This Week in History

HISTORY, 22 May 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

May 22-28


“When I despair, I remember that all through history the ways of truth and love have always won.  There have been tyrants, and murderers, and for a time they can seem invincible, but in the end they always fall.  Think of it—always.” —Mahatma Gandhi


MAY 22

2014  General Prayuth Chan-ocha of the Royal Thai Armed Forces announces a military coup d’état, following six months of political turmoil.

2011  Islamic militants attack, penetrate the defensive perimeter, and seize at least one building at a naval aviation base, PNS Mehran, outside Karachi, Pakistan.

2005  A Presidential election is held in Mongolia; the result is a victory for Nambaryn Enkhbayar of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP).

2002  American civil rights movement: a jury in Birmingham, Alabama, convicts former Ku Klux Klan member Bobby Frank Cherry of the 1963 murders of four girls in the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church.

Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and Its History:

History of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States – Overview:

Civil Rights Movements of Various Ethnic Minorities in the United States:

1997  Kelly Flinn, the US Air Force‘s first female bomber pilot certified for combat, accepts a general discharge in order to avoid a court-martial.

1992  Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia join the United Nations.

Bosnia-Herzegovina and the United Nations:


Foreign Relations of Bosnia-Herzegovina:

History of Bosnia-Herzegovina:

Economy of Bosnia-Herzegovina:

Croatia and the United Nations:


Foreign Relations of Croatia:

History of Croatia:

Economy of Croatia:

Slovenia and the United Nations:


Foreign Relations of Slovenia:

History of Slovenia:

Economy of Slovenia:

1990  Microsoft releases the Windows 3.0 operating system.

1990  North and South Yemen are unified to create the Republic of Yemen.

History of Yemen:


Foreign Relations of Yemen:

Economy of Yemen:

1987  Hashimpura massacre in Meerut, India.

Hashimpura Massacre of 1987:

1974  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Tests:

Nuclear Tests at Nevada Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1972  Ceylon adopts a new constitution, thus becoming a Republic, changes its name to Sri Lanka, and joins the Commonwealth of Nations.

1967  Vietnam War: Vinh Xuan massacre.

Vietnam War in 1967:

Vinh Xuan Massacre:

1964  The US President Lyndon B. Johnson announces the goals of his Great Society social reforms to bring an “end to poverty and racial injustice” in America.

Lyndon B Johnson’s Great Society – War on Poverty:

1958  Sri Lankan riots of 1958: This riot is a watershed event in the race relationship of the various ethnic communities of Sri Lanka. The total number of deaths is estimated to be 300, mostly Sri Lankan Tamils.

Sri Lankan Riots of 1958:

History of Sri Lanka:

Sri Lanka:

Foreign Relations of Sri Lanka:

Economy of Sri Lanka:

1947  Cold War: in an effort to fight the spread of Communism, the U.S. President Harry S. Truman signs an act into law that will later be called the Truman Doctrine. The act grants $400 million in military and economic aid to Turkey and Greece, each battling an internal Communist movement.

1947  1st US ballistic missile fired.

US Ballistic Missile Defense:

1945  Operation Paperclip – United States Army Major Robert B. Staver recommends that the U.S. evacuate German scientists and engineers to help in the development of rocket technology.

1942  World War II: Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox enlists in the United States Marine Corps as a flight instructor.

1942  Mexico enters World War II on the side of the Allies.

1939  World War II: Germany and Italy sign the Pact of Steel.

1926  Chiang Kai-shek replaces communists in Kuomintang, China.

1906 The Wright brothers are granted U.S. patent number 821,393 for their “Flying-Machine“.

1897  The Blackwall Tunnel under the River Thames is officially opened

1885  Prior to burial in the Panthéon, the body of Victor Hugo was exposed under the Arc de Triomphe during the night.

1872  Reconstruction: U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signs the Amnesty Act into law restoring full civil and political rights to all but about 500 Confederate sympathizers.

1848  Slavery is abolished in Martinique.

History of Martinique:

Slavery of Martinique:



MAY 23

2014  The World Trade Organization upheld its November decision to continue banning European imports of seal products on the grounds of concern for the suffering of the hunted animals; the WTO is also reexamining its exception for indigenous hunters.

WTO Seal Products Dispute:

2010  Jamaican police begin a manhunt for drug lord Christopher Coke, after the United States requested his extradition, leading to three days of violence during which at least 73 bystanders are killed.

2009  Former South Korean president Roh Moo-hyun commits suicide, jumping from a 45 meter cliff in Bongha, Gimhae, South Korea.

2008  The International Court of Justice (ICJ) awards Middle Rocks to Malaysia and Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh) to Singapore, ending a 29-year territorial dispute between the two countries.

2002  The “55 parties” clause of the Kyoto Protocol is reached after its ratification by Iceland.

Kyoto Protocol:

1998  The Good Friday Agreement is accepted in a referendum in Northern Ireland with 75% voting yes.

Good Friday Agreement:

1995  The first version of the Java programming language is released.

Java Programming Language:

1992  Italy’s most prominent anti-mafia judge Giovanni Falcone, his wife and three body guards are killed by the Corleonesi clan with a half-ton bomb near Capaci, Sicily. His friend and colleague Paolo Borsellino will be assassinated less than 2 months later, making 1992 a turning point in the history of Italian Mafia prosecutions.

1970  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1970:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1967  Egypt closes the Straits of Tiran and blockades the port of Eilat at the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba to Israeli shipping.

Egypt’s Blockade of the Straits of Tiran:

Six-Day War:

1960  Israel announces capture of Nazi Adolf Eichmann in Argentina.

Capture of Adolf Eichmann:

Adolf Eichmann:

Trial of Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem:

1951  Tibetans sign the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet with China.

Seventeen Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation:

Tibetan Issues:

History of Tibet:

Economy of Tibet:

14th Dalai Lama:

1949  The Federal Republic of Germany is established and the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany is proclaimed.

Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany:

Allied Control Council:

Occupation of Germany:


Foreign Relations of Germany:

History of Germany:

Economy of Germany:

1948  Thomas C. Wasson, the US Consul-General, is assassinated in Jerusalem, Israel.

1945  World War II: The Flensburg Government under Reichspräsident Karl Dönitz is dissolved when its members are captured and arrested by British forces at Flensburg in Northern Germany.

1945  World War II: Heinrich Himmler, the head of the Schutzstaffel, commits suicide while in Allied custody.

Heinrich Himmler:

1932  In Brazil, four students are shot and killed during a manifestation against the Brazilian dictator Getúlio Vargas, which occurred in the city of São Paulo. Their names and surnames were used to form the MMDC, a revolutionary group that would act against the dictatorial government, especially in the Constitutionalist Revolution (“Revolução Constitucionalista”, in Portuguese), the major uprising in Brazil during the 20th century.

1915  World War I: Italy joins the Allies after they declare war on Austria-Hungary.

Timelines of the World War I:

1911  The New York Public Library is dedicated.

1907  The unicameral Parliament of Finland gathers for its first plenary session.

1846  Mexican–American War: President Mariano Paredes of Mexico unofficially declares war on the United States.

Mexican-American War:

Timelines of the Mexican-American War:

1844  Declaration of the Báb the evening before the 23rd: a merchant of Shiraz announces that he is a Prophet and founds a religious movement that would later be brutally crushed by the Persian government. He is considered to be a forerunner of the Bahá’í Faith, and Bahá’ís celebrate the day as a holy day.



MAY 24

2002  Russia and the United States sign the Moscow Treaty.

Moscow Treaty:

2001  The Versailles wedding hall disaster in Jerusalem, Israel kills 23 and injures over 200.

2001  Mountain climbing: Temba Tsheri, a 16-year-old Sherpa, becomes the youngest person to climb to the top of Mount Everest.

2000  Israeli troops withdraw from southern Lebanon after 22 years of occupation.

1994  Four men convicted of bombing the World Trade Center in New York in 1993 are each sentenced to 240 years in prison.

1993  Eritrea gains its independence from Ethiopia.

Modern and Contemporary History of “Eritrea”:

Modern History of “Ethiopia”:

1992  The last Thai dictator, General Suchinda Kraprayoon, resigns following pro-democracy protests.

1991  Israel conducts Operation Solomon, evacuating Ethiopian Jews to Israel.

Operation Solomon:

Ethiopian Jews:

1988  Section 28 of the United Kingdom’s Lo(cal Government Act 1988, a controversial amendment stating that a local authority cannot intentionally promote homosexuality, is enacted.

1982  Liberation of Khorramshahr: Iranians recapture of the port city of Khorramshahr from the Iraqis during the Iran–Iraq War.

1981  Ecuadorian president Jaime Roldós Aguilera, his wife, and his presidential committee die in an aircraft accident while travelling from Quito to Zapotillo minutes after the president gave a famous speech regarding the 24 de mayo anniversary of the Battle of Pichincha.

1972  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Tests:

Nuclear Tests at the Nevada Test Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1970  The drilling of the Kola Superdeep Borehole begins in the Soviet Union.

1967  Egypt imposes a blockade and siege of the Red Sea coast of Israel.

Siege of the Red Sea of 1967:

Six-Day War:

Egypt-Israel Relations:


History of (Modern) Egypt:

Foreign Relations of Egypt:

Economy of Egypt:

1963  Baldwin–Kennedy meeting on race relations in the US

1961  Cyprus joins the Council of Europe.

Cyprus and the Council of Europe:

1961  American civil rights movement: Freedom Riders are arrested in Jackson, Mississippi, for “disturbing the peace” after disembarking from their bus.

Freedom Riders:

History of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States – Overview:

Civil Rights Movements of Various Ethnic Minorities in the United States:

1958  United Press International is formed through a merger of the United Press and the International News Service.

1956  Conclusion of the Sixth Buddhist Council on Vesak Day, marking the 2,500 year anniversary after the Lord Buddha‘s Parinibbāna.

1951  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Enewetak.

Enewetak Nuclear Test Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1948  Arab–Israeli War: Egypt captures the Israeli kibbutz of Yad Mordechai, but the five-day effort gives Israeli forces time to prepare enough to stop the Egyptian advance a week later.

Timeline of the Arab-Israeli War of 1948:


Foreign Relations of Israel:

History of Israel:

Economy of Israel:

1943  The Holocaust: Josef Mengele becomes chief medical officer of the Auschwitz concentration camp.

Josef Mengele and His Medical Experiments at the Auschwitz-Birkenau Camp:

The Holocaust and Auschwitz:

Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp:

Nazi’s Human Experiments:

Comparison: Japanese Military Unit 731’s Human Experiments during WWII:

Evil Human Experiments:

1941  World War II: In the Battle of the Atlantic, the German Battleship Bismarck sinks then-pride of the Royal Navy, HMS Hood, killing all but three crewmen.

Battle of the Atlantic:

1940  Acting on the orders of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, NKVD agent Iosif Grigulevich orchestrates an unsuccessful assassination attempt on exiled Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky in Coyoacán, Mexico

Assassination of Leon Trotsky:

1940  Igor Sikorsky performs the first successful single-rotor helicopter flight.

1939  First issue of Fashizmi is published in Tirana.

1930  Amy Johnson lands in Darwin, Northern Territory, becoming the first woman to fly solo from England to Australia (she left on May 5 for the 11,000 mile flight).

1921  The trial of Sacco and Vanzetti opens.

Sacco and Vanzetti Case:

1915  World War I: Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary.

Timelines of the World War I:

Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) Empire:

History of the Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) Empire:

1900  Second Boer War: The United Kingdom annexes the Orange Free State.

Orange Free State (1854-1902):

Britain’s Invasion of the Orange Free State of 1900:

Second Boer War:

1844  Samuel Morse sends the message “What hath God wrought” (a biblical quotation, Numbers 23:23) from the Old Supreme Court Chamber in the United States Capitol to his assistant, Alfred Vail, in Baltimore, Maryland, to inaugurate the first telegraph line.

1832  The First Kingdom of Greece is declared in the London Conference.

London Conference of 1832:

First Kingdom of Greece:

History of Modern Greece:



MAY 25

2013  Suspected Maoist rebels kill at least 28 people and injure 32 others in an attack on a convoy of Indian National Congress politicians in Chhattisgarh, India.

2009  North Korea allegedly tests its second nuclear device. Following the nuclear test, Pyongyang also conducted several missile tests building tensions in the international community.

2001  Erik Weihenmayer, 32 years old, of Boulder, Colorado, becomes the first blind person to reach the summit of Mount Everest.

2000  Liberation Day of Lebanon. Israel withdraws its army from most of the Lebanese territory after 22 years of its first invasion in 1978.

Liberation Day of Lebanon:

History and Background of Israeli-Lebanese Conflict:

History of Lebanon:


Foreign Relations of Lebanon:

Economy of Lebanon:

1999  The United States House of Representatives releases the Cox Report which details the People’s Republic of China‘s nuclear espionage against the U.S. over the prior two decades.

1997  A military coup in Sierra Leone replaces President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah with Major Johnny Paul Koromah.

Military Coup in Sierra Leone of May 1997:

Sierra Leone Civil War:

Sierra Leone:

History of Sierra Leone:

Economy of Sierra Leone:

1989  Mikhail Gorbachev elected Executive President in the Soviet Union.

Mikhail Gorbachev:

1986  Hands Across America takes place.

Hands Across America:

1981  In Riyadh, the Gulf Cooperation Council is created between Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.

1977  Chinese government removes a decade old ban on William Shakespeare‘s work, effectively ending the Cultural Revolution started in 1966.

1973  HNS Velos (D-16), while participating in a NATO exercise and in order to protest against the dictatorship in Greece, anchored at Fiumicino, Italy, refusing to return to Greece.

1972  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Tests:

Nuclear Tests at the Nevada Test Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1966  The first prominent dàzìbào during the Cultural Revolution in China is posted at Peking University.

1963  In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, the Organization of African Unity is established.

Organization of African Union:

History of the African Union:

1962  US performs atmospheric nuclear test, at Christmas Island.

Nuclear Tests at Christmas Islands:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

1953  The first public television station in the United States officially begins broadcasting as KUHT from the campus of the University of Houston.

1953  Nuclear testing (atmospheric): At the Nevada Test Site, the United States conduct their first and only nuclear artillery test.

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1946  The parliament of Transjordan makes Abdullah I of Jordan their Emir.

1940  World War II: The German 2nd Panzer Division captures the port of Boulogne-sur-Mer; the surrender of the last French and British troops marks the end of the Battle of Boulogne.

Battle of Boulogne:

1938  Spanish Civil War: The bombing of Alicante takes place, with 313 deaths.

Bombing of Alicante on 25 May 1938:

Spanish Civil War:

Timelines of the Spanish Civil War:

1926  Sholom Schwartzbard assassinates Symon Petliura, the head of the government of the Ukrainian People’s Republic, which is in government-in-exile in Paris.

1925  Scopes Trial: John T. Scopes is indicted for teaching Charles Darwin‘s theory of evolution in Tennessee.

1914  The United Kingdom’s House of Commons passes the Home Rule Act for devolution in Ireland.

Home Rule Act of 1914:

History of Ireland:

Irish War of Independence:

1895  The Republic of Formosa is formed, with Tang Ching-sung as its president.

Republic of Formosa:

Timeline of the Republic of Formosa:

1837  The Rebels of Lower Canada (Quebec) rebel against the British for freedom.

1810  May Revolution: citizens of Buenos Aires expel Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros during the May week, starting the Argentine War of Independence.

1809  Chuquisaca Revolution: a group of patriots in Chuquisaca (modern day Sucre) revolt against the Spanish Empire, starting the South American Wars of Independence.

1798  United Irishmen Rebellion: The Carnew massacre, Dunlavin massacre and Carlow massacre take place.



MAY 26

1998  The first “National Sorry Day” was held in Australia, and reconciliation events were held nationally, and attended by over a million people.

National Sorry Day:

Indigenous Australians:

Stolen Generations:

Tasmanian Aboriginal People:

Tasmanian Genocide

1992  The blockade of Dubrovnik is broken. Following this, the siege of Dubrovnik ends in the next months.

Siege of Dubrovnik:

1991  Zviad Gamsakhurdia becomes the first elected President of the Republic of Georgia in the post-Soviet era.

Zviad Gamsakhurdia:

Georgia (country):

Democracy and Georgia:

History of Georgia :

Georgia – Russia Relations:

Foreign Relations of Georgia:

Economy of Georgia:

1989  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1986  The European Community adopts the European flag.

European Flag:

1981  Italian Prime Minister Arnaldo Forlani and his coalition cabinet resign following a scandal over membership of the pseudo-masonic lodge P2 (Propaganda Due).

1972  The United States and the Soviet Union sign the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

1972  Willandra National Park is established in Australia.

1972  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

1972  In Moscow, President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I) Interim Agreement which placed a ceiling on strategic offensive nuclear weapons.


1971  Bangladesh Liberation War: The Pakistan Army slaughters at least 71 Hindus in Burunga, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

Bangladesh Liberation War:

History of Bangladesh:

Economy of Bangladesh:

1967  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

1966  British Guiana gains independence, becoming Guyana.


History of Guyana:

Economy of Guyana:

1958  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Enewetak.

Enwetak Nuclear Test Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1945  US drops fire bombs on Tokyo.

Bombing of Tokyo:

Law of War: Prohibition of the Killing of Civilians:

1942  World War II: The Battle of Gazala takes place.

Battle of Gazala:

1940  World War II: The Siege of Calais ends with the surrender of the British and French garrison.

Siege of Calais of 1940:

1940  World War II: Operation Dynamo – In northern France, Allied forces begin a massive evacuation from Dunkirk, France.

1918  The Democratic Republic of Georgia is established.

Treaty of Moscow of 1920:

Democratic Republic of Georgia and Its First Constitution:

History of Georgia (country):

Georgia – Russia Relations:

Foreign Relations of Georgia:


Democracy and Georgia:

Economy of Georgia:

1908  At Masjed Soleyman (مسجد سليمان) in southwest Persia, the first major commercial oil strike in the Middle East is made. The rights to the resource are quickly acquired by the Anglo-Persian Oil Company.

Anglo-Persian Oil Company Agreement:

1900  Thousand Days’ War: The Colombian Conservative Party turns the tide of war in their favor with victory against the Colombian Liberal Party in the Battle of Palonegro.

Battle of Palonegro:

Thousand Days’ War:

1896 Nicholas II becomes the last Tsar of Imperial Russia.

Nicholas II:

1879  Russia and the United Kingdom sign the Treaty of Gandamak establishing an Afghan state.

1830  The Indian Removal Act is passed by the U.S. Congress; it is signed into law by President Andrew Jackson two days later.

1805  Napoléon Bonaparte assumes the title of King of Italy and is crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy in Milan Cathedral, the gothic cathedral in Milan.



MAY 27

2006  The May 2006 Java earthquake strikes devastating Bantul and the city of Yogyakarta killing over 6,600 people.

Java 2006 Earthquake:

2001Members of the Islamist separatist group Abu Sayyaf seize twenty hostages from an affluent island resort on Palawan in the Philippines; the hostage crisis would not be resolved until June 2002.

1999  The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia or ICTY in The Hague, Netherlands indicts Slobodan Milošević and four others for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Kosovo.

ICTY’s Indictment of Milošević:

History of Kosovo and Kosovo Serbs:

History of Kosovo:

Why is Kosovo Important to Serbs?

Milošević’s Gazimestan Speech:

Independence of Kosovo:

Kosovo Conflict:

Kosovo Liberation Army:

The United States, NATO and the Kosovo Conflict:

1997  Russian President Boris Yeltsin signs a historic treaty with NATO.

NATO and Russia on Security Partnership:

1996  First Chechnya War: the Russian President Boris Yeltsin meets with Chechnyan rebels for the first time and negotiates a cease-fire.

First Chechen War:

Chechen Wars:

Russia, Chechnya and Terrorism:

Civilians under International Humanitarian Law:

1981  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1981:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1970  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1970:

1968  The meeting of the Union Nationale des Étudiants de France (National Union of the Students of France) takes place. 30,000 to 50,000 people gather in the Stade Sebastien Charlety.

1967  Australians vote in favor of a constitutional referendum granting the Australian government the power to make laws to benefit Indigenous Australians and to count them in the national census.

1965  Vietnam War: American warships begin the first bombardment of National Liberation Front targets within South Vietnam.

Vietnam War in 1965:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

1960  In Turkey, a military coup removes President Celal Bayar and the rest of the democratic government from office.

Military Coup in Turkey of 1960:

Military Coups in Turkey: 1960-1997:

1956  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Enewetak.

Enewetak Nuclear Test Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1942  World War II: In Operation Anthropoid, Reinhard Heydrich is fatally wounded in Prague; he dies of his injuries eight days later.

1941  World War II: The German battleship Bismarck is sunk in the North Atlantic killing almost 2,100 men.

1941  World War II: The U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaims an “unlimited national emergency”.

1940  World War II: In the Le Paradis massacre, 99 soldiers from a Royal Norfolk Regiment unit are shot after surrendering to German troops; two survive.

1933  New Deal: The US Federal Securities Act is signed into law requiring the registration of securities with the Federal Trade Commission.

New Deal:

1908  Khilafat Day – the day of establishment of Khilafat in Islam Ahmadiyya.

1905  Russo-Japanese War: The Battle of Tsushima begins.

1883  Alexander III is crowned Tsar of Russia.



MAY 28

2012  The discovery of Flame, a complex malware program targeting computers in Middle Eastern countries, is announced.

2011  Malta votes on the introduction of divorce.

Divorce Laws:

2008  The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly of Nepal formally declares Nepal a republic, ending the 240-year reign of the Shah dynasty.

2004  The Iraqi Governing Council chooses Ayad Allawi, a longtime anti-Saddam Hussein exile, as prime minister of Iraq‘s interim government.

2002  NATO declares Russia a limited partner in the Western alliance.

NATO and Russia:


History of NATO:

Problems of NATO:

The United States and NATO:

2002  The last steel girder is removed from the original World Trade Center site. Cleanup duties officially end with closing ceremonies at Ground Zero in Manhattan, New York City.

Collapse of the World Trade Center:

1999  In Milan, Italy, after 22 years of restoration work, Leonardo da Vinci‘s masterpiece The Last Supper is put back on display.

1998  Nuclear testing: Pakistan responds to a series of nuclear tests by India with five of its own codenamed Chagai-I, prompting the United States, Japan, and other nations to impose economic sanctions. Pakistan celebrates Youm-e-Takbir annually.

Nuclear Weapons Test of Pakistan:

1997  Linda Finch completes Amelia Earhart attempted around-the-world flight.

Linda Finch’s Around-the-World Flight:

1995  The Russian town of Neftegorsk is hit by a 7.6 magnitude earthquake that kills at least 2,000 people, half of the total population.

1993  Eritrea and Monaco join the United Nations.

Eritrea and the United Nations:

Monaco and the United Nations:

1991  The capital city of Addis Ababa falls to the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front, ending both the Derg regime in Ethiopia and the Ethiopian Civil War.

Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front:

Ethiopian Civil War:

Modern History of Ethiopia:

1979  Konstantinos Karamanlis signs the full treaty of the accession of Greece with the European Economic Community.

1975  Fifteen West African countries sign the Treaty of Lagos, creating the Economic Community of West African States.

1974  Northern Ireland‘s power-sharing Sunningdale Agreement collapses following a general strike by loyalists.

1967  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1967:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1964  The Palestine Liberation Organization is formed.

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO):

History of the PLO:

1961  Peter Benenson‘s article The Forgotten Prisoners is published in several internationally read newspapers. This will later be thought of as the founding of the human rights organization Amnesty International.

History of the Amnesty International:

1958  Cuban Revolution: Fidel Castro‘s 26th of July Movement, heavily reinforced by Frank Pais Militia, overwhelm an army post in El Uvero.

26th of July Movement:

Cuban Revolution:

Fidel Castro:

Cuba or the “Republic of Cuba” (Repúlica de Cuba):

Foreign Relations of Cuba:

Cuba and USSR/Russia:

Cuba and the United States:

History and Culture of Cuba:

Economy of Cuba:

1957  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

Operation Plumbbob:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1952  The women of Greece are granted the right to vote.

Women’s Suffrage in Greece:

Women’s Rights in General:

Women’s Suffrage and Its History:

Modern History of Greece:

1948  Daniel François Malan is elected as Prime Minister of South Africa. He later goes on to implement Apartheid.

History of Apartheid:

Anti-Apartheid Movement:

1942  World War II: in retaliation for the assassination attempt on Reinhard Heydrich, Nazis in Czechoslovakia kill over 1,800 people.

Massacre at Lidice of 1942:

1940 World War II: Norwegian, French, Polish and British forces recapture Narvik in Norway. This is the first allied infantry victory of the War.

1940  World War II: Belgium surrenders to Nazi Germany to end the Battle of Belgium.

Battle of Belgium:

1937  Volkswagen (VW), the German automobile manufacturer is founded.

History of Volkswagen:

1937  The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California, is officially opened by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in Washington, D.C., who pushes a button signaling the start of vehicle traffic over the span.

Golden Gate Bridge:

1936  Klaipėda Radio Station begins regular broadcasting.

1936  Alan Turing submits On Computable Numbers for publication.

On Computable Numbers:

1934  Near Callander, Ontario, Canada, the Dionne quintuplets are born to Oliva and Elzire Dionne; they will be the first quintuplets to survive infancy.

1932  In the Netherlands, construction of the Afsluitdijk is completed and the Zuiderzee bay is converted to the freshwater IJsselmeer.

1926  28 May 1926 coup d’état: Ditadura Nacional is established in Portugal to suppress the unrest of the First Republic.

28 May 1926 Coup d’état:

(Modern) History of Portugal:

1918  The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and the First Republic of Armenia declare their independence.

History of Azerbaijan:


History of Armenia:


Foreign Relations of Armenia:

Economy of Armenia:

1905  Russo-Japanese War: The Battle of Tsushima ends with the destruction of the Russian Baltic Fleet by Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō and the Imperial Japanese Navy.

1892  In San Francisco, California, John Muir organizes the Sierra Club.

History of the Sierra Club:

1871  Fall of the Paris Commune.

History of the Paris Commune:

1830  US President Andrew Jackson signs the Indian Removal Act which relocates Native Americans.

Indian Removal:

Indian Removal Act of 1830:

Native People of America (a.k.a. American Indians):

History of Native People of America:

Wars of Native People of North America:

Genocides Committed against Native Americans:

Genocide Committed against Native Caucasians:

Indigenous Peoples and Their Rights:

1754  French and Indian War: in the first engagement of the war, Virginia militia under the 22-year-old Lieutenant colonel George Washington defeat a French reconnaissance party in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in what is now Fayette County in southwestern Pennsylvania.

French and Indian War:

Timelines of the French-Indian War:

1644  Bolton Massacre by Royalist troops under the command of James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby.

Bolton Massacre:


(Sources and references:   to may_28;   to may/28;   to may_28.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 22 May 2017.

Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week in History, is included. Thank you.

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