisoners of War (POW) in the Vietnam War:

1971  Eighty-seven countries, including the United States, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union, sign the Seabed Arms Control Treaty outlawing nuclear weapons on the ocean floor in international waters.

1968  The Memphis Sanitation Strike begins.

1968  Israeli–Jordanian border clashes rage.

1964  Greeks and Turks begin fighting in Limassol, Cyprus.

1959  The Federation of Arab Emirates of the South, which will later become South Yemen, is created as a protectorate of the United Kingdom.

1953  The Soviet Union breaks off diplomatic relations with Israel.

1953 US President Dwight D. Eisenhower refuses a clemency appeal for Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.

1943  World War II: General Dwight D. Eisenhower is selected to command the allied armies in Europe.

1942  World War II: The Battle of Bukit Timah is fought in Singapore.

1939  A Lockheed P-38 Lightning flies from California to New York in 7 hours 2 minutes.

1938  BBC Television produces the world’s first ever science fiction television program, an adaptation of a section of the Karel Čapek play R.U.R., that coined the term “robot“.

1929  Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican sign the Lateran Treaty.

Kingdom of Italy:

Lateran Treaty:

1925  Phi Alpha Delta Fraternity, Inc. Was Founded At The College of New Jersey

1919  Friedrich Ebert (SPD), is elected President of Germany.

1916  Emma Goldman is arrested for lecturing on birth control.

1906  Pope Pius X publishes the encyclical Vehementer Nos.

1903  Anton Bruckner‘s 9th Symphony receives its first performance in Vienna, Austria.

1889  Meiji Constitution of Japan is adopted; the first National Diet convenes in 1890.

1858  Bernadette Soubirous‘s first vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Lourdes, France.

1856  The Kingdom of Awadh is annexed by the British East India Company and Wajid Ali Shah, the king of Awadh, is imprisoned and later exiled to Calcutta.

1926  Swaminarayan writes the Shikshapatri, an important text within Swaminarayan Hinduism.



1826  University College London is founded under the name University of London.




2004  The city of San Francisco, California begins issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples in response to a directive from Mayor Gavin Newsom.

2002  The trial of Slobodan Milošević, the former President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, begins at the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague, Netherlands. He dies four years later before its conclusion.

2001  NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft touches down in the “saddle” region of 433 Eros, becoming the first spacecraft to land on an asteroid.

1999  United States President Bill Clinton is acquitted by the United States Senate in his impeachment trial.

1994  Four men break into the National Gallery of Norway and steal Edvard Munch‘s iconic painting The Scream.

1993  Two-year-old James Bulger is abducted from New Strand Shopping Centre by two ten-year-old boys, who later torture and murder him.

1992  The current Constitution of Mongolia comes into effect.

1990  Carmen Lawrence becomes the first female Premier in Australian history when she becomes Premier of Western Australia.

1983  One hundred women protest in Lahore, Pakistan against military dictator Zia-ul-Haq‘s proposed Law of Evidence. The women were tear-gassed, baton-charged and thrown into lock-up. The women were successful in repealing the law.

1982  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1974  Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1970, is exiled from the Soviet Union.

1968  Phong Nhị and Phong Nhất massacre.

Phong Nhị and Phong Nhất Massacre:

1963  Construction begins on the Gateway Arch in St. Louis.

1961  Soviet Union launches Venera 1 towards Venus.

1954  Lyons‘s LEO produces a payroll report. It is the first time in history a computer is used in business.

1953 USSR breaks relations with Israel.

USSR-Israel Relations:

1947  Christian Dior unveils a “New Look“, helping Paris regain its position as the capital of the fashion world.

1947  The largest observed iron meteorite until that time creates an impact crater in Sikhote-Alin, in the Soviet Union.

1946  African American United States Army veteran Isaac Woodard is severely beaten by a South Carolina police officer to the point where he loses his vision in both eyes. The incident later galvanizes the Civil Rights Movement and partially inspires Orson Welles‘ film Touch of Evil.

1946  World War II: Operation Deadlight ends after scuttling 121 of 154 captured U-boats.

1935  USS Macon, one of the two largest helium-filled airships ever created, crashes into the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California and sinks.

1934  In Spain the national council of Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista decides to merge the movement with the Falange Española.

1934  The Austrian Civil War begins.

Austrian Civil War of 1934:

1933  German vice-chancellor von Papen demands Catholic aid for Nazis.

Catholic Church and Nazi:


Some Relevant Books:

1924  George Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue received its premiere in a concert titled “An Experiment in Modern Music,” in Aeolian Hall, New York, by Paul Whiteman and his band, with Gershwin playing the piano.

1921  Bolsheviks launch a revolt in Georgia as a preliminary to the Soviet invasion of Georgia.


Georgia-Russian Relations:

History of Georgia (country):

Democracy and Georgia:


Foreign Relations of Georgia:

Economy of Georgia:

1914  In Washington, D.C., the first stone of the Lincoln Memorial is put into place.

1912  The Xuantong Emperor, the last Emperor of China, abdicates.

1909  New Zealand’s worst maritime disaster of the 20th century happens when the SS Penguin, an inter-island ferry, sinks and explodes at the entrance to Wellington Harbour.

1909  The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is founded.

1894  Anarchist Émile Henry hurls a bomb into the Cafe Terminus in Paris, France, killing one and wounding 20.

1851  Edward Hargraves announces that he has found gold in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia, starting the Australian gold rushes.

1832  Ecuador annexes the Galápagos Islands.

History of the Galápagos Islands:

History of Ecuador:


Economy of Ecuador:

1825  The Creek cede the last of their lands in Georgia to the United States government by the Treaty of Indian Springs, and migrate west.

1818  Bernardo O’Higgins formally approves the Chilean Declaration of Independence near Concepción, Chile.

Chilean Declaration of Independence:

1817  An Argentine/Chilean patriotic army, after crossing the Andes, defeats Spanish troops on the Battle of Chacabuco.

Battle of Chacabuco:

1814  Battle of La Victoria (1814)

1814  Battle of Château-Thierry (1814)

1689  The Convention Parliament declares that the flight to France in 1688 by James II, the last Roman Catholic British monarch, constitutes an abdication.

1593  Japanese invasion of Korea: Approximately 3,000 Joseon defenders led by general Kwon Yul successfully repel more than 30,000 Japanese forces in the Siege of Haengju.

Japanese Invasion of Korea:


 (Sources and references:   february_12;   to february/12;    to february_12.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 6 Feb 2017.

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