This Week in History

HISTORY, 10 Jul 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

Jul 10-16, 2017


“To be what we are, and to become what we are capable of becoming, is the only end of life.”  – Robert Louis Stevenson


2016   Portugal beat France in the UEFA Euro 2016 Final.

2012  The American Episcopal Church becomes the first to approve a rite for blessing gay marriages.

Religion and Gay Marriages:

Marriage and Law – Case Study (1): Slovenia Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage in March 2015:

Marriage and Law – Case Study (2): Sweden and the Same-Sex Marriage:

Marriage and Law – Case Study (3): Nigeria and the Prohibition of the Same Sex Marriage:

LGBT Rights in General:

2011   Russian cruise ship Bulgaria sinks in Volga near SyukeyevoTatarstan, causing 122 deaths.

2008  Former Macedonian Interior Minister Ljube Boškoski is acquitted of all charges by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia of the United Nations, accusing him of war crimes.

1998  Roman Catholic sex abuse cases: The Diocese of Dallas agrees to pay $23.4 million to nine former altar boys who claimed they were sexually abused by Rudolph Kos, a former priest.

Roman Catholic Sex Abuse Cases:

1997  In London scientists report the findings of the DNA analysis of a aNeanderthal skeleton which supports the “out of Africa theory” of human evolution placing an “African Eve” at 100,000 to 200,000 years ago.

1992  In Miami, Florida, the former Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega is sentenced to 40 years in prison for drug and racketeering violations.

199Boris Yeltsin takes office as the first elected President of Russia.

Boris Yeltsin:

1991  The South African cricket team is readmitted into the International Cricket Council following the end of Apartheid.

History of Apartheid:

Anti-Apartheid Movement:

Sports and Racism:

1985  The Greenpeace vessel Rainbow Warrior is bombed and sunk in Auckland harbor by French DGSE agents, killing Fernando Pereira.

1981  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1978  President Moktar Ould Daddah of Mauritania is ousted in a bloodless coup d’état.

1976  One American and three British mercenaries are executed in Angola following the Luanda Trial.

1974  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Tests at Semipalitinsk Nuclear Environmental Problems:

1973  National Assembly of Pakistan passes a resolution on the recognition of Bangladesh.

History of Pakistan:

History of Bangladesh:

Bangladesh Liberation War:

1973  The Bahamas gain full independence within the Commonwealth of Nations.

The Bahamas:

History of the Bahama:

Economy of Bahama:

1971  Hassan II of Morocco survives an attempted coup d’état, which lasts until June 11.

1967  New Zealand adopts decimal currency.

1967  Uruguay becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.

1966  The Chicago Freedom Movement, led by Martin Luther King, Jr., holds a rally at Soldier Field in Chicago, Illinois. As many as 60,000 people come to hear Dr. King as well as Mahalia Jackson, Stevie Wonder, and Peter Paul and Mary.

1962  Telstar, the world’s first communications satellite, is launched into orbit.

1962  US performs atmospheric nuclear test, at Christmas Island.

Nuclear Tests at Christmas Islands:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

1956  US performs nuclear test at Bikini Island (atmospheric tests).

Operation Redwing:

Nuclear Tests at Bikini Atoll:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1951  Korean War: Armistice negotiations begin at Kaesong.

Kaesong Armistice Negotiations:

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1947  Muhammad Ali Jinnah is recommended as the first Governor-General of Pakistan by the British Prime Minister, Clement Attlee.

1946  Hungarian hyperinflation sets a record with inflation of 348.46 percent per day, or prices doubling every eleven hours.

194World War II: An American pilot spots a downed, intact Mitsubishi A6M Zero on Akutan Island (the “Akutan Zero“) that the US Navy uses to learn the aircraft’s flight characteristics.

Mitsubishi A6M Zero (a.k.a. Zero Fighter):

1942  Diplomatic relations between the Netherlands and the Soviet Union are established.

1941  Jedwabne Pogrom: The massacre of Jewish people living in and near the village of Jedwabne in Poland.

Jedwabne Pogram:

1940  World War II: Battle of Britain – The German Luftwaffe begins attacking British convoys in the English Channel thus starting the battle (this start date is contested, though).

1940  World War II: The Vichy government is established in France.

Vichy Government (a.k.a. Vichy France):

Vichy Government and the Holocaust Collaboration:

1938  Howard Hughes sets a new record by completing a 91-hour airplane flight around the world.

1925  Scopes Trial: In Dayton, Tennessee, the so-called “Monkey Trial” begins with John T. Scopes, a young high school science teacher accused of teaching evolution in violation of the Butler Act.

1925  Meher Baba begins his silence of 44 years. His followers observe Silence Day on this date in commemoration.

Meher Baba’s Silence:

1921  Belfast’s Bloody Sunday: Sixteen people are killed and 161 houses destroyed during rioting and gun battles in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Bloody Sunday of 1921:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA):

History of the IRA:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

188War of the Pacific: Chile suffers its last military defeat in the Battle of La Concepción when a garrison of 77 men is annihilated by a 1,300-strong Peruvian force, many of them armed with spears.

Battle of La Concepción:

War of the Pacific:



2012  Astronomers announce the discovery of Styx, the fifth moon of Pluto.



·     Pluto Moons Named Styx & Kerberos After Greek Myths Despite Trekkies’ Votes –

·        Meet Pluto’s smallest moons: Kerberos and Styx –

2011   Evangelos Florakis Naval Base explosion: Ninety-eight containers of explosives self-detonate killing 13 people in Zygi, Cyprus.

2010   July 2010 Kampala attacks: At least 74 people are killed in twin suicide bombings at two locations in Kampala, Uganda

2006  Mumbai train bombings: Two hundred nine people are killed in a series of bomb attacks in Mumbai, India.

1995  The Srebrenica massacre is carried out.

Srebrenica Genocide Overview:

Srebrenica Genocide:

Arguments that deny or question “Srebrenica”:

Controversies over “Srebrenica”:

YouTube video on the Srebrenica Genocide:

YouTube video on the war in Bosnia overall: a Case of a Bosnian Serb soldier:

War in Bosnia-Herzegovina:

Bosnian War on the Ground:

Timeline of the War in Bosnia-Herzegovina:

1991  Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty (1989) comes into force.

Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty (1989):

1985  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR’s Nuclear Tests at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1977  Martin Luther King, Jr. is posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Martin Luther King, Jr.:

1971  Copper mines in Chile are nationalized.

1965  Israeli Mapai-party nominates David Ben-Gurion.

David Ben-Gurion:

1962  First transatlantic satellite television transmission.

1962  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

Nuclear Tests at the Nevada Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1962  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Christmas Island.

Nuclear Tests at Christmas Islands:

US Atmospheric Nuclear Tests Overview:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Various Weapons Tests and Storage at Johnston Atoll, and Permanent Contamination:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1960  Congo Crisis: The State of Katanga breaks away from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Congo Crisis of 1960:

1960  France legislates for the independence of Dahomey (later Benin), Upper Volta (later Burkina) and Niger.


History of Benin:

Economy of Benin:

History of Burkina Faso:

Burkina Faso:

Foreign Relations of Burkina Faso:

Economy of Burkina Faso:

History of Niger:


Foreign Relations of Niger:

Niger and the United Nations:

Economy of Niger:

1957  Prince Karim Husseini Aga Khan IV inherits the office of Imamat as the 49th Imam of Shia Imami Ismai’li worldwide, after the death of Sir Sultan Mahommed Shah Aga Khan III.

1950  Pakistan joins the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank.


History of Pakistan:

Economy of Pakistan:

Foreign Relations of Pakistan:

Pakistan-United States Relations:

World Bank and the IMF:

Problems of the World Bank and the IMF:

1947  The Exodus 1947 heads to Palestine from France.

Exodus 1947:

1943  World War II: Allied invasion of SicilyGerman and Italian troops launch a counter-attack on Allied forces in Sicily.

1943  Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army within the Reichskommissariat Ukraine (Volhynia) peak.

1940  World War II: Vichy France regime is formally established. Philippe Pétain becomes Prime Minister of France.

Vichy Government (a.k.a. Vichy France):

Vichy Government and the Holocaust Collaboration:

1934  Engelbert Zaschka of Germany flies his large human-powered aircraft, the Zaschka Human-Power Aircraft, about 20 meters at Berlin Tempelhof Airport without assisted take-off.

1921  Former President of the United States William Howard Taft is sworn in as 10th Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, becoming the only person ever to hold both offices.

1921  The Red Army captures Mongolia from the White Army and establishes the Mongolian People’s Republic.


History of Mongolia:

Foreign Relations of Mongolia:

Mongolia and the United Nations:

Economy of Mongolia:

1921  A truce in the Irish War of Independence comes into effect.

From Irish Civil War to the Irish War of Independence:

Irish War of Independence:

History of Ireland:

1920  In the East Prussian plebiscite the local populace decides to remain with Weimar Germany.

1919  The eight-hour day and free Sunday become law for workers in the Netherlands.

1897  Salomon August Andrée leaves Spitsbergen to attempt to reach the North Pole by balloon. He later crashes and dies.

1893  A revolution led by the liberal general and politician, José Santos Zelaya, takes over state power in Nicaragua.

1889  Tijuana, Mexico, is founded.

1833  Noongar Australian aboriginal warrior Yagan, wanted for the murder of white colonists in Western Australia, is killed.




2013  Six people are killed and 200 injured in a French passenger train derailment in Brétigny-sur-Orge.

2012   A tank truck explosion kills more than 100 people in OkobieNigeria.

2012  The Turaymisah massacre kills 250 people during a Syrian military operation in a village within the Hama Governorate.

2007  US Army Apache helicopters perform airstrikes in Baghdad, Iraq; footage from the cockpit is later leaked to the Internet.

2006  Hezbollah initiates Operation True Promise.

1979  The island nation of Kiribati becomes independent from United Kingdom.


History of Kiribati:

Economy of Kiribati:

1975  São Tomé and Príncipe declare independence from Portugal.

1971  The Australian Aboriginal Flag is flown for the first time.

1970  A fire consumes the wooden home of Norwegian composer Geirr Tveitt and irretrievably destroys about 90 percent of his output.

1960  Orlyonok, the main Young Pioneer camp of the Russian SFSR, is founded.

1948  Arab–Israeli War: Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion orders the expulsion of Palestinians from the towns of Lod and Ramla.

1943  World War II: Battle of ProkhorovkaGerman and Soviet forces engage in one of the largest tank engagements of all time.

1920  The Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty is signed. Soviet Russia recognizes independent Lithuania.

History of Lithuania:

Independence of Lithuania (1991):

Russia and the Baltic States:

1917  The Bisbee Deportation occurs as vigilantes kidnap and deport nearly 1,300 striking miners and others from Bisbee, Arizona.

1913  Second Balkan War: Serbian forces begin their siege of the Bulgarian city of Vidin; the siege is later called off when the war ends.

Second Balkan War:

First Balkan War:

Balkan Wars:

1879  The National Guards Unit of Bulgaria is founded.

1812  War of 1812: The United States invades Canada at Windsor, Ontario.

1806 Liechtenstein is given full sovereignty after its accession to the Confederation of the Rhine.

1806  Sixteen German imperial states leave the Holy Roman Empire and form the Confederation of the Rhine.




2016  Prime Minister of the United Kingdom David Cameron resigns, and is succeeded by Theresa May.

Theresa May:

·        Who is Theresa May: A profile of UK’s new prime minister –

2014   World Cup Final takes place at the Maracanã in Rio de JaneiroBrazil

2013   Typhoon Soulik kills at least nine people and affects more than 160 million in East China and Taiwan.

2011   Mumbai is rocked by three bomb blasts during the evening rush hour, killing 26 and injuring 130.

2008  Battle of Wanat begins when Taliban & al-Qaeda guerrillas attack US Army & Afghan National Army troops in Afghanistan. The U.S. deaths were, at that time, the most in a single battle since the beginning of operations in 2001.

2003  French DGSE personnel abort an operation to rescue Íngrid Betancourt from FARC rebels in Colombia, causing a political scandal when details are leaked to the press.

1985  The Live Aid benefit concert takes place in London, England, United Kingdom and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as well as other venues such as Sydney, Australia and Moscow, Russia, Soviet Union.

1980  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

Semipalitinsk Nuclear Test Site:

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1977  Somalia declares war on Ethiopia, starting the Ethiopian-Somali War.

1973  Alexander Butterfield reveals the existence of the “Nixon tapes” to the special Senate committee investigating the Watergate break in.

1962  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests (Overview):

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1942  5,000 Jews of Rovno Polish Ukraine, executed by Nazis.

Execution of Jews of Rovno Polish Ukraine:

1941  World War II: Montenegrins begin a popular uprising against the Axis powers (Trinaestojulski ustanak).

History of Montenegro:

1919  The British airship R34 lands in Norfolk, England, completing the first airship return journey across the Atlantic in 182 hours of flight.

1905  The verdict in the six-month-long Smarthavicharam trial of Kuriyedath Thathri is pronounced, leading to the excommunication of 65 men of various castes.

1878  Treaty of Berlin: The European powers redraw the map of the Balkans. Serbia, Montenegro and Romania become completely independent of the Ottoman Empire.

1854  In the Battle of Guaymas, Mexico, General José María Yáñez stops the French invasion led by Count Gaston de Raousset-Boulbon.




2016   A terrorist vehicular attack in Nice, France kills 86 civilians and injures over 400 others.

2016 Nice Attack:

·        Terror attack kills scores in Nice, France, Hollande says –

·        Nice terror attack: ‘soldier of Islam’ Bouhlel ‘took drugs and used dating sites to pick up men and women’ –

2015  – P5+1 and Iran agree on final provisions of Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action in regards to the latter’s nuclear program.

2015   NASA‘s New Horizons probe performs the first flyby of Pluto, and thus completes the initial survey of the Solar System.

2003  In an effort to discredit U.S. Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson, who had written an article critical of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Washington Post columnist Robert Novak reveals that Wilson’s wife Valerie Plame is a CIA “operative”.

2003   Sandipan Chanda achieves Grandmaster title awarded by the World Chess Federation (FIDE).

2002  French President Jacques Chirac escapes an assassination attempt unscathed during Bastille Day celebrations.

2000  A powerful solar flare, later named the Bastille Day event, causes a geomagnetic storm on Earth.

1992  386BSD is released by Lynne Jolitz and William Jolitz beginning the Open Source Operating System Revolution. Linus Torvalds releases his Linux soon afterwards.

1984  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

Semipalitinsk Test Site:

USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests:

197USSR performs nuclear test at Atyrau, Kazakhstan.

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1976  Capital punishment is abolished in Canada.

Death Penalty in Canada:

1972  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

  • Note that this underground nuclear test, if actually performed, is not recorded in the 1972 Soviet nuclear tests – Wikipedia. Therefore, the fact about this test, whether it was performed or not, is unconfirmed.

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1969  The United States $500, $1,000, $5,000 and $10,000 bills are officially withdrawn from circulation.

1962  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

Nuclear Tests at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

1958  Iraqi Revolution: In Iraq the monarchy is overthrown by popular forces led by Abdul Karim Kassem, who becomes the nation’s new leader.

Iraqi Revolution of 1958:

1957  Rawya Ateya takes her seat in the National Assembly of Egypt, thereby becoming the first female parliamentarian in the Arab world.

1950  Korean War: North Korean troops initiate the Battle of Taejon.

Battle of Taejon:

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1948  Palmiro Togliatti, leader of the Italian Communist Party, is shot and wounded near the Italian Parliament.

1944  US assault on Coutances Cotentin.

1943  In Diamond, Missouri, the George Washington Carver National Monument becomes the first United States National Monument in honor of an African American.

1933  The Nazi eugenics begins with the proclamation of the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring that calls for the compulsory sterilization of any citizen who suffers from alleged genetic disorders.

1933  Gleichschaltung: In Germany, all political parties are outlawed except the Nazi Party.

Adolf Hitler:

History of Nazi Germany:

History of Germany:


1928  New Vietnam Revolutionary Party is founded in Huế amid providing some of the communist party‘s most important leaders in its early years.

1916  Start of the Battle of Delville Wood as an action within the Battle of the Somme, which was to last until 3 September 1916.

1900  Armies of the Eight-Nation Alliance capture Tientsin during the Boxer Rebellion.

1881  Billy the Kid is shot and killed by Pat Garrett outside Fort Sumner.

1874  The Chicago Fire of 1874 burns down 47 acres of the city, destroying 812 buildings, killing 20, and resulting in the fire insurance industry demanding municipal reforms from Chicago’s city council.




2016   Factions of the Turkish Armed Forces attempt a coup.

2016 Turkish Coup Attempt:

2014   A train derails on the Moscow Metro, killing at least 24 and injuring more than 160 others.

2014  Mohammed Zakari, a leader of Islamist militant group Boko Haram, has been arrested by Nigerian police; Boko Haram is implicated in hundreds of deaths and kidnappings, and Zakari is wanted for the recent killings of seven people.

Mohammed Zakari and Boko Harm:

Boko Haram:

2006  Twitter is launched, becoming one of the largest social media platforms in the world.


2003  AOL Time Warner disbands Netscape. The Mozilla Foundation is established on the same day

2002  Anti-Terrorism Court of Pakistan hands down the death sentence to British born Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh and life terms to three others suspected of murdering The Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.

2002  “American TalibanJohn Walker Lindh pleads guilty to supplying aid to the enemy and to possession of explosives during the commission of a felony.

1991  US troops leave northern Iraq.

US Troops’ Withdrawal from Northern Iraq:

1991 Gulf War and Its Timeline:

1979  US President Jimmy Carter gives his so-called malaise speech, where he characterizes the greatest threat to the country as “this crisis in the growing doubt about the meaning of our own lives and in the loss of a unity of purpose for our nation” but in which he never uses the word malaise.

1975  Space Race: Apollo–Soyuz Test Project features the dual launch of an Apollo spacecraft and a Soyuz spacecraft on the first joint Soviet-United States human-crewed flight. It was both the last launch of an Apollo spacecraft, and the Saturn family of rockets.

1974  In Nicosia, Cyprus, Greek Junta-sponsored nationalists launch a coup d’état, deposing President Makarios and installing Nikos Sampson as Cypriot president.

1971  The United Red Army is founded in Japan.

196USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

196Vietnam War: The United States and South Vietnam begin Operation Hastings to push the North Vietnamese out of the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone.

Vietnam War in 1966:

Operation Hastings:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1957  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Test Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

195Eighteen Nobel laureates sign the Mainau Declaration against nuclear weapons, later co-signed by thirty-four others.

Mainau Declaration of 1955:

1954  First flight of the Boeing 367-80, prototype for both the Boeing 707 and C-135 series.

1927  Massacre of July 15, 1927: Eighty-nine protesters are killed by the Austrian police in Vienna.

1922  Japanese Communist Party is established in Japan.

1920  The Polish Parliament establishes Silesian Voivodeship before the Polish-German plebiscite.

1918  World War I: The Second Battle of the Marne begins near the River Marne with a German attack.

1916  In Seattle, Washington, William Boeing and George Conrad Westervelt incorporate Pacific Aero Products (later renamed Boeing).

1910  – In his book Clinical Psychiatry, Emil Kraepelin gives a name to Alzheimer’s disease, naming it after his colleague Alois Alzheimer.

1838  Ralph Waldo Emerson delivers the Divinity School Address at Harvard Divinity School, discounting Biblical miracles and declaring Jesus a great man, but not God. The Protestant community reacts with outrage.

1834  The Spanish Inquisition is officially disbanded after nearly 356 years.

1815  Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon Bonaparte surrenders aboard HMS Bellerophon.

1799  The Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard during Napoleon‘s Egyptian Campaign.

1789  Gilbert du Motier, marquis de Lafayette, is named by acclamation Colonel General of the new National Guard of Paris.

1741  Aleksei Chirikov sights land in Southeast Alaska. He sends men ashore in a longboat, making them the first Europeans to visit Alaska.




2015  Four U.S. Marines and one gunman die in a shooting spree targeting military installations in Chattanooga, Tennessee

2014  The US adds new sanctions against Russia, prohibiting certain Russian international businesses from accessing US capital markets; the move extends previous sanctions targeting specific individuals and their companies.

US Sanctions Update:

2009  Industrial espionage by Chinese: “Dongfan Chung, a former engineer employed by Boeing and Rockwell International, was found guilty of economic espionage on this day. Chung, a Chinese born naturalized United States citizen was accused of giving secretive information about space shuttle technology to China.” –

2007   An earthquake of magnitude 6.8 and 6.6 aftershock occurs off the Niigata coast of Japan killing eight people, injuring at least 800 and damaging a nuclear power plant.

1999  John F. Kennedy, Jr., piloting a Piper Saratoga aircraft, dies when his plane crashes into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Martha’s Vineyard. His wife Carolyn Bessette-Kennedy and sister-in-law Lauren Bessette are also killed.

1990  The Parliament of the Ukrainian SSR declares state sovereignty over the territory of the Ukrainian SSR.

Ukraine Politics and Historical Overview:

History of Ukraine:

Ukraine-Russian Relations:

1981  Mahathir Mohamad becomes Malaysia‘s 4th Prime Minister.

1979  Iraqi President Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr resigns and is replaced by Saddam Hussein.

Saddam Hussein:

Saddam Hussein’s Trial:

1973  Watergate scandal: Former White House aide Alexander Butterfield informs the United States Senate that President Richard Nixon had secretly recorded potentially incriminating conversations.

Watergate Scandal:

Watergate Tapes:

Watergate Scandal Timelines:

1969  Apollo program: Apollo 11, the first mission to land astronauts on the Moon, is launched from the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Kennedy, Florida.

1965  South Vietnamese Colonel Phạm Ngọc Thảo—an undetected communist spy—was hunted down and killed after being sentenced to death in absentia for a February 1965 coup attempt against Nguyễn Khánh.

Communism and the Vietnam War:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1951  The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger is published for the first time by Little, Brown and Company.

1950  Chaplain–Medic massacre: American POWs were massacred by North Korean Army.

Chaplain-Medic Massacre:

1948  The storming of the cockpit of the Miss Macao passenger seaplane, operated by a subsidiary of the Cathay Pacific Airways, marks the first aircraft hijacking of a commercial plane.

1948  Following token resistance, the city of Nazareth, revered by Christians as the hometown of Jesus, capitulates to Israeli troops during Operation Dekel in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

1945  Manhattan Project: The Atomic Age begins when the United States successfully detonates a plutonium-based test nuclear weapon near Alamogordo, New Mexico.

1942  Holocaust: Vel’ d’Hiv Roundup (Rafle du Vel’ d’Hiv): The government of Vichy France orders the mass arrest of 13,152 Jews who are held at the Winter Velodrome in Paris before deportation to Auschwitz.

1931  Emperor Haile Selassie I signs the first constitution of Ethiopia.

1927  Augusto César Sandino leads a raid on U.S. Marines and Nicaraguan Guardia Nacional that had been sent to apprehend him in the village of Ocotal, but is repulsed by one of the first dive-bombing attacks in history.

1909  Persian Constitutional Revolution: Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar is forced out as Shah of Persia and is replaced by his son Ahmad Shah Qajar.

1809  The city of La Paz, in what is today Bolivia, declares its independence from the Spanish Crown during the La Paz revolution and forms the Junta Tuitiva, the first independent government in Spanish America, led by Pedro Domingo Murillo.


(Sources and references:    to july_16;     to july/16;   to july_16.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 10 Jul 2017.

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