This Week in History

HISTORY, 27 Feb 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

Feb 27-Mar 5


“The greatest healing therapy is friendship and love.”Hubert H. Humphrey



2014  GE is focusing on development of wind power in Japan, seeing an opportunity for the nation to expand its renewable energy portfolio after Fukushima; GE has designed a wind turbine capable of weathering the country’s distinct weather challenges

2013  At Vatican City, Pope Benedict XVI delivers his farewell address

Pope Benedict XVI and His Farewell Speech:

2012  Wikileaks begins releasing 5 million emails from Stratfor, a private intelligence company

2010  An earthquake measuring 8.8 on the moment magnitude scale strikes central parts of Chile leaving over 500 victims, and thousands injured. The quake triggered a tsunami which struck Hawaii shortly after.

2007  The Chinese Correction: The Shanghai Stock Exchange falls 9%, the largest drop in ten years.

2004  The initial version of the John Jay Report, with details about the Catholic sexual abuse scandal in the United States, is released.

2004  A bombing of a Superferry by Abu Sayyaf in the Philippines‘ worst terrorist attack kills 116.

2002  Godhra train burning: A Muslim mob torches a train returning from Ayodhya, killing 59 Hindu pilgrims.

2002  Ryanair Flight 296 catches fire at London Stansted Airport. Subsequent investigations criticize Ryanair‘s handling of the evacuation.

1995  Zakho: A terrorist explosion in a market in the city of Zakho leaves about 100 dead and 150 wounded.

1991  Gulf War: US President George H. W. Bush announces that “Kuwait is liberated”.

Gulf War Timelines:

Liberation of Kuwait:

1989  Venezuela is rocked by the Caracazo riots.

1988  Sumgait pogrom: The Armenian community of Sumgait in Azerbaijan is targeted in a violent massacre.

1986  The United States Senate allows its debates to be televised on a trial basis.

1982  France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island.


France’s Nuclear Tests:

Some Pertinent YouTube Videos:

Pertinent Reports:

1978  France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island.

1976  The formerly Spanish territory of Western Sahara, under the auspices of the Polisario Front declares independence as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.

1974  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1973  The American Indian Movement (AIM) occupies Wounded Knee, South Dakota.

1971  Doctors in the first Dutch abortion clinic (the Mildredhuis in Arnhem) start to perform aborti provocati.

1965  France performs nuclear test at In Eker (a.k.a. In Ekker), Algeria.

Nuclear Test Site at In Eker:

France’s Nuclear Tests:

1964  The Government of Italy asks for help to keep the Leaning Tower of Pisa from toppling over.

1963  The Dominican Republic receives its first democratically elected president, Juan Bosch, since the end of the dictatorship led by Rafael Trujillo.

1962  Two dissident Vietnam Air Force pilots bomb the Independence Palace in Saigon in a failed attempt to assassinate South Vietnam President Ngô Đình Diệm.

1961  The first congress of the Spanish Trade Union Organisation is inaugurated.

1958  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1962:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

1955  Soviet Union regional elections, 1955.

1943  The Rosenstrasse protest starts in Berlin.

1942  World War II: During the Battle of the Java Sea, an Allied strike force is defeated by a Japanese task force in the Java Sea in the Dutch East Indies.

1940  Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben discover carbon-14.

1933  Reichstag fire: Germany‘s parliament building in Berlin, the Reichstag, is set on fire; Marinus van der Lubbe, a young Dutch Communist claims responsibility. The Nazis used the fire to solidify their power and eliminate the communists as political rivals.

1922  A challenge to the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, allowing women the right to vote, is rebuffed by the Supreme Court of the United States in Leser v. Garnett.

1921  The International Working Union of Socialist Parties is founded in Vienna.

1902  Second Boer War: Australian soldiers Harry ‘Breaker’ Morant and Peter Handcock are executed in Pretoria for war crimes.

1900  The British Labour Party is founded.

1900  Second Boer War: In South Africa, British military leaders receive an unconditional notice of surrender from Boer General Piet Cronjé at the Battle of Paardeberg.

Battle of Paardeberg:

Second Boer War:

1881  First Boer War: The Battle of Majuba Hill takes place.

First Boer War:

Battle of Majuba Hill:

1861  Russian troops fire on a crowd in Warsaw protesting against Russian rule over Poland, killing five protesters.

History of Poland:

Poland and Russia:


Foreign Relations of Poland:

Economy of Poland:

1860  Abraham Lincoln makes a speech at Cooper Union in the city of New York that is largely responsible for his election to the Presidency.

1844  The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti.

Dominican Republic:

Constitution of the Dominican Republic:

History of the Dominican Republic:

Economy of the Dominican Republic:

1829  Battle of Tarqui is fought.

Battle of Tarqui (a.k.a.: Battle of Portete de Tarqui):




2013  Pope Benedict XVI resigns. Citing frail health, Pope Benedict XVI announces his resignation effective February 28, 2013; he is the first Pope to resign since Pope Gregory XII in 1415.

Pope Benedict XVI:

Resignation of Pope Benedict XVI:

Announcement of Pope Benedict XVI:

Any Real Reason of the Resignation of Pope XVI? :

2005  A suicide bombing at a police recruiting center in Al Hillah, Iraq kills 127.

2004  Over one million Taiwanese participating in the 228 Hand-in-Hand Rally form a 500-kilometre (310 mi) long human chain to commemorate the February 28 Incident in 1947

2002  During the religious violence in Gujarat, the 97 people killed in the Naroda Patiya massacre and 69 in Gulbarg Society massacre.

1998  Kosovo War: Serbian police begin the offensive against the Kosovo Liberation Army in Kosovo.

Kosovo Liberation Army (KLM):

Kosovo Conflict:

The United States, NATO and the Kosovo Conflict:

History of Kosovo:

1998  First flight of RQ-4 Global Hawk, the first unmanned aerial vehicle certified to file its own flight plans and fly regularly in U.S. civilian airspace.

1997  GRB 970228, a highly luminous flash of gamma rays, strikes the Earth for 80 seconds, providing early evidence that gamma-ray bursts occur well beyond the Milky Way.

GRB 970228:

Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Milky Way:

1997  The North Hollywood shootout takes place, resulting in the injury of 19 people and the deaths of both perpetrators.

1997  An earthquake in northern Iran is responsible for about 3,000 deaths.

1995  Former Australian Liberal party leader John Hewson resigns from the Australian parliament almost two years after losing the Australian federal election, 1993.

1993  Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms agents raid the Branch Davidian church in Waco, Texas with a warrant to arrest the group’s leader David Koresh. Four BATF agents and five Davidians die in the initial raid, starting a 51-day standoff.

1991  The first Gulf War ends.

Gulf War Ends:

Gulf War Timelines:

Case Studies: The Gulf War and the Iraq War:

1986  Olof Palme, prime minister of Sweden, is assassinated in Stockholm.

1985  The Provisional Irish Republican Army carries out a mortar attack on the Royal Ulster Constabulary police station at Newry, killing nine officers in the highest loss of life for the RUC on a single day.

1983  The final episode of M*A*S*H airs, with almost 106 million viewers. It still holds the record for the highest viewership of a season finale.

1980  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1980  Andalusia approves its statute of autonomy through a referendum.

1975  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1972  Sino-American relations: The United States and People’s Republic of China sign the Shanghai Communiqué.

Shanghai Communiqué:

United States-China Relations:

1959  Discoverer 1, an American spy satellite that is the first object intended to achieve a polar orbit, is launched. It failed to achieve orbit.

1954  The first color television sets using the NTSC standard are offered for sale to the general public.

1954  Nuclear testing: The Castle Bravo, a 15-megaton hydrogen bomb, is detonated on Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the worst radioactive contamination ever caused by the United States. Also visit THIS MONTH OF NUCLEAR THREAT HISTORY – NUCLER AGE PEACE FOUNDATION. [Note that many historical records on this event may indicate that the date was “March 1”, 1954. However, some websites and documents indicate that the date of this event of the nuclear testing was “February 28”, 1954. This is because of time difference between the local time in Bikini Atoll and that in many of Western countries, especially that in the American Continent. For the convenience of the reader of this article, the same event is also mentioned in the section of March 1, 1954.]

1953  James Watson and Francis Crick announce to friends that they have determined the chemical structure of DNA; the formal announcement takes place on April 25 following publication in April’s Nature (pub. April 2).

Chemical Structure of DNA:

1948  Christiansborg Cross-Roads shooting in the Gold Coast, when a British police officer opens fire on a march of ex-servicemen, killing three of them and sparking major riots in Accra.

1947  February 28 Incident: In Taiwan, civil disorder is put down with the loss of an estimated 30,000 civilians.

February 28 Incident in Taiwan:

1942  The heavy cruiser USS Houston is sunk in the Battle of Sunda Strait with 693 crew members killed, along with HMAS Perth which lost 375 men.

1935  DuPont scientist Wallace Carothers invents nylon.

Invention of Nylon:

1933  Gleichschaltung: The Reichstag Fire Decree is passed in Germany a day after the Reichstag fire.

1925  The Charlevoix-Kamouraska earthquake strikes northeastern North America.

1922  The United Kingdom ends its protectorate over Egypt through a Unilateral Declaration of Independence.

British Protectorate:

Modern History of Egypt:

1914  The Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus is proclaimed in Gjirokastër, by the Greeks living in southern Albania.

Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus:

History of Albania:

1900  The Second Boer War: The 118-day “Siege of Ladysmith” is lifted.

Siege of Ladysmith:

Second Boer War:

1897  Queen Ranavalona III, the last monarch of Madagascar, is deposed by a French military force.

1885  The American Telephone and Telegraph Company is incorporated in New York as the subsidiary of American Bell Telephone. (American Bell would later merge with its subsidiary.)

1874  One of the longest cases ever heard in an English court ends when the defendant is convicted of perjury for attempting to assume the identity of the heir to the Tichborne baronetcy.

1870  The Bulgarian Exarchate is established by decree of Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz of the Ottoman Empire.

1867  Seventy years of Holy See–United States relations are ended by a Congressional ban on federal funding of diplomatic envoys to the Vatican and are not restored until January 10, 1984.




Today is the World Civil Defense Day:

2007  “Squatters” are evicted from Ungdomshuset in Copenhagen, Denmark, provoking the March 2007 Denmark riots.

2006  English-language Wikipedia reaches its one millionth article, Jordanhill railway station.

2005  US Supreme Court rules that the execution of juveniles found guilty of murder is unconstitutional marking a change in “national standards,”.

2004  Mohammad Bahr al-Ulloum becomes President of Iraq.

2003  The International Criminal Court holds its inaugural session in The Hague.

2003  Management of the United States Customs Service and the United States Secret Service move to the United States Department of Homeland Security.

2002  The peseta is discontinued as official currency of Spain and is replaced by the euro (€).

2002  The Envisat environmental satellite successfully reaches an orbit 800 kilometers (500 mi) above the Earth on its 11th launch, carrying the heaviest payload to date at 8500 kilograms (8.5 tons).

2002  US invasion of Afghanistan: Operation Anaconda begins in eastern Afghanistan.

US Invasion of Afghanistan – US War in Afghanistan:

Why Did the US Invade Afghanistan? :

Behind the Official Reasons for the Invasion of Afghanistan:

US-Afghanistan Relations:

Foreign Relations of Afghanistan:

Afghanistan and the United Nations:


History of Afghanistan:

Economy of Afghanistan:

2000  Hans Blix assumes the position of Executive Chairman of UNMOVIC.

Hans Blix, Iraq and Weapons of Mass Destruction:

2000  The Constitution of Finland is rewritten.

1999  Ottawa Treaty enters into force.

Ottawa Treaty:

1995  Prime Minister of Poland Waldemar Pawlak resigns from parliament and is replaced by ex-communist Józef Oleksy.

1992  Bosnia and Herzegovina declares its independence from Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Independence of Bosnia-Herzegovina:


History of Bosnia-Herzegovina:

1989  The United States becomes a member of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.

1984  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1984:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1981  Provisional Irish Republican Army member Bobby Sands begins his hunger strike in HM Prison Maze.

Bobby Sands:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

IRA’s Terrorism:

History of the IRA:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1974  Watergate scandal: Seven are indicted for their role in the Watergate break-in and charged with conspiracy to obstruct justice.

Watergate Scandal:

Watergate Tapes:

1973  Black September storms the Saudi embassy in Khartoum, Sudan, resulting in the assassination of three Western hostages.

Black September’s Attack on the Saudi Embassy in Khartoum, Sudan:

Black September (organization):

1972  The Thai province of Yasothon is created after being split off from the Ubon Ratchathani Province.

1971  President of Pakistan Yahya Khan indefinitely postpones the pending national assembly session, precipitating massive civil disobedience in East Pakistan.

1968  Vatican City’s Apostolic Constitution of 1967 goes into effect.

Apostolic Constitution:

1966  The Ba’ath Party takes power in Syria.

Ba’ath Party in Syria:

Ba’ath Party:

1966  Venera 3 Soviet space probe crashes on Venus becoming the first spacecraft to land on another planet‘s surface.

1964  Villarrica Volcano begins a strombolian eruption causing lahars that destroy half of the town of Coñaripe.

1961  Uganda becomes self-governing and holds its first elections.

Uganda Self-Governing and It First Election of 1961:


History of Uganda:

Foreign Relations of Uganda:

Economy of Uganda:

1961  United States President John F. Kennedy establishes the Peace Corps.

History of Peace Corps:

1958  Samuel Alphonsus Stritch is appointed Pro-Prefect of the Propagation of Faith and thus becomes the first American member of the Roman Curia.

1956  Formation of the East German Nationale Volksarmee

1956  The International Air Transport Association finalizes a draft of the Radiotelephony spelling alphabet for the International Civil Aviation Organization.

1954  Puerto Rican nationalists attack the United States Capitol building, injuring five Representatives.

1954  Nuclear weapons testing: The Castle Bravo, a 15-megaton hydrogen bomb, is detonated on Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the worst radioactive contamination ever caused by the United States.

Castle Bravo:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Nuclear Tests at Bikini Atoll:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1953  Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin suffers a stroke and collapses; he dies four days later.

1950  Cold War: Klaus Fuchs is convicted of spying for the Soviet Union by disclosing top secret atomic bomb data.

1947  The International Monetary Fund begins financial operations.

World Bank and the IMF:

Problems of the World Bank and the IMF:

1946  The Bank of England is nationalized.

1941  World War II: Bulgaria signs the Tripartite Pact, allying itself with the Axis powers.

1936  The Hoover Dam is completed.

1932  Declaration of the founding of Manchukuo.

1932  Charles Lindbergh‘s son is kidnapped.

1919  March 1st Movement begins in Korea under Japanese rule.

1917  The US government releases the unencrypted text of the Zimmermann Telegram to the public.

1914  The Republic of China joins the Universal Postal Union.

1912  Albert Berry makes the first parachute jump from a moving airplane.

1901  The Australian Army is formed.

1896  Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity.

1896  Battle of Adwa: an Ethiopian army defeats an outnumbered Italian force, ending the First Italo-Ethiopian War.

1893  Electrical engineer Nikola Tesla demonstrates Wireless power in St. Louis, Missouri.

1886  The Anglo-Chinese School, Singapore is founded by Bishop William Oldham.

1873  E Remington and Sons in Ilion, New York begins production of the first practical typewriter.

1872  Yellowstone National Park is established as the world’s first national park.

1870  Marshal FS López dies during the Battle of Cerro Corá thus marking the end of the Paraguayan War.

1868  The Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity is founded at the University of Virginia.

1854  German psychologist Friedrich Eduard Beneke disappears; two years later his remains are found in a canal near Charlottenburg.

1852  Archibald Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

1815  Napoleon returns to France from his banishment on Elba, start of the Hundred Days.

1811  Leaders of the Mamluk dynasty are killed by Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali.

1790  The first United States census is authorized.

1781  The Continental Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation.

1713  The siege and destruction of Fort Neoheroka begins during the Tuscarora War in North Carolina, effectively opening up the colony’s interior to European colonization.

1700  Sweden introduces its own Swedish calendar, in an attempt to gradually merge into the Gregorian calendar, reverts to the Julian calendar on this date in 1712, and introduces the Gregorian calendar on this date in 1753.




2004  War in Iraq: Al-Qaeda carries out the Ashoura Massacre in Iraq, killing 170 and wounding over 500.

2002  US invasion of Afghanistan: Operation Anaconda begins, (ending on March 19 after killing 500 Taliban and al-Qaeda fighters, with 11 Western troop fatalities).

US Invasion of Afghanistan – US War in Afghanistan:

Why Did the US Invade Afghanistan? :

Behind the Official Reasons for the Invasion of Afghanistan:

US-Afghanistan Relations:

Foreign Relations of Afghanistan:

Afghanistan and the United Nations:


History of Afghanistan:

Economy of Afghanistan:

1998  Data sent from the Galileo spacecraft indicates that Jupiter‘s moon Europa has a liquid ocean under a thick crust of ice.

1995  Researchers at Fermilab announce the discovery of the top quark.

1992  Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, San Marino, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan join the United Nations.

1991  Battle at Rumaila oil field brings an end to the 1991 Gulf War.

1990  Nelson Mandela is elected deputy President of the African National Congress.

1989  Twelve European Community nations agree to ban the production of all chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by the end of the century.

1983  Compact discs and players are released for the first time in the United States and other markets. They had previously been available only in Japan.

1983  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1983:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1978  Czech Vladimír Remek becomes the first non-Russian or non-American to go into space, when he is launched aboard Soyuz 28.

1977  Libya becomes the Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya as the General People’s Congress adopted the “Declaration of the Establishment of the People’s Authority”.

1972  The Pioneer 10 space probe is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida with a mission to explore the outer planets.

1970  Rhodesia declares itself a republic, breaking its last links with the British crown.

History of Rhodesia/Zimbabwe:

1969  Soviet and Chinese forces clash at a border outpost on the Ussuri River.

1969  In Toulouse, France, the first test flight of the Anglo-French Concorde is conducted.


1965  The US and South Vietnamese Air Force begin Operation Rolling Thunder, a sustained bombing campaign against North Vietnam.

Operation Rolling Thunder:

Vietnam War in 1965:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

1962  Wilt Chamberlain sets the single-game scoring record in the National Basketball Association by scoring 100 points.

1962  In Burma, the army led by General Ne Win seizes power in a coup d’état.

Burma Coup of 1962:

History of Burma/Myanmar:


Foreign Relations of Burma/Myanmar:

Human Rights in Burma/Myanmar:

Some Relevant Issues on the Rohingya People and the British Rule:

Pro-Democracy Uprising, Ethnic Cleansing and Other Pertinent Issues:

Economy of Myanmar:

1956  Morocco gains its independence from France.

1955  Norodom Sihanouk, king of Cambodia, abdicates the throne in favor of his father, Norodom Suramarit.

1949  The first automatic street light is installed in New Milford, Connecticut.

1949  Captain James Gallagher lands his B-50 Superfortress Lucky Lady II in Fort Worth, Texas after completing the first non-stop around-the-world airplane flight in 94 hours and one minute.

1946  Ho Chi Minh is elected the President of North Vietnam.:

Ho Chi Minh:

History of Vietnam:

1943  World War II: Battle of the Bismarck Sea: United States and Australian forces sink Japanese convoy ships.

1941  World War II: First German military units enter Bulgaria after it joins the Axis Pact.

1939  Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli is elected Pope and takes the name Pius XII.

1937  The Steel Workers Organizing Committee signs a collective bargaining agreement with U.S. Steel, leading to unionization of the United States steel industry.

1933  The film King Kong opens at New York’s Radio City Music Hall.

1919  The first Communist International meets in Moscow.

1917  The enactment of the Jones–Shafroth Act grants Puerto Ricans United States citizenship.

1903  In New York City the Martha Washington Hotel opens, becoming the first hotel exclusively for women. In New York City the Martha Washington Hotel opens, becoming the first hotel exclusively for women.

1901  The US Congress passes the Platt Amendment limiting the autonomy of Cuba, as a condition of the withdrawal of American troops.

1901  United States Steel Corporation is founded as a result of a merger between Carnegie Steel Company and Federal Steel Company which became the first corporation in the world with a market capital over $1 billion.

1885  Sino-French War: French victory in the Battle of Hòa Mộc near Tuyên Quang, northern Vietnam.

Battle of Hòa Mộc:

Sino-French War:

1882  Queen Victoria narrowly escapes an assassination attempt by Roderick McLean in Windsor.

1877  US presidential election, 1876: Just two days before inauguration, the U.S. Congress declares Rutherford B. Hayes the winner of the election even though Samuel J. Tilden had won the popular vote on November 7, 1876.

1867  The US Congress passes the first Reconstruction Act.

1865  East Cape War: The Völkner Incident in New Zealand.

1855  Alexander II becomes Tsar of Russia.

Alexander II:

1836  Texas Revolution: Declaration of independence of the Republic of Texas from Mexico.

1825  Roberto Cofresí, one of the last successful Caribbean pirates, is defeated in combat and captured by authorities.

1815  Signing of the Kandyan Convention treaty by British invaders and the leaders of the Kingdom of Kandy.

1811  Argentine War of Independence: A royalist fleet defeats a small flotilla of revolutionary ships in the Battle of San Nicolás on the River Plate.

1808  The inaugural meeting of the Wernerian Natural History Society, a former Scottish learned society, is held in Edinburgh.

1807  The US Congress passes the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves, disallowing the importation of new slaves into the country.

1797  The Bank of England issues the first one-pound and two-pound banknotes.

1791  Long-distance communication speeds up with the unveiling of a semaphore machine in Paris.




Today is the World Wildlife Day:

2015  Slovenia legalizes same-sex marriage.

LGBT Rights in Slovenia:

Slovenia Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage in March 2015:

Slovenians Rejects Same-Sex Marriage in December 2015:

Some Pertinent Issues on the LGBT Rights:

2014  The trial of Oscar Pistorius begins in Pretoria.

2013  A bomb blast in Karachi, Pakistan, kills at least 45 people and injured 180 others in a predominately Shia Muslim area.

2009  The Historical Archive of the City of Cologne collapses.

2005  Mayerthorpe tragedy: James Roszko murders four Royal Canadian Mounted Police constables during a drug bust at his property in Rochfort Bridge, Alberta, then commits suicide. It is the deadliest peace-time incident for the RCMP since 1885 and the North-West Rebellion.

2005  Margaret Wilson is elected as Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives, beginning a period lasting until August 23, 2006 where all the highest political offices (including Elizabeth II as Head of State), were occupied by women, making New Zealand the first country for this to occur.

2005  Steve Fossett becomes the first person to fly an airplane non-stop around the world solo without refueling.

1991  In concurrent referenda, 74% of the population of Latvia votes for independence from the Soviet Union, and 83% in Estonia.


History of Latvia:


History of Estonia:

1991  An amateur video captures the beating of Rodney King by Los Angeles police officers.

1985  A magnitude 8.3 earthquake strikes the Valparaíso Region of Chile, killing 177 and leaving nearly a million people homeless.

1985  Arthur Scargill declares that the National Union of Mineworkers national executive voted to end the longest-running industrial dispute in Great Britain without any peace deal over pit closures.

1980  The USS Nautilus is decommissioned and stricken from the Naval Vessel Register.

1974  Turkish Airlines Flight 981 crashes at Ermenonville near Paris, France killing all 346 aboard.

1972  Mohawk Airlines Flight 405 crashes as a result of a control malfunction and insufficient training in emergency procedures.

1969  Apollo program: NASA launches Apollo 9 to test the lunar module.

1967  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1965  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1965  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1965:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1958  Nuri al-Said becomes Prime Minister of Iraq for the eighth time.

1953  A Canadian Pacific Air Lines De Havilland Comet crashes in Karachi, Pakistan, killing 11.

1951  Jackie Brenston, with Ike Turner and his band, records “Rocket 88“, often cited as “the first rock and roll record“, at Sam Phillips‘ recording studios in Memphis, Tennessee.

1945  World War II: The RAF accidentally bombs the Bezuidenhout neighborhood in The Hague, Netherlands, killing 511 people.

1945  World War II: A former Armia Krajowa unit massacres at least 150 Ukrainian civilians in Pawłokoma, Poland.

1945  World War II: American and Filipino troops recapture Manila in the Philippines.

1944  The Order of Nakhimov and Order of Ushakov are instituted in USSR as the highest naval awards.

1943  World War II: In London, England, 173 people are killed in a crush while trying to enter an air-raid shelter at Bethnal Green tube station.

1942  World War II: Ten Japanese warplanes raid the town of Broome, Western Australia, killing more than 100 people.

1940  Five people are killed in an arson attack on the offices of the communist newspaper Norrskensflamman in Luleå, Sweden.

1939  In Bombay, Mohandas Gandhi begins a hunger strike in protest at the autocratic rule in British India.

1938  The Mallard the fastest steam driven train on the planet, was built by LNER Doncaster Works England

1938  Oil is discovered in Saudi Arabia.

1931  The United States adopts The Star-Spangled Banner as its national anthem.

1924  The Free State of Fiume is annexed by Kingdom of Italy.

1924  The thirteen-century-old Islamic caliphate is abolished when Caliph Abdülmecid II of the Ottoman Empire is deposed. The last remnant of the old regime gives way to the reformed Turkey of Kemal Atatürk.

1923  TIME magazine is published for the first time.

1918  Germany, Austria and Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ending Russia’s involvement in World War I, and leading to the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk:

Independence of Estonia and the Independence War:

History of Estonia:


Estonia and the European Union:

Foreign Relations of Estonia:

History of Latvia:


Foreign Relations of Latvia:

Economy of Latvia:

Independence of Lithuania

History and Social Issues of Lithuania:

Historical Background of the Baltic States and the Soviet Union:

Russia Reviews the 1991 Decision to Recognize the Independence of the Baltic States:

History of Poland:


Foreign Relations of Poland:

Economy of Poland:

1915  NACA, the predecessor of NASA, is founded.

1913  Thousands of women march in a suffrage parade in Washington, D.C.

Women’s Suffrage in the United States:

History of Women’s Suffrage (Movement) in the United States:

The Nineteenth Amendment and Women’s Suffrage:

League of Women Voters:

Women’s Suffrage and Its History:

Women’s Rights in General:

1910  Rockefeller Foundation: John D. Rockefeller Jr. announces his retirement from managing his businesses so that he can devote all his time to philanthropy.

1905  Tsar Nicholas II of Russia agrees to create an elected assembly, the Duma.

1904  Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany becomes the first person to make a sound recording of a political document, using Thomas Edison‘s phonograph cylinder.

1885  The American Telephone & Telegraph Company is incorporated in New York.

1878  The Russo-Turkish War ends as Bulgaria regains its independence from Ottoman Empire according to the Treaty of San Stefano; shortly after Congress of Berlin stripped its status to an autonomous state of the Ottoman Empire.

Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878):

Treaty of San Stefano:

Congress of Berlin:

1875  Georges Bizet‘s opera Carmen receives its première at the Opéra-Comique in Paris.

1873  Censorship in the United States: The U.S. Congress enacts the Comstock Law, making it illegal to send any “obscene, lewd, or lascivious” books through the mail.

1865  Opening of The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the founding member of the HSBC Group.

1857  Second Opium War: France and the United Kingdom declare war on China.

Opium Wars:

Second Opium War:

1799  The Russo-Ottoman siege of Corfu ends with the surrender of the French garrison.




2009  The International Criminal Court (ICC) issues an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur. Al-Bashir is the first sitting head of state to be indicted by the ICC since its establishment in 2002.

2002  Afghanistan: Seven American Special Operations Forces soldiers and 200 Al-Qaeda Fighters are killed as American forces attempt to infiltrate the Shah-i-Kot Valley on a low-flying helicopter reconnaissance mission.

War in Afghanistan Timelines:

2001  Hintze Ribeiro disaster: A bridge collapses in northern Portugal, killing up to 70 people.

2001  BBC bombing: A massive car bomb explodes in front of the BBC Television Centre in London, seriously injuring one person. The attack was attributed to the Real IRA.

2001 BBC Bombing:

Real IRA:

1998  Gay rights: Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc.: The Supreme Court of the United States rules that federal laws banning on-the-job sexual harassment also apply when both parties are the same sex.

1991  Sheikh Saad Al-Salim Al-Sabah, the Prime Minister of Kuwait, returns to his country for the first time since Iraq‘s invasion.

1986  The Soviet Vega 1 begins returning images of Halley’s Comet and the first images of its nucleus.

1985  The Food and Drug Administration approves a blood test for AIDS infection, used since then for screening all blood donations in the United States.

1983  Bertha Wilson is appointed the first woman to sit on the Supreme Court of Canada.

1980  Nationalist leader Robert Mugabe wins a sweeping election victory to become Zimbabwe‘s first black prime minister.

1977  The 1977 Vrancea earthquake in eastern and southern Europe kills more than 1,500, mostly in the seriously damaged city of Bucharest, Romania.

1976  The Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention is formally dissolved in Northern Ireland resulting in direct rule of Northern Ireland from London by the British parliament.

1974  People magazine is published for the first time in the United States as People Weekly.

People magazine:

1957  The S&P 500 stock market index is introduced, replacing the S&P 90.

1945  Lapland War: Finland declares war on Nazi Germany.

Lapland War:

1944  World War II: After the success of Big Week, the USAAF begins a daylight bombing campaign of Berlin.

1943  World War II: The Battle of the Bismarck Sea in the south-west Pacific comes to an end.

1941  World War II: The United Kingdom launches Operation Claymore on the Lofoten Islands; the first large scale British Commando raid.

1933  Frances Perkins becomes United States Secretary of Labor, the first female member of the United States Cabinet.

1913  First Balkan War: The Greek army engages the Turks at Bizani, resulting in victory two days later.

Balkan Wars:

First Balkan War:

1890  The longest bridge in Great Britain, the Forth Bridge in Scotland, measuring 1,710 feet (520 m) long, is opened by the Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII.

1882  Britain’s first electric trams run in east London.

1865  The third and final national flag of the Confederate States of America is adopted by the Confederate Congress.

1861  The first national flag of the Confederate States of America (the “Stars and Bars”) is adopted.

1848  Carlo Alberto di Savoia signs the Statuto Albertino that will later represent the first constitution of the Regno d’Italia.

1814  Americans defeat British forces at the Battle of Longwoods between London, Ontario and Thamesville, near present-day Wardsville, Ontario.

1813  Cyril VI of Constantinople is elected Ecumenical Patriarch.

1804  Castle Hill Rebellion: Irish convicts rebel against British colonial authority in the Colony of New South Wales.

1791  The Constitutional Act of 1791 is introduced by the British House of Commons in London which envisages the separation of Canada into Lower Canada (Quebec) and Upper Canada (Ontario).

1790  France is divided into 83 départements, cutting across the former provinces in an attempt to dislodge regional loyalties based on ownership of land by the nobility.




2013  First winter ascent of Broad Peak by Maciej Berbeka, Adam Bielecki, Artur Małek and Tomasz Kowalski.

2012  Invisible Children launches the Stop Kony campaign with the release of Kony 2012.

2003  In Haifa, 17 Israeli civilians are killed by in the Haifa bus 37 suicide bombing.

Haifa Bus 37 Suicide Bombing:

1998  1998 Winter Paralympics, the first Winter Paralympics to be held outside Europe, takes place in Nagano, Japan.

1982  Soviet probe Venera 14 landed on Venus.

1981  The ZX81, a pioneering British home computer, is launched by Sinclair Research and would go on to sell over 1.5 million units around the world.

1979  America’s Voyager 1 spacecraft has its closest approach to Jupiter, 172,000 miles.

1979  Soviet probes Venera 11, Venera 12 and the German-American solar satellite Helios II all are hit by “off the scale” gamma rays leading to the discovery of soft gamma repeaters.

1978  The Landsat 3 is launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.

1975  First meeting of the Homebrew Computer Club

1974  Yom Kippur War: Israeli forces withdraw from the west bank of the Suez Canal.

Yom Kippur War:

Yom Kippur War and the US Policy:

Yom Kippur War and the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs:

Timeline of the Yom Kippur War:

1970  The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty goes into effect after ratification by 43 nations.

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty:

1966  BOAC Flight 911 crashes on Mount Fuji, Japan, killing 124.

1966  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1965  March Intifada: A Leftist uprising erupts in Bahrain against British colonial presence.

March Intifada of 1965:

1962  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

Atmospheric Nuclear Testing at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1960  Cuban photographer Alberto Korda takes his iconic photograph of Marxist revolutionary Ernesto “Che” Guevara.

1946  Hungarian Communists and Social Democrats co-found the Left Bloc.

Background Situations of the Left Bloc:

Hungary after World War II:

History of Hungary:


Foreign Relations of Hungary:

Economy of Hungary:

1946  Winston Churchill coins the phrase “Iron Curtain” in his speech at Westminster College, Missouri.

1944  World War II: The Red Army begins the Uman–Botoșani Offensive in the western Ukrainian SSR.

1943  First flight of Gloster Meteor jet aircraft in the United Kingdom.

1940  Six high-ranking members of Soviet politburo, including General Secretary Joseph Stalin, sign an order for the execution of 25,700 Polish intelligentsia, including 14,700 Polish POWs, in what will become known as the Katyn massacre.

Katyn Massacre:

1936  First flight of Supermarine Spitfire advanced monoplane fighter aircraft in the United Kingdom.

1933  Adolf Hitler‘s Nazi Party receives 43.9% at the Reichstag elections. This later allows the Nazis to pass the Enabling Act and establish a dictatorship.

Enabling Act:

1933  Great Depression: President Franklin D. Roosevelt declares a “bank holiday“, closing all U.S. banks and freezing all financial transactions.

Bank Holiday:

Great Depression (1929-1939):

Timeline of the Great Depression:

1931  The British Viceroy of India, Governor-General Edward Frederick Lindley Wood and Mohandas Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) sign an agreement envisaging the release of political prisoners and allowing salt to be freely used by the poorest members of the population.

1912  Italo-Turkish War: Italian forces are the first to use airships for military purposes, employing them for reconnaissance behind Turkish lines.

1906  Moro Rebellion: United States Army troops bring overwhelming force against the native Moros in the First Battle of Bud Dajo, leaving only six survivors.

1872  George Westinghouse patents the air brake.

1868  Mefistofele, an opera by Arrigo Boito receives its première performance at La Scala.

1860  Parma, Tuscany, Modena and Romagna vote in referendums to join the Kingdom of Sardinia.

1850  The Britannia Bridge across the Menai Strait between the island of Anglesey and the mainland of Wales is opened.

1836  Samuel Colt patents the first production-model revolver, the .34-caliber.

1824  First Anglo-Burmese War: The British officially declare war on Burma.

Anglo-Burmese Wars:

First Anglo-Burmese War:

History of Burma/Myanmar:


Burmese Monarchy and the British Rule:

Some Relevant Issues on the Rohingya People and the British Rule:

Human Rights in Burma/Myanmar:

Pro-Democracy Uprising, Ethnic Cleansing and Other Pertinent Issues:

Foreign Relations of Burma/Myanmar:

Economy of Myanmar:

1811  Peninsular War: A French force under the command of Marshal Victor is routed while trying to prevent an Anglo-Spanish-Portuguese army from lifting the Siege of Cádiz in the Battle of Barrosa.

Peninsular War:

Siege of Cádiz:

Battle of Barrosa:

1770  Boston Massacre: Five Americans, including Crispus Attucks, are fatally shot by British troops in an event that would contribute to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War (also known as the American War of Independence) five years later.

1616  Nicolaus Copernicus‘s book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium is banned by the Catholic Church


(Sources and references:   march_5;   to march/5;   to march_5.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 27 Feb 2017.

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