This Week in History

HISTORY, 5 Jun 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

Jun 5-11


“In everyone’s life, at some time, our inner fire goes out.  It is then burst into flame by an encounter with another human being.  We should all be thankful for those people who rekindle the inner spirit.” – Albert Schweitzer



2009  After 65 straight days of civil disobedience, at least 31 people are killed in clashes between security forces and indigenous people near Bagua, Peru.

Civil Disobedience:

Civil disobedience –

2006  Serbia declares independence from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.

2000  The Six-Day War in Kisangani begins in Kisangani, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, between Ugandan and Rwandan forces. A large part of the city is destroyed.

Six-Day War in Kisangani of 2000:

History of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:

Belgian Congo:

Democratic Republic of the Congo:

Foreign Relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:

Economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:

1995  The Bose–Einstein condensate is first created.

Bose-Einstein Condensate:

1989  The Tank Man halts the progress of a column of advancing tanks for over half an hour after the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.

Tank Man at the Tiananmen Square in June 1989:

Tiananmen Square, Beijing:

Tiananmen Square Massacre of 1989:

1984  The Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, orders an attack on the Golden Temple, the holiest site of the Sikh religion.

1981  The “Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report” of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that five people in Los Angeles, California, have a rare form of pneumonia seen only in patients with weakened immune systems, in what turns out to be the first recognized cases of AIDS.


1977  A coup takes place in Seychelles.


Foreign Relations of Seychelles:

History of Seychelles:

Economy of Seychelles:

1975  The United Kingdom holds its first country-wide referendum on remaining in the European Economic Community (EEC).

1975  The Suez Canal opens for the first time since the Six-Day War.

Six-Day War:

Suez Crisis (1956-1957):

Egypt and Israel over Suez in 1950:

Egypt-Israel Relations:

1972  UN Conference on Human Environment opens in Stockholm.

UN Conference on Human Environment in Stockholm:

1969  The International communist conference begins in Moscow.

1968  Robert F. Kennedy, a U.S. presidential candidate, is shot at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, by Sirhan Sirhan, a Palestinian. Kennedy dies the next day.

Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy:

1967  The Six-Day War begins: Israel launches surprise strikes against Egyptian air-fields in response to the mobilization of Egyptian forces on the Israeli border.

Six-Day War:

1964  DSV Alvin is commissioned.

1963  Movement of 15 Khordad: Protests against the arrest of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini by the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. In several cities, masses of angry demonstrators are confronted by tanks and paratroopers.

1959  The first government of the State of Singapore is sworn in.

History of Singapore:


Singaporean Self-Rule:

1949  Thailand elects Orapin Chaiyakan, the first female member of Thailand’s Parliament.

1947  Marshall Plan: In a speech at Harvard University, the United States Secretary of State George Marshall calls for economic aid to war-torn Europe.

Marshall Plan:

Timelines of the Marshall Plan:

1945  The Allied Control Council, the military occupation governing body of Germany, formally takes power.

Allied Control Council:

Occupation of Germany:

1944  World War II: More than 1000 British bombers drop 5,000 tons of bombs on German gun batteries on the Normandy coast in preparation for D-Day.

1942  World War II: The United States declares war on Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania.

1941  World War II: Four1 thousand Chongqing residents are asphyxiated in a bomb shelter during the Bombing of Chongqing.

1940  World War II: After a brief lull in the Battle of France, the Germans renew the offensive against the remaining French divisions south of the River Somme in Operation Fall Rot (“Case Red”).

1933  The US Congress abrogates the United States’ use of the gold standard by enacting a joint resolution (48 Stat. 112) nullifying the right of creditors to demand payment in gold.

Gold Standard:

Gold Standard Act:

End of the Gold Standard in 1971:

1917  World War I: Conscription begins in the United States as “Army registration day”.

Conscription and Its History in the United States:

Conscription in Europe (France and Britain):

Conscientious Objection and Objector:

History of Conscientious Objection:

1916  Louis Brandeis is sworn in as a Justice of the United States Supreme Court; he is the first American Jew to hold such a position.

1915  Denmark amends its constitution to allow women’s suffrage.

Women’s Rights, including Suffrage, in Denmark:

Women’s Suffrage and Its History:

Women’s Rights in General:

1900  Second Boer War: British soldiers take Pretoria.


Second Boer War:

1883  The first regularly scheduled Orient Express departs Paris.

Orient Express:

Peace Train related Events:

1862  As the Treaty of Saigon is signed, ceding parts of southern Vietnam to France, the guerrilla leader Trương Định decides to defy Emperor Tự Đức of Vietnam and fight on against the Europeans.

1851  Harriet Beecher Stowe‘s anti-slavery serial, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, starts a ten-month run in the National Era abolitionist newspaper.

1832  The June Rebellion breaks out in Paris in an attempt to overthrow the monarchy of Louis Philippe.

1798  The Battle of New Ross: The attempt to spread the United Irish Rebellion into Munster is defeated.




2014  World leaders gather in France to mark the 70th anniversary of D-Day; Russian President Vladimir Putin meets with Ukrainian President-elect Petro Poroshenko and others concerning the need to resolve the conflict in eastern Ukraine.


D-Day 70th Anniversary – 1944-2014:

Conflict in Eastern Ukraine:

2005  In Gonzales v. Raich, the United States Supreme Court upholds a federal law banning cannabis, including medical marijuana.

2004  Tamil is established as a “classical language” by the President of India, Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, in a joint sitting of the two houses of the Indian Parliament.

2002  Eastern Mediterranean event. A near-Earth asteroid estimated at ten meters in diameter explodes over the Mediterranean Sea between Greece and Libya. The resulting explosion is estimated to have a force of 26 kilotons, slightly more powerful than the Nagasaki atomic bomb.

1993  Mongolia holds its first direct presidential elections.

Politics of Mongolia, and the Mongolian Presidential Election of 1993:


History of Mongolia:

Foreign Relations of Mongolia:

Mongolia and the United Nations:

Economy of Mongolia:

1985  The grave of “Wolfgang Gerhard” is opened in Embu, Brazil; the exhumed remains are later proven to be those of Josef Mengele, Auschwitz‘s “Angel of Death”. Mengele is thought to have drowned while swimming in February 1979.

1982  The 1982 Lebanon War begins. Forces under Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon invade southern Lebanon during Operation Peace for the Galilee, eventually reaching as far north as the capital Beirut.

1972  US bombs Haiphong, North-Vietnam; 1000s killed.

Vietnam War in 1972:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement or Opposition to United States Involvement in the Vietnam War:

1971  Vietnam War: the Battle of Long Khanh between Australian and Vietnamese communist forces begins.

Vietnam War in 1971:

Battle of Long Khanh:

1968  Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy: Robert F. Kennedy, Democratic Party senator from New York and brother of 35th President John F. Kennedy, dies from gunshot wounds inflicted on June 5.

Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy:

1944  World War II: the Battle of Normandy begins. D-Day, code named Operation Overlord, commences with the landing of 155,000 Allied troops on the beaches of Normandy in France. The allied soldiers quickly break through the Atlantic Wall and push inland in the largest amphibious military operation in history.

D-Day: Battle of Normandy, 1944:

YouTube videos on D-Day Normandy 1944:

1942  World War II: Battle of Midway. U.S. Navy dive bombers sink the Japanese cruiser Mikuma and four Japanese carriers.

1934  New Deal: the U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Securities Act of 1933 into law, establishing the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

New Deal:

1932  The Revenue Act of 1932 is enacted, creating the first gas tax in the United States, at a rate of 1 cent per US gallon (14¢/L) sold.

1919  The Republic of Prekmurje ends.

Republic of Prekmurje:

1918  World War I: Battle of Belleau Wood – The U.S. Marine Corps suffers its worst single day’s casualties while attempting to recapture the wood at Château-Thierry.

1909  French troops capture Abéché (in modern-day Chad) and install a puppet sultan in the Ouaddai Empire.

History and Culture of Chad:

1882  The Shewan forces of Menelik II of Ethiopia defeat the Gojjame army in the Battle of Embabo. The Shewans capture Negus Tekle Haymanot of Gojjam, and their victory leads to a Shewan hegemony over the territories south of the Abay River.

1882  More than 100,000 inhabitants of Bombay are killed when a cyclone in the Arabian Sea pushes huge waves into the harbor.

1859  Australia: Queensland is established as a separate colony from New South Wales (Queensland Day).

1844  Australia: Queensland is established as a separate colony from New South Wales (Queensland Day).

1832  The June Rebellion in Paris is put down by the National Guard.

1813  War of 1812: Battle of Stoney Creek – A British force of 700 under John Vincent defeats an American force twice its size under William Winder and John Chandler.

1808  Napoleon‘s brother, Joseph Bonaparte, is crowned King of Spain.

1762  British forces begin a siege of Havana and temporarily capture the city in the Battle of Havana.




2000  The United Nations defines the Blue Line as the border between Israel and Lebanon.

Blue Line:

1981  The Israeli Air Force destroyed Iraq‘s Osiraq nuclear reactor during Operation Opera.

1971  The United States Supreme Court overturned the conviction of Paul Cohen for disturbing the peace, setting the precedent that vulgar writing is protected under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

1967  Six-Day War: Israeli soldiers enter Jerusalem.

Six-Day War:



Foreign Relations of Israel:

History of Israel:

Economy of Israel:

1965  The Supreme Court of the United States hands down its decision in Griswold v. Connecticut, effectively legalizing the use of contraception by married couples.

Griswold vs. Connecticut:

1948  Edvard Beneš resigns as President of Czechoslovakia rather than signing the Ninth-of-May Constitution, making his nation a Communist state.

1944  World War II: Battle of Normandy – At Abbey Ardennes, members of the SS Division Hitlerjugend massacre 23 Canadian prisoners of war.

D-Day – Battle of Normandy, 1944:

YouTube videos on D-Day Normandy 1944:

1944  World War II: The steamer Danae, carrying 350 Cretan Jews and 250 Cretan partisans, is sunk without survivors off the shore of Santorini.

1942  World War II: Aleutian Islands Campaign: Imperial Japanese soldiers begin occupying the American islands of Attu and Kiska, in the Aleutian Islands off Alaska.

1942  World War II: The Battle of Midway ends in American victory.

1940  King Haakon VII, Crown Prince Olav and the Norwegian government leaves Tromsø and goes into exile in London. They return exactly five years later

1938  Second Sino-Japanese War: The Chinese Nationalist government creates the 1938 Yellow River flood to halt Japanese forces. 500,000 to 900,000 civilians are killed.

1929  The Lateran Treaty is ratified, bringing Vatican City into existence.

Lateran Treaty:

Vatican City as a Sovereign State:

1919  Sette giugno: Four people are killed in a riot in Malta.

1917  World War I: Battle of Messines – Allied soldiers detonate ammonal mines underneath German trenches at Messines Ridge, killing 10,000 German troops.

1905  Norway‘s parliament dissolves its union with Sweden. The vote was confirmed by a national plebiscite on August 13 of that year.

Dissolution of the Union between Norway and Sweden in June 1905:

1893  Mohandas Gandhi commits his first act of civil disobedience.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (a.k.a. Mahatma Gandhi):

Gandhi’s Civil Disobedience in Nonviolence Tactics:

India’s Independence, Nonviolence Movement, and Gandhi:

1892  Homer Plessy is arrested for refusing to leave his seat in the “whites-only” car of a train; he lost the resulting court case, Plessy v. Ferguson.

Homer Plessy:

1880  War of the Pacific: The Battle of Arica, the assault and capture of Morro de Arica (Arica Cape), ends the Campaña del Desierto (Desert Campaign).

War of the Pacific:

1866  1,800 Fenian raiders are repelled back to the United States after they looted and plundered around Saint-Armand and Frelighsburg, Quebec.

1863  During the French intervention in Mexico, Mexico City is captured by French troops.




1992  The first World Ocean Day is celebrated, coinciding with the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

1987  New Zealand‘s Labour government establishes a national nuclear-free zone under the New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act 1987.

1984  Homosexuality is declared legal in the Australian state of New South Wales.

LGBT and New South Wales:

LGBT Rights (Overview):

Case Study (1) Netherlands Legalizes the Same-Sex Marriage in 2001:

Case Study (2): Sweden Legalizes the Same-Sex Marriage in 2009:

Case Study (3): Nigeria Prohibits the Same Sex Marriage in 2013:

Case Study (4): Slovenia Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage in 2015:

1982  Bluff Cove Air Attacks during the Falklands War: 56 British servicemen are killed by an Argentine air attack on two landing ships, RFA Sir Galahad and RFA Sir Tristram.

1972  Vietnam War: The Associated Press photographer Nick Ut takes his Pulitzer Prize-winning photo of a naked 9-year-old Phan Thị Kim Phúc running down a road after being burned by napalm.

Vietnam War in 1972:

Phan Thi Kim Phúc and Her Photograph:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:


Anti-Viet Nam War Movement or Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War:

1968  Robert F. Kennedy‘s funeral takes place at the St. Patrick’s Cathedral in New York City.

1967  Six-Day War: The Israeli army enters Hebron and the Cave of the Patriarchs.

Six-Day War:


Cave of the Patriarchs (a.k.a. Cave of Machpelah):

1967  Six-Day War: The USS Liberty incident occurs, killing 34 and wounding 171.

  • For the Six-Day War, see1967  Six-Day War: The Israeli army enters Hebron and the Cave of the Patriarchs”, mentioned above.

USS Liberty Incident of 1967:

1959  The USS Barbero and United States Postal Service attempt the delivery of mail via Missile Mail.

1953  The United States Supreme Court rules that restaurants in Washington, D.C., cannot refuse to serve black patrons.

1942  World War II: The Japanese imperial submarines I-21 and I-24 shell the Australian cities of Sydney and Newcastle.

1941  World War II: Allies invade Syria and Lebanon.

1940  World War II: the completion of Operation Alphabet, the evacuation of Allied forces from Narvik at the end of the Norwegian Campaign.

1928  Second Northern Expedition: The National Revolutionary Army captures Peking, whose name is changed to Beijing (“Northern Capital”).

1906  Theodore Roosevelt signs the Antiquities Act into law, authorizing the President to restrict the use of certain parcels of public land with historical or conservation value.

1887  Herman Hollerith applies for US patent #395,791 for the ‘Art of Applying Statistics’ – his punched card calculator.

1856  A group of 194 Pitcairn Islanders, descendants of the mutineers of HMS Bounty, arrives at Norfolk Island, commencing the Third Settlement of the Island.

1794  Robespierre inaugurates the French Revolution‘s new state religion, the Cult of the Supreme Being, with large organized festivals all across France.




2014  Russia seeks to intimidate Finland out of thoughts of joining NATO; a representative of Russian President Vladimir Putin suggested that any moves by Finland to do so could potentially trigger World War III.

Russia, Finland and NATO:

Russia-Finland Relations:

2006  60th Anniversary Celebrations of Bhumibol Adulyadej‘s Accession.

1999  Kosovo War: the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and NATO sign a peace treaty.

Peace Agreement between FRY and NATO of June 1999:

Kosovo War/Conflict:

Independence of Kosovo:

History of Kosovo:

Kosovo Liberation Army:

The United States, NATO and the Kosovo Conflict:


History of NATO:

Problems of NATO:

The United States and NATO:

1985  Thomas Sutherland is kidnapped in Lebanon. He will not be released until 1991.

1978  The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints opens its priesthood to “all worthy men”, ending a 148-year-old policy of excluding black men.

1974  Portugal and the Soviet Union establish diplomatic relations.

1968  U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson declares a national day of mourning following the assassination of Senator Robert F. Kennedy.

1967  Six-Day War: Israel captures the Golan Heights from Syria

Golan Heights in the Six-Day War:

Six-Day War:

1965  Vietnam War: The Viet Cong commences combat with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam in the Battle of Đồng Xoài, one of the largest battles in the war.

1965 in the Vietnam War:

Battle of Đồng Xoài of 1965:

1965  The civilian Prime Minister of South Vietnam, Phan Huy Quát, resigns after being unable to work with a junta led by Nguyễn Cao Kỳ.

1959 The USS George Washington is launched. It is the first submarine to carry ballistic missiles.

1954  McCarthyism: Joseph Welch, special counsel for the United States Army, lashes out at Senator Joseph McCarthy during hearings on whether Communism has infiltrated the Army giving McCarthy the famous rebuke, “You’ve done enough. Have you no sense of decency, sir, at long last? Have you left no sense of decency?”


Joseph McCarthy:

Red Scare (First Red Scare):

Second Red Scare and McCarthyism:

1948  Foundation of the International Council on Archives under the auspices of the UNESCO.

1946  King Ananda Mahidol is found shot dead in his bedroom, Bhumibol Adulyadej ascends to the throne of Thailand. He is currently the world’s longest reigning monarch.

1944  World War II: the Soviet Union invades East Karelia and the previously Finnish part of Karelia, occupied by Finland since 1941.

1944  World War II: 99 civilians are hanged from lampposts and balconies by German troops in Tulle, France, in reprisal for maquisards attacks.

1923  Bulgaria‘s military takes over the government in a coup.

1900  Birsa Munda, an important figure in the Indian independence movement, dies in a British prison under mysterious circumstances.

1885  Treaty of Tientsin is signed to end the Sino-French War, with China eventually giving up Tonkin and Annam – most of present-day Vietnam – to France.

1856  500 Mormons leave Iowa City, Iowa, and head west for Salt Lake City carrying all their possessions in two-wheeled handcarts.

1815  End of the Congress of Vienna: the new European political situation is set. Also, Luxembourg declares independence from the French Empire.

1798  Irish Rebellion of 1798: Battle of Arklow and Battle of Saintfield.

Battle of Arklow:

Battle of Saintfield:

Irish Rebellion of 1798:

History of Ireland:

Path toward the Irish War of Independence:

1762  British forces begin the Siege of Havana and capture the city during the Seven Years’ War.

1667  Second Anglo-Dutch War: The Raid on the Medway by the Dutch fleet begins. It lasts for five days and results in the worst ever defeat of the Royal Navy.




2002  The first direct electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans is carried out by Kevin Warwick in the United Kingdom.

1999  Kosovo War: NATO suspends its air strikes after Slobodan Milošević agrees to withdraw Serbian forces from Kosovo.

Slobodan Milošević:

Kosovo War/Conflict:

Independence of Kosovo:

History of Kosovo:

Kosovo Liberation Army:

The United States, NATO and the Kosovo Conflict:

1997  Before fleeing his northern stronghold, Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot orders the killing of his defense chief Son Sen and 11 of Sen’s family members.

Cambodian Civil War:

Vietnam War and Communism in Cambodia:

Pol Pot:

Khmer Rouge:


History of Cambodia:

Foreign Relations of Cambodia:

Economy of Cambodia:

1996  Peace talks begin in Northern Ireland without the participation of Sinn Féin.

Northern Ireland Conflict:

Timelines of the Northern Ireland Conflict:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA):

History of the IRA:

IRA’s Terrorism:

1980  The African National Congress in South Africa publishes a call to fight from their imprisoned leader Nelson Mandela.

African National Congress (ANC):

History of the African National Congress:

1977  The Apple II, one of the first personal computers, goes on sale.

1967  Argentina becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.

1967  The Six-Day War ends: Israel and Syria agree to a cease-fire.

End of the Six-Day War:

Six-Day War:

1964  United States Senate breaks a 75-day filibuster against the Civil Rights Act of 1964, leading to the bill’s passage.

History of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States – Overview:

Civil Rights Movements of Various Ethnic Minorities in the United States:

Nonviolence, Movements against Racism, and More:

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination:

1963  Equal Pay Act of 1963 aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex (see Gender pay gap). It was signed into law on June 10, 1963 by John F. Kennedy as part of his New Frontier Program

Equal Pay Act of 1963:

Gender Inequality/Equality in Employment in the United States:

Issues relating to Gender Inequality/Equality:

1945  Australian Imperial Forces land in Brunei Bay to liberate Brunei.

Brunei on 10 June 1945:


History of Brunei:

Economy of Brunei:

1944  World War II: In Distomo, Boeotia, Greece 218 men, women and children are massacred by German troops.

1944  World War II: Six hundred forty-two men, women and children are killed in the Oradour-sur-Glane Massacre in France.

1942  World War II: Nazis burn the Czech village of Lidice in reprisal for the killing of Reinhard Heydrich.

1940  World War II: Italy declares war on France and the United Kingdom.

1940  World War II: Norway surrenders to German forces.

1940  World War II: US President Franklin D. Roosevelt denounces Italy’s actions with his “Stab in the Back” speech at the graduation ceremonies of the University of Virginia.

1935  Chaco War ends: a truce is called between Bolivia and Paraguay who had been fighting since 1932.

Chaco War:

1935  Dr Robert Smith takes his last drink, and Alcoholics Anonymous is founded in Akron, Ohio, United States, by him and Bill Wilson.

1924  Fascists kidnap and kill Italian Socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti in Rome.

1918  The Austro-Hungarian battleship SMS Szent István sinks off the Croatian coast after being torpedoed by an Italian MAS motorboat; the event is recorded by camera from a nearby vessel.

1916  An Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire led by Lawrence of Arabia breaks out.

Arab Revolt of 1916:

Lawrence of Arabia (1888-1935):

Ottoman Empire and World War I:

History of the Ottoman Empire:

1898  Spanish–American War: U.S. Marines land on the island of Cuba.

Spanish-American War:

Timeline of the Spanish-American War:

History of Cuba:

1886  Mount Tarawera in New Zealand erupts, killing 153 people and destroying the famous Pink and White Terraces. Eruptions continue for 3 months creating a large, 17 km long fissure across the mountain peak.

1878  League of Prizren is established, to oppose the decisions of the Congress of Berlin and the Treaty of San Stephano, as a consequence of which the Albanian lands in Balkans were being partitioned and given to the neighbor states of Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and Greece.

1871  Sinmiyangyo: Captain McLane Tilton leads 109 US Marines in a naval attack on Han River forts on Kanghwa Island, Korea.

1854  The first class of United States Naval Academy students graduate.

1838  Myall Creek massacre: Twenty-eight Aboriginal Australians are murdered.

Myall Greek Massacre:

Indigenous Australians:

Stolen Generations:

Tasmanian Aboriginal People:

Tasmanian Genocide




2004  Cassini–Huygens makes its closest flyby of the Saturn moon Phoebe.

2002  Antonio Meucci is acknowledged as the first inventor of the telephone by the United States Congress.

2001  Timothy McVeigh is executed for his role in the Oklahoma City bombing.

1987  Diane Abbott, Paul Boateng and Bernie Grant are elected as the first black Parliamentarians in Great Britain.

1981  A Richter scale 6.9 magnitude earthquake at Golbaf, Iran, kills at least 2,000.

1978  Altaf Hussain founds the students’ political movement All Pakistan Muhajir Students Organisation (APMSO) in Karachi University.

1971  The US Government forcibly removes the last holdouts to the Native American Occupation of Alcatraz, ending 19 months of control.

Occupation of Alcatraz:

Genocides Committed against Native Americans:

Genocide Committed against Native Caucasians:

Indigenous Peoples and Their Rights:

1970  After being appointed on May 15, Anna Mae Hays and Elizabeth P. Hoisington officially receive their ranks as U.S. Army Generals, becoming the first females to do so.

1963  John F Kennedy addresses Americans from the Oval Office proposing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that would revolutionize American society. Proposing equal access to public facilities, end segregation in education and guarantee federal protection for voting rights.

History of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States – Overview:

Civil Rights Movements of Various Ethnic Minorities in the United States:

1963  Buddhist monk Thích Quảng Đức burns himself with gasoline in a busy Saigon intersection to protest the lack of religious freedom in South Vietnam.

1963  American Civil Rights Movement: Governor of Alabama George Wallace defiantly stands at the door of Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama in an attempt to block two black students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, from attending that school. Later in the day, accompanied by federalized National Guard troops, they are able to register.

Civil Rights Movement in the United States:

  • For some more information on the Civil Rights Movement in the United States, see1963  John F. Kennedy addresses Americans from the Oval Office proposing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that would revolutionize American society. Proposing equal access to public facilities, end segregation in education and guarantee federal protection for voting rights”, mentioned above.

1956  Start of Gal Oya riots, the first reported ethnic riots that target minority Sri Lankan Tamils in the Eastern Province. The total number of deaths is reportedly 150.

1944  USS Missouri, the last battleship built by the United States Navy and future site of the signing of the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, is commissioned.

USS Missouri:

1942  Free French Forces retreat from Bir Hakeim after having successfully delayed the Axis advance.

1942  World War II: The United States agrees to send Lend-Lease aid to the Soviet Union.

1938  Second Sino-Japanese War: The Battle of Wuhan starts.

1937  Great Purge: The Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin executes eight army leaders.

Stalin’s Great Purge of 1937:

Joseph Stalin:

1936  The London International Surrealist Exhibition opens.

Surrealism, War and Peace:

1935  Inventor Edwin Armstrong gives the first public demonstration of FM broadcasting in the United States at Alpine, New Jersey.

1917  King Alexander assumes the throne of Greece after his father Constantine I abdicates under pressure by allied armies occupying Athens.

1903  A group of Serbian officers stormed royal palace and assassinated King Alexander Obrenović and his wife queen Draga.

1901  The bountaries of the Colony of New Zealand are extended by the UK to include the Cook Islands.

1898  The Hundred Days’ Reform is started by Guangxu Emperor with a plan to change social, political and educational institutions in China, but is suspended by Empress Dowager Cixi after 104 days. The failed reform though led to the abolition of the Imperial examination in 1905.

1898  Spanish–American War: U.S. war ships set sail for Cuba.

Spanish-American War:

Timeline of the Spanish-American War:

History and Culture of Cuba:

1865  The Naval Battle of Riachuelo is fought on the rivulet Riachuelo (Argentina), between the Paraguayan Navy on one side and the Brazilian Navy on the other. The Brazilian victory was crucial for the later success of the Triple Alliance (Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina) in the Paraguayan War.

1837  The Broad Street Riot occurs in Boston, fueled by ethnic tensions between Yankees and Irish.

1825  The first cornerstone is laid for Fort Hamilton in New York City.

1778  Russian explorer Gerasim Izmailov reaches Alaska.

1776  The Continental Congress appoints Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston to the Committee of Five to draft a declaration of independence.

1775  The American Revolutionary War‘s first naval engagement, the Battle of Machias, results in the capture of a small British naval vessel.

1770  British explorer Captain James Cook runs aground on the Great Barrier Reef.


 (Sources and references:   to june_11;   to june/11;   to june_11.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 5 Jun 2017.

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