This Week in History

HISTORY, 3 Jul 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

Jul 3-9, 2017


“Always choose to heal not to hurt, to forgive not to despise, to persevere not to quit, to smile not to frown, and to love not to hate!  At the end of life, what really matters is not what we bought, but what we built, not what we got, but what we shared, not our competence but our character, and not our success but our significance.  Live a life that matters. Live a life that cares…” – Ritu Ghatourey



2013  2013 Egyptian coup d’étatPresident of Egypt Mohamed Morsi is overthrown by the military after four days of protests all over the country calling for Morsi’s resignation, to which he didn’t respond. President of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Adly Mansour is declared acting president.

1996  Stone of Scone is returned to Scotland.

1988  The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey is completed, providing the second connection between the continents of Europe and Asia over the Bosphorus.

1988  United States Navy warship USS Vincennes shoots down Iran Air Flight 655 over the Persian Gulf, killing all 290 people aboard.

Fate of the Iran Air Flight 655:

1979  U.S. President Jimmy Carter signs the first directive for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul.

Secret Aid to the Opponents of the Kabul Regime:


History of Afghanistan:

Economy of Afghanistan:

1970  The Troubles: The “Falls Curfew” begins in BelfastNorthern Ireland.

The Troubles of 1970:

History of Ireland:

Irish War of Independence:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

History of the IRA:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1967  The Aden Emergency: The Battle of the Crater in which the British Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders retake the Crater district following the Arab Police Mutiny.

1952  The Constitution of Puerto Rico is approved by the Congress of the United States.

Puerto Rico:

History of Puerto Rico:

Economy of Puerto Rico:

1944  World War II: Minsk is liberated from Nazi control by Soviet troops during Operation Bagration.

1940  World War II: In order to stop the ships from falling into German hands the French fleet of the Atlantic based at Mers El Kébiris bombarded by the British fleet, coming from Gibraltar, causing the loss of three battleships: DunkerqueProvence and Bretagne. One thousand two hundred sailors perish.

1938  United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicates the Eternal Light Peace Memorial and lights the eternal flame at Gettysburg Battlefield.

1938  World speed record for a steam railway locomotive is set in England, by the Mallard, which reaches a speed of 125.88 miles per hour (202.58 km/h).

1913  Confederate veterans at the Great Reunion of 1913 reenact Pickett’s Charge; upon reaching the high-water mark of the Confederacy they are met by the outstretched hands of friendship from Union survivors.

1898  Spanish–American War: The Spanish fleet, led by Pascual Cervera y Topete, is destroyed by the U.S. Navy in SantiagoCuba.

Spanish-American War:

Timeline of the Spanish-American War:

1886  The New York Tribune becomes the first newspaper to use a linotype machine, eliminating typesetting by hand.

1886  Karl Benz officially unveils the Benz Patent Motorwagen – the first purpose-built automobile.

1884  Dow Jones and Company publishes its first stock average.

1866  Austro-Prussian War is decided at the Battle of Königgratz, resulting in Prussia taking over as the prominent German nation from Austria.

Battle of Königgratz:

Austro-Prussian War:

1849  The French enter Rome in order to restore Pope Pius IX to power. This would prove a major obstacle to Italian unification.

1848  Slaves are freed in the Danish West Indies (now U.S. Virgin Islands) by Peter von Scholten in the culmination of a year-long plot by enslaved Africans.

1844  The last pair of great auks is killed.




2016  The arrival of the Juno probe to Jupiter.

Juno (space craft) and Jupiter on July 04, 2016:

·        NASA’s Juno Spacecraft Enters Into Orbit Around Jupiter –

2014  The European Banking Authority cautions banks against accepting or trading in virtual currencies such as Bitcoin until such transactions can be regulated by the European Commissionregulators cited the risk of fraud and money laundering.

2013  The Death of Hung Chung-chiu: A Republic of China Army corporal dies under suspicious circumstances while serving a detention sentence during his enlisted service.

2012  The discovery of particles consistent with the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider is announced at CERN.

2009  The Statue of Liberty‘s crown reopens to the public after eight years of closure due to security concerns following the September 11 attacks.

2005  The Deep Impact collider hits the comet Tempel 1.

1994  Rwandan GenocideKigali, the Rwandan capital, is captured by the Rwandan Patriotic Front, ending the genocide in the city.

1987  In France, former Gestapo chief Klaus Barbie (a.k.a. the “Butcher of Lyon”) is convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to life imprisonment.

1982  Four Iranian diplomats are abducted by Lebanese militia in Lebanon.

1982  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1977  The George Jackson Brigade plants a bomb at the main power substation for the Washington state capitol in Olympia, in solidarity with a prison strike at the Walla Walla State Penitentiary Intensive Security Unit

1976  Israeli commandos raid Entebbe airport in Uganda, rescuing all but four of the passengers and crew of an Air France jetliner seized by Palestinian terrorists.

1969  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1966  US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Freedom of Information Act into United States law. The act went into effect the next year.

1951  A court in Czechoslovakia sentences American journalist William N. Oatis to ten years in prison on charges of espionage.

1950  Radio Free Europe first broadcasts.

Radio Free Europe:

1947  The “Indian Independence Bill” is presented before the British House of Commons, proposing the independence of the Provinces of British India into two sovereign countries: India and Pakistan.

1946  After 381 years of near-continuous colonial rule by various powers, the Philippines attains full independence from the United States.

1943  World War II: In Gibraltar, a Royal Air Force B-24 Liberator bomber crashes into the sea in an apparent accident moments after takeoff, killing sixteen passengers on board; only the pilot survives.

1943  World War II: The Battle of Kursk, the largest full-scale battle in history and the world’s largest tank battle, begins in Prokhorovka village.

1942  World War II: the 250 day Siege of Sevastopol in the Crimea ends when the city falls to Axis forces.

1941  World War II, the Burning of the Riga synagogues: the Great Choral Synagogue in German occupied Riga was burned with 300 Jews locked in the basement.

1941 Nazi troops massacre Polish scientists and writers in the captured Ukrainian city of Lviv.

1939  Huỳnh Phú Sổ founds Hòa Hảo Buddhism.

1934  Leo Szilard patented the chain-reaction design for the atomic bomb.

1918  Bolsheviks killed Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his family (Julian calendar date).

Execution of the Romanov Family (July 4, 1918 in Julian calendar; July 17 in Gregorian calendar):

1918  World War I: The Battle of Hamel, a successful attack by the Australian Corps against German positions near the town of Le Hamel on the Western Front.

1918  Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI ascended to the throne.

1914  The funeral of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie takes place in Vienna, six days after their assassinations in Sarajevo.

1913  President Woodrow Wilson addresses American Civil War veterans at the Great Reunion of 1913.

1903  Dorothy Levitt is reported as the first English woman to compete in a ‘motor race’.

1903  Philippine–American War officially is concluded.

Philippine-American War:

1894  The short-lived Republic of Hawaii is proclaimed by Sanford B. Dole.

Republic of Hawaii:

History of Hawaii:

1892  Western Samoa changes the International Date Line, so that year it had 367 days, with two occurrences of Monday, July 4.

International Date Line:


Foreign Relations of Western Samoa:

Western Samoa and the United Nations:

History of Samoa:

Economy of Samoa:

1887  The founder of PakistanQuaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, joins Sindh-Madrasa-tul-IslamKarachi.

1886  The people of France offer the Statue of Liberty to the people of the United States.

Statue of Liberty:

1881  In Alabama, the Tuskegee Institute opens.

1879  Anglo-Zulu War: The Zululand capital of Ulundi is captured by British troops and burned to the ground, ending the war and forcing King Cetshwayo to flee.

Anglo-Zulu War:

Anglo-Zulu War Timelines:

1776  American Revolution: The United States Declaration of Independence is adopted by the Second Continental Congress.

United States Declaration of Independence:

“American Exceptionalism”:

Myth of American Exceptionalism:




2015  The United States women’s national soccer team won the 2015 FIFA Women’s World Cup in Vancouver, British Columbia.

2012   The Shard in London is inaugurated as the tallest building in Europe, with a height of 310 metres (1,020 ft).

2009  The largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold ever discovered, consisting of more than 1,500 items, is found near the village of Hammerwich, near Lichfield, in Staffordshire, England.

2009  A series of violent riots break out in Ürümqi, the capital city of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People’s Republic of China.

2006  North Korea tests four short-range missiles, one medium-range missile and a long-range Taepodong-2. The long-range Taepodong-2 reportedly failed in mid-air over the Sea of Japan.

2004  The first Indonesian presidential election is held.

1999  US President Bill Clinton imposes trade and economic sanctions against the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.


History of Taliban:

Is the Taliban a Terrorist Organization? :


US-Afghanistan Relations:

Foreign Relations of Afghanistan:

Afghanistan and the United Nations:

History of Afghanistan:

Economy of Afghanistan:

1996  Dolly the sheep becomes the first mammal cloned from an adult cell.

Cloned Sheep Dolly:

1995  The Republic of Armenia adopts its constitution, four years after its independence from the Soviet Union.


1989  Iran–Contra affairOliver North is sentenced by U.S. District Judge Gerhard A. Gesell to a three-year suspended prison term, two years probation, $150,000 in fines and 1,200 hours community service. His convictions were later overturned.

Iran-Contra Affair:

Oliver North (and John Poindexter):

1987  The LTTE uses suicide attacks on the Sri Lankan Army for the first time. The Black Tigers were born and, in the following years, continued to kill with the tactic.

1977  Military coup in PakistanZulfikar Ali Bhutto, the first elected Prime Minister of Pakistan, is overthrown.

Pakistani Military Coup of 1977:

1975  Cape Verde gains its independence from Portugal.

Cabo Verde (Cape Verde):

1975  Arthur Ashe becomes the first black man to win the Wimbledon singles title.

Arthur Ashe:

Sports and Racism:

Race and Anthropology:

1962  Algeria becomes independent from France.


History of Algeria:

Algeria-French Relations after WWII (1):

Charles de Gaulle’s Policies on Algeria:

Algeria-French Relations after WWII (2):

Independence of Algeria:

Foreign Relations of Algeria:

Algeria and the United Nations:

Economy of Algeria:

1950  Zionism: The Knesset passes the Law of Return which grants all Jews the right to immigrate to Israel.



Law of Return:

1950  Korean WarTask Force Smith: American and North Korean forces first clash, in the Battle of Osan.

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1945  World War II: The liberation of the Philippines is declared.

1943  World War II: German forces begin a massive offensive against the Soviet Union at the Battle of Kursk, also known as Operation Citadel.

1941  World War II: Operation BarbarossaGerman troops reach the Dnieper River.

1940  World War II: The United Kingdom and the Vichy France government break off diplomatic relations.

1935  The National Labor Relations Act, which governs labor relations in the United States, is signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

1884  Germany takes possession of Cameroon.

1878  The coat of arms of the Baku Governorate is established.

1841  Thomas Cook organizes the first package excursion, from Leicester to Loughborough

1833  Admiral Charles Napier vanquishes the navy of the Portuguese usurper Dom Miguel at the third Battle of Cape St. Vincent.

1833  Lê Văn Khôi along with 27 soldiers stage a mutiny taking over the Phiên An citadel, developing into the Lê Văn Khôi revolt against Emperor Minh Mạng.

1814  War of 1812: Battle of Chippawa – American Major General Jacob Brown defeats British General Phineas Riall at Chippawa, Ontario.

1813  War of 1812: Three weeks of British raids on Fort SchlosserBlack Rock and Plattsburgh, New York commence.

1811  Venezuela declares independence from Spain.

1809  The largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars, the Battle of Wagram is fought between the French and Austrian Empires.

1803  The Convention of Artlenburg is signed, leading to the French occupation of Hanover (which had been ruled by the British king).




2016  The Iraq Inquiry is published after seven years by Sir John Chilcot; it publicises the critique of Tony Blair and his decision to go ahead with the 2003 Invasion of Iraq.

2014  The state of Washington legalizes recreational marijuana, becoming the second U.S. state to do so after Colorado.

Legalization of Marijuana:

2013  A 73-car oil train derails in the town of Lac-Mégantic, Quebec and explodes into flames, killing at least 47 people and destroying more than 30 buildings in the town’s central area.

2013   A Boeing 777 operating as Asiana Airlines Flight 214 crashes at San Francisco International Airport, killing three and injuring 181 of the 307 people on board.

2013  At least 42 people are killed in a shooting at a school in Yobe StateNigeria.

2006  The Nathula Pass between India and China, sealed during the Sino-Indian War, re-openes for trade after 44 years.

2003  The 70-metre Eupatoria Planetary Radar sends a METI message (Cosmic Call 2) to five stars: Hip 4872HD 24540955 Cancri (HD 75732), HD 10307 and 47 Ursae Majoris (HD 95128). The messages will arrive to these stars in 2036, 2040, 2044 and 2049 respectively.

1997  The Troubles: In response to the Drumcree dispute, five days of mass protests, riots and gun battles begin in Irish nationalist districts of Northern Ireland.

1995  In the Bosnian War, under the command of General Ratko Mladić, Serbia begins its attack on the Bosnian town of Srebrenicaand kills more than 8000 Bosniaks, in what then- UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali called “the worst crime on European soil since the Second World War”.

Srebrenica Genocide:

Arguments that deny or question “Srebrenica”:

Controversies over “Srebrenica”:

YouTube video on the Srebrenica Genocide:

YouTube video on the war in Bosnia overall: a Case of a Bosnian Serb soldier:

Books on “Srebrenica” sold by

1988  The Piper Alpha drilling platform in the North Sea is destroyed by explosions and fires. One hundred sixty-seven oil workers are killed, making it the world’s worst offshore oil disaster in terms of direct loss of life.

1975  The Comoros declares independence from France.


History of Comoros:

Economy of Comoros:

1967  Nigerian Civil WarNigerian forces invade Biafra, beginning the war.


Nigerian Civil War:


History of Nigeria:

Foreign Relations of Nigeria:

Nigeria and the United Nations:

Economy of Nigeria:

1966  Malawi becomes a republic, with Hastings Banda as its first President.

1964  Malawi declares its independence from the United Kingdom.


History of Malawi:

Economy of Malawi:

1962  As a part of Operation Plowshare, the Sedan nuclear test takes place.

1947  The AK-47 goes into production in the Soviet Union.


1944  Jackie Robinson refuses to move to the back of a bus, leading to a court martial.

Jackie Robinson’s Case:

1942  Anne Frank and her family go into hiding in the “Secret Annexe” above her father’s office in an Amsterdam warehouse.

Anne Frank:

Final Days of Anne Frank:

The Diary of a Young Girl:

Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp:

1941  Nazi Germany launches its offensive to encircle several Soviet armies near Smolensk.

1939  Holocaust: the last remaining Jewish enterprises in Germany are closed.

Holocaust in World War II:

1937  Spanish Civil WarBattle of Brunete: The battle begins with Spanish Republican troops going on the offensive against the Nationalists to relieve pressure on Madrid.

Spanish Civil War:

Battle of Brunete:

1919  The British dirigible R34 lands in New York, completing the first crossing of the Atlantic Ocean by an airship.

1917  World War IArabian troops led by T. E. Lawrence (“Lawrence of Arabia”) and Auda ibu Tayi capture Aqaba from the Ottoman Empire during the Arab Revolt.

1892  Dadabhai Naoroji is elected as the first Indian Member of Parliament in Britain.

1887  David Kalākaua, monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii, is forced at gunpoint by Americans to sign the Bayonet Constitution giving Americans more power in Hawaii while stripping Hawaiian citizens of their rights.

History of Hawaii:

1885  Louis Pasteur successfully tests his vaccine against rabies on Joseph Meister, a boy who was bitten by a rabid dog.

1854  In Jackson, Michigan, the first convention of the United States Republican Party is held.

1809  The second day of the Battle of Wagram; France defeats the Austrian army in the largest battle to date of the Napoleonic Wars.

1801  First Battle of Algeciras: Outnumbered French Navy ships defeat the Royal Navy in the fortified Spanish port of Algeciras.

1785  The dollar is unanimously chosen as the monetary unit for the United States.

1779  Battle of Grenada: The French defeat British naval forces during the American Revolutionary War.

1777  American Revolutionary WarSiege of Fort Ticonderoga: After a bombardment by British artillery under General John BurgoyneAmerican forces retreat from Fort Ticonderoga, New York.

1751  Pope Benedict XIV suppresses the Patriarchate of Aquileia and establishes from its territory the Archdiocese of Udine and Gorizia.

1685  Battle of Sedgemoor: Last battle of the Monmouth Rebellion. troops of King James II defeat troops of James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth.

1630  Thirty Years’ War: Four thousand Swedish troops under Gustavus Adolphus land in Pomerania, Germany.





2016  Former U.S. Army soldier Micah Xavier Johnson shoots fourteen policemen during an anti-police protest in downtown DallasTexas, killing five of them. He is subsequently killed by a robot-delivered bomb.

2013   A De Havilland Otter air taxi crashes in Soldotna, Alaska, killing ten people.

2012   At least 172 people are killed in a flash flood in the Krasnodar Krai region of Russia.

2007  The first Live Earth benefit concert was held in 11 locations around the world.

2005  A series of four explosions occurs on London’s transport system killing 56 people including four suicide bombers and injuring over 700 others.

2003   NASA Opportunity rover, MER-B or Mars Exploration Rover–B, was launched into space aboard a Delta II rocket.

1997  The Turkish Armed Forces withdraw from northern Iraq after assisting the Kurdistan Democratic Party in the Iraqi Kurdish Civil War.

1991  Yugoslav Wars: the Brioni Agreement ends the ten-day independence war in Slovenia against the rest of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

The Beginning of the Breakup of Yugoslavia:

Independence of Slovenia and the Ten-Day War:

1988  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1987  USSR performs nuclear test at Sakha, Russia:

USSR’s Nuclear Testing Program:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1983  Cold WarSamantha Smith, a U.S. schoolgirl, flies to the Soviet Union at the invitation of Secretary General Yuri Andropov.

1981  US President Ronald Reagan appoints Sandra Day O’Connor to become the first female member of the Supreme Court of the United States.

Sandra O’Connor:

1981  Peace Pilgrim (July 18, 1908 – July 7, 1981) dies.

Peace Pilgrim:

1980  US President Ronald Reagan appoints Sandra Day O’Connor to become the first female member of the Supreme Court of the United States.

1980  During the Lebanese Civil War, 83 Tiger militants are killed during what will be known as the Safra massacre.

1980  Institution of sharia in Iran.

Islamic Judicial System of Iran:

1979  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1963  Buddhist crisis: The police of Ngô Đình Nhu, brother and chief political adviser of President Ngô Đình Diệmattacked a group of American journalists who were covering a protest.

1962  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1959  Venus occults the star Regulus. This rare event is used to determine the diameter of Venus and the structure of the Venusian atmosphere.

1958  US President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Alaska Statehood Act into law.

1956  Fritz Moravec and two other Austrian mountaineers make the first ascent of Gasherbrum II (8,035 m).

Gasherbrum II:

1953  Ernesto “Che” Guevara sets out on a trip through BoliviaPeruEcuadorPanamaCosta RicaNicaraguaHonduras, and El Salvador.

1947  The Roswell incident, the (supposed) crash of an alien spaceship near Roswell in New Mexico.

Alien Spaceship? :

1946  Mother Francesca S. Cabrini becomes the first American to be canonized.

1944  World War II: Largest Banzai charge of the Pacific War at the Battle of Saipan.

1941  World War II: Beirut is occupied by Free France and British troops.

1941  World War II: U.S. forces land in Iceland, taking over from an earlier British occupation.

1937 Second Sino-Japanese WarBattle of Lugou Bridge – Japanese forces invade Beijing, China.

Second Sino-Japanese War:

Battle of Lugou (Marco Polo) Bridge:

1915  Militia officer Henry Pedris executed by firing squad at ColomboCeylon – an act widely regarded as a miscarriage of justice by the British colonial authorities.

1915  World War I: end of First Battle of the Isonzo.

1911  The United States, Great Britain, Japan, and Russia sign the North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911 banning open-water seal hunting, the first international treaty to address wildlife preservation issues.

1898  US President William McKinley signs the Newlands Resolution annexing Hawaii as a territory of the United States.

1892  Katipunan: the Revolutionary Philippine Brotherhood is established, contributing to the fall of the Spanish Empire in Asia.

1863  United States begins its first military draft; exemptions cost $300.

Conscription in the United States:

Conscription and Its History in the United States:

Conscription in Europe (France and Britain):

Conscientious Objection and Objector:

History of Conscientious Objection:

1834  In New York City, four nights of rioting against abolitionists began.

1807  Napoleonic Wars: the Peace of Tilsit between France, Prussia and Russia ends the War of the Fourth Coalition.





2014  Israel launches an offensive on Gaza amidst rising tensions following the killing of Israeli teenagers.

2011   Space Shuttle Atlantis is launched in the final mission of the U.S. Space Shuttle program.

1994  Kim Jong-il begins to assume supreme leadership of North Korea upon the death of his father, Kim Il-sung.

1989  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1982  Assassination attempt against Iraqi president Saddam Hussein in Dujail.

1974  USSR performs underground nuclear test at Bashkortostan, Russia.

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1970  Richard Nixon delivers a special congressional message enunciating Native American self-determination as official US Indian policy, leading to the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975.

Native People of America (a.k.a. American Indians):

History of Native People of America:

Wars of Native People of North America:

Genocides Committed against Native Americans:

Genocide Committed against Native Caucasians:

Indigenous Peoples and Their Rights:

1966  King Mwambutsa IV Bangiriceng of Burundi is deposed by his son Prince Charles Ndizi.

History of Burundi:

1962  Ne Win besieges and dynamites the Rangoon University Student Union building to crush the Student Movement.

1960  Francis Gary Powers is charged with espionage resulting from his flight over the Soviet Union.

1948  The United States Air Force accepts its first female recruits into a program called Women in the Air Force (WAF).

1947  Reports are broadcast that a UFO crash landed in Roswell, New Mexico in what became known as the Roswell UFO incident.

Roswell UFO Incident of 1947:

1937  Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan sign the Treaty of Saadabad.

1932  The Dow Jones Industrial Average reaches its lowest level of the Great Depression, closing at 41.22.

1912  Henrique Mitchell de Paiva Couceiro leads an unsuccessful royalist attack against the First Portuguese Republic in Chaves.

1898  The death of crime boss Soapy Smith, killed in the Shootout on Juneau Wharf, releases Skagway, Alaska from his iron grip.

1889  The first issue of The Wall Street Journal is published.

1876  White supremacists kill five Black Republicans in Hamburg, South Carolina.

White Supremacists:




2014   A gunman kills six people including four children near Spring, Texas.

Gun Violence:

·        American deaths in terrorism vs. gun violence in one graph –

·        Gun Violence Should Be Treated As A Public Health Crisis, Study Says –


2011  South Sudan gains independence and secedes from Sudan.

South Sudan:


History of Sudan:

Foreign Relations of Sudan:

Sudan and the United Nations:

Human Rights in Sudan:

Economy of Sudan:

2006  At least 122 people are killed after a Sibir Airlines Airbus A310 passenger jet, carrying 200 passengers veers off the runway while landing in wet conditions at Irkutsk Airport in Siberia.

1999  Days of student protests begin after Iranian police and hardliners attack a student dormitory at the University of Tehran.

1995  The Navaly church bombing is carried out by the Sri Lanka Air Force killing 125 Tamil civilian refugees.

1993  The Parliament of Canada passes the Nunavut Act leading to the 1999 creation of Nunavut, dividing the Northwest Territories into arctic (Inuit) and sub-arctic (Dene) lands based on a plebiscite.

1986  The Parliament of New Zealand passes the Homosexual Law Reform Act legalizing homosexuality in New Zealand.

LGBT Rights (Overview):

Case Study (1): Nigeria Prohibits the Same Sex Marriage in 2013:

Case Study (2): Slovenia Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage in March 2015:

Case Study (3) Netherlands Legalizes the Same-Sex Marriage in 2001:

Case Study (4): Sweden Legalizes the Same-Sex Marriage in 2009:

1979  A car bomb destroys a Renault motor car owned by the famed “Nazi hunters” Serge and Beate Klarsfeld at their home in France. A note purportedly from ODESSA claims responsibility.

1972  The Troubles: In BelfastBritish Army snipers shoot five civilians dead in the Springhill Massacre.

Springhill Massacre in the Troubles of 1972:

1972  USSR performs underground nuclear test at Kharkiv, Ukraine?

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1962  The Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test is conducted by the United States.

Starfish Prime High-Altitude Nuclear Test:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1961  Turkish voters approve the Turkish Constitution of 1961 in a referendum.

1958  Lituya Bay is hit by a megatsunami. The wave is recorded at 30 to 91 meters high, the largest in recorded history.

1955  The Russell–Einstein Manifesto is released by Bertrand Russell in London, England, United Kingdom.

1944  World War II: Battle of Tali-Ihantala – Finland wins the Battle of Tali-Ihantala, the largest battle ever fought in northern Europe. The Red Army withdraws its troops from Ihantala and digs into a defensive position, thus ending the Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive.

Battle of Tali-Ihantala:

Continuation War:

From Winter War to the Continuation War:

Timelines of the Winter War:

1944  World War II: Battle of Saipan – American forces take Saipan in the Mariana Islands.

1944  World War II: Battle of Normandy – British and Canadian forces capture Caen, France.

Caen: Battle of Narmandy:

Battle of Normandy, 1944:

YouTube videos on D-Day Normandy 1944:

1943  World War IIOperation Husky – Allied forces perform an amphibious invasion of Sicily.

1932  The state of São Paulo revolts against the Brazilian Federal Government, starting the Constitutionalist Revolution.

Revolt against the Constitutional Revolution of Brazil of 1932:

1903  Future Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin is exiled to Siberia for three years.

1900  Boxer Rebellion: The Governor of Shanxi province in North China orders the execution of 45 foreign Christian missionaries and local church members, including children.

1900  Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom gives Royal Assent to an Act creating Australia thus uniting separate colonies on the continent under one federal government.

1896  William Jennings Bryan delivers his Cross of Gold speech advocating bimetallism at the 1896 Democratic National Convention in Chicago.

1877  The inaugural Wimbledon Championships begins.

History  of  Wimbledon Championships:

1875  Outbreak of the Herzegovina Uprising against Ottoman rule, which would last until 1878 and have far-reaching implications throughout the Balkans.


(Sources and references:     to july_9;     to july/9;   to july_9.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 3 Jul 2017.

Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week in History, is included. Thank you.

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