This Week in History

HISTORY, 24 Jul 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga - TRANSCEND Media Service

Jul 24-30, 2017


“If you want to live a happy life, tie it to a goal, not to people or things.” Albert Einstein


2014  Air Algérie Flight 5017 loses contact with air traffic controllers 50 minutes after takeoff. It was travelling between OuagadougouBurkina Faso and Algiers with 116 people on board. The wreckage is later found in Mali.

2013  high-speed train derails in Spain rounding a curve with an 80 km/h (50 mph) speed limit at 190 km/h (120 mph), killing 78 passengers.

2011   Digital switchover is completed in 44 of the 47 prefectures of Japan, with IwateMiyagi, and Fukushima television stations terminating analog broadcasting operations later as a result of the Tōhoku earthquake.

2001  Bandaranaike Airport attack is carried out by 14 Tamil Tiger commandos, all died in this attack. They destroyed 11 Aircraft (mostly military) and damaged 15, there are no civilian casualties. This incident slowed down Sri Lankan economy.

Bandaranaike Airport Attack of 2001:

Tamil Tigers:

Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of the Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of Sri Lanka:

Sri Lanka:

Foreign Relations of Sri Lanka:

Economy of Sri Lanka:

2001  Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the last Tsar of Bulgaria when he was a child, is sworn in as Prime Minister of Bulgaria, becoming the first monarch in history to regain political power through democratic election to a different office.

1991  Manmohan Singh presents his budget speech to the Indian Parliament which led to economic liberalisation in India

199Iraqi forces start massing on the KuwaitIraq border.

Iraq Invasion of Kuwait:

Persian Gulf War:

1991 Gulf War and Its Timeline:

1983  The Black July anti-Tamil riots begin in Sri Lanka, killing between 400 and 3,000. Black July is generally regarded as the beginning of the Sri Lankan Civil War.

Black July of 1983:

Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of the Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of Sri Lanka:

Sri Lanka:

Foreign Relations of Sri Lanka:

Economy of Sri Lanka:

1977  End of a four day long Libyan–Egyptian War.

Libyan-Egyptian War of 1977:

Tensions after the Libyan-Egyptian War of 1977:

1974  Watergate scandal: The United States Supreme Court unanimously ruled that President Richard Nixon did not have the authority to withhold subpoenaed White House tapes and they order him to surrender the tapes to the Watergate special prosecutor.

Watergate Scandal:

Watergate Tapes:

1972  Bugojno group is caught by Yugoslav security forces.

Bugojno Group:

Croatian Nationalism and the Croatian Independence Movement from Yugoslavia:

Another Aspect of Independence Movement and Croatian Nationalism: Ethnic Cleansing against Local Ethnic Minorities 1991-1995:

History of Croatia:

Independent State of Croatia (a.k.a. NDH), a Nazi Subject State, during World War II:

NDH and the Jasenovac Concentration Camp:

Vatican and the Ustashe:

Bleiburg Massacre of Croats by the Allied Power (British) in May 1945 Just After WWII in Europe:


Foreign Relations of Croatia:

Economy of Croatia:

1969  Apollo program: Apollo 11 splashes down safely in the Pacific Ocean.

Apollo 11:

Apollo Program:

Timelines of the Apollo Program:

1967  During an official state visit to Canada, French President Charles de Gaulle declares to a crowd of over 100,000 in Montreal: Vive le Québec libre! (“Long live free Quebec!”). The statement, interpreted as support for Quebec independence, delighted many Quebecers but angered the Canadian government and many English Canadians.

1959  At the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow, U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev have a “Kitchen Debate“.

Kitchen Debate between Nixon and Khrushchev:

1950  Cape Canaveral Air Force Station begins operations with the launch of a Bumper rocket.

1943  World War II: Operation Gomorrah begins: British and Canadian aeroplanes bomb Hamburg by night, and American planes by day. By the end of the operation in November, 9,000 tons of explosives will have killed more than 30,000 people and destroyed 280,000 buildings.

1938  First ascent of the Eiger north face.

Eiger North Route of 1938:

1929  The Kellogg–Briand Pact, a.k.a. the Pact of Paris, renouncing war as an instrument of foreign policy, goes into effect (it is first signed in Paris on August 27, 1928 by most leading world powers).

Kellogg-Briand Pact:

192Archeologist Themistoklis Sofoulis becomes Prime Minister of Greece.

1923  The Treaty of Lausanne, settling the boundaries of modern Turkey, is signed in Switzerland by Greece, Bulgaria and other countries that fought in World War I.

Treaty of Lausanne of 1923:

192The draft of the British Mandate of Palestine was formally confirmed by the Council of the League of Nations; it came into effect on 26 September 1923.

British Mandate of Palestine of 1923:

1911  Hiram Bingham III re-discovers Machu Picchu, “the Lost City of the Incas”.

1910  The Ottoman Empire captures the city of Shkodër, putting down the Albanian Revolt of 1910.

Albanian Revolt of 1910:

History of the Ottoman Empire:

1847  After 17 months of travel, Brigham Young leads 148 Mormon pioneers into Salt Lake Valley, resulting in the establishment of Salt Lake City. Celebrations of this event include the Pioneer Day Utah state holiday and the Days of ’47 Parade.

Brigham Young:

Salt Lake City and Its History:

History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church):

1823  In Maracaibo, Venezuela the naval Battle of Lake Maracaibo takes place, where Admiral José Prudencio Padilla, defeats the Spanish Navy, thus culminating the independence for the Gran Colombia.

Battle of Lake Maracaibo:

History of Venezuela:


Foreign Relations of Venezuela:

Venezuela and the United Nations:

Economy of Venezuela:

1823  Slavery is abolished in Chile.

Abolishment of Slavery in Chile:




2012  Pranab Mukherjee became the 13th president of India.

2010  WikiLeaks publishes classified documents about the War in Afghanistan, one of the largest leaks in U.S. military history.

Classified Documents on the US War in Afghanistan:

US Invasion of Afghanistan – US War in Afghanistan:

Why Did the US Invade Afghanistan? :

Behind the Official Reasons for the Invasion of Afghanistan:

US-Afghanistan Relations:

Foreign Relations of Afghanistan:

Afghanistan and the United Nations:


History of Afghanistan:

Economy of Afghanistan:

2007   Pratibha Patil is sworn in as India’s first female president.

Prathibha Patil:

2002  APJ Abdul Kalam became the 11th president of India.

APJ Abdul Kalam:

2000  Concorde Air France Flight 4590 crashes at Paris Charles de Gaulle airport, killing 113 passengers.


Concorde Crash on 25 July 2000:

1996  In a military coup in Burundi, Pierre Buyoya deposes Sylvestre Ntibantunganya.

Military Coup in Burundi of 1996:

History of Burundi:

1994  Israel and Jordan sign the Washington Declaration, that formally ends the state of war that had existed between the nations since 1948.

Washington Declaration of 1994:

1993  The Saint James Church massacre occurs in Kenilworth, Cape Town, South Africa.

Saint James Church Massacre:

1993  Israel launches a massive attack against Lebanon in what the Israelis call Operation Accountability, and the Lebanese call the Seven-Day War.

Operation Accountability/Seven-Day War:

1990  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Tests (Overview):

Nevada Test Sites:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1985  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

  • For more pertinent information, see1990  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site”, mentioned above.

1985  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests (Overview):

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1985:

Nuclear Tests at Semipalitinsk:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1984 Salyut 7 cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya becomes the first woman to perform a space walk.

Salyut 7:

1983  Black July: Thirty-seven Tamil political prisoners at the Welikada high security prison in Colombo are massacred by the fellow Sinhalese prisoners.

Black July of 1983:

Massacre at Welikada Prison:

Tamil Tigers:

Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of the Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of Sri Lanka:

Sri Lanka:

Foreign Relations of Sri Lanka:

Economy of Sri Lanka:

1980  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

Nuclear Tests of the United States (Overview):

Nevada Test Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1979  Another section of the Sinai Peninsula is peacefully returned by Israel to Egypt.

Israel’s Withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula:

Camp David Accords of 1978:

1978  Louise Brown, the world’s first “test tube baby” is born.

Louise Brown:

Ethics Debates on Test Tube Babies:

1978  Puerto Rico police assassinate two nationalists in the Cerro Maravilla murders.

1976  Viking program: Viking 1 takes the famous Face on Mars photo.

Viking Program:

Face on Mars:

1973  Soviet Mars 5 space probe is launched.

Mars 5 and Martian Exploration:

1969  Vietnam War: U.S. President Richard Nixon declares the Nixon Doctrine, stating that the United States now expects its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense. This is the start of the “Vietnamization” of the war.

Vietnam War in 1969:

Nixon Doctrine:


Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement or Opposition to United States Involvement in the Vietnam War:

1961  In a speech John F. Kennedy emphasizes that any attack on Berlin is an attack on NATO.

JFK’s Speech on the Berlin Crisis, July 25, 1961:

1959  Lloyd J. Old introduced BCG, a tuberculosis vaccine, into experimental cancer research as a way to stimulate non-specific resistance to tumor growth. BCG was FDA-approved in 1991 and is now widely used as a first line treatment for superficial bladder cancer.

Lloyd J. Old:

History/Timelines of BCG Vaccine:

1959  SR.N1 hovercraft crosses the English Channel from Calais, France to Dover, England in just over two hours.

1958  The African Regroupment Party (PRA) holds its first congress in Cotonou.

African Regroupment Party Congress at Cotonou of 1958:

1957  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests (Overview):

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1957  The Republic of Tunisia is proclaimed.

History of Tunisia:

1952  The US non-incorporated territory of Puerto Rico adopts a constitution.

Puerto Rico and Its Constitution:

1950  The Korean People’s Army crossed the 38th parallel starting The Korean War.

Korean People’s Army’s Advance:

1947  US Department of Army created.

US Department of Army:

1946  Operation Crossroads: An atomic bomb is detonated underwater in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll.

Operation Crossroads:

Nuclear Tests at Bikini Atoll:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1944  World War II: Operation Spring – one of the bloodiest days for the First Canadian Army during the war: One thousand five hundred casualties, including 500 killed.

Operation Spring of 1944:

1943  World War II: Benito Mussolini is forced out of office by his own Italian Grand Council and is replaced by Pietro Badoglio.

Pietro Badoglio:

Benito Mussolini:

Mussolini’s Doctrine:

Timeline – Mussolini:

1942  Norwegian Manifesto calls for nonviolent resistance to the Nazis.

Nonviolence resistance:

Nonviolence and Religions:

1940  General Henri Guisan orders the Swiss Army to resist German invasion and makes surrender illegal.

General Henri Guisan:


History of Switzerland:

Foreign Relations and Neutrality of Switzerland:

1934  The Nazis assassinate Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss in a failed coup attempt.

1925  Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) is established.


1920  France captures Damascus.

France’s Capture of Damascus of 1920:

1915  RFC Captain Lanoe Hawker becomes the first British military aviator to earn the Victoria Cross, for defeating three German two-seat observation aircraft in one day, over the Western Front.

1909  Louis Blériot makes the first flight across the English Channel in a heavier-than-air machine from (Calais to Dover, England, United Kingdom) in 37 minutes.

1908  Ajinomoto is founded. Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University discovers that a key ingredient in kombu soup stock is monosodium glutamate (MSG), and patents a process for manufacturing it.

1894  After over two months of sea-based bombardment, the United States invasion of Puerto Rico begins with U.S. troops led by General Nelson Miles landing at harbor of Guánica, Puerto Rico.

1894  The First Sino-Japanese War begins when the Japanese fire upon a Chinese warship. [However, this war was officially declared on August 1, 1894 between China and Japan.]

First Sino-Japanese War:

Second Sino-Japanese War:




2007  Shambo, a black cow in Wales that had been adopted by the local Hindu community, is slaughtered due to a bovine tuberculosis infection, causing widespread controversy.

2005  Mumbai, India receives 99.5cm of rain (39.17 inches) within 24 hours, resulting in floods killing over 5,000 people.

2005  Space Shuttle program: STS-114 Mission – Launch of Discovery, NASA‘s first scheduled flight mission after the Columbia Disaster in 2003.


Space Shuttle Program:

History of the Space Shuttle Program:

Space Shuttle Program and Its Military Purposes:

1990  The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is signed into law by President George Bush.

1989  A federal grand jury indicts Cornell University student Robert T. Morris, Jr. for releasing the Morris worm, thus becoming the first person to be prosecuted under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.

1977  USSR performs underground nuclear test at Krasnoyarsk.

1977 USSR Nuclear Test:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1977  The National Assembly of Quebec imposes the use of French as the official language of the provincial government.

French as the Official Language of Quebec:

1974  Greek Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis forms the country’s first civil government after seven years of military rule.

Konstantinos Karamanlis:

Modern History of Greece:

1974  France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island.


History of France Nuclear Tests in the Pacific:

France’s Nuclear Tests:

1971  Nicolette Milnes-Walker completes sailing non-stop single-handedly across the Atlantic, becoming the first woman to successfully do so.

1971  Apollo program: launch of Apollo 15 on the first Apollo “J-Mission“, and first use of a Lunar Roving Vehicle.

Apollo 15:

History of the Apollo Program:

1968  Vietnam War: South Vietnamese opposition leader Truong Dinh Dzu is sentenced to five years hard labor for advocating the formation of a coalition government as a way to move toward an end to the war.

1968 in the Vietnam War:

Trương Đình Dzu:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement or Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War:

1965  Full independence is granted to the Maldives.

Independence of Maldives in 1965:

History of Maldives:


Foreign Relations of Maldives:

Economy of Maldives:

1963  The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development votes to admit Japan.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Relevant Topics:

1963  An earthquake in Skopje, Yugoslavia (now in Macedonia) leaves 1,100 dead.

1963  Syncom 2, the world’s first geosynchronous satellite, is launched from Cape Canaveral on a Delta B booster.

1958  Explorer program: Explorer 4 is launched.

1957  USSR launches 1st intercontinental multistage ballistic missile.


Intercontinental Ballistic Missile:

1957  Carlos Castillo Armas, dictator of Guatemala, is assassinated.

1956  Following the World Bank‘s refusal to fund building the Aswan Dam, Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal, sparking international condemnation.

1953  Soldiers from the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment repel a number of Chinese assaults against a key position known as The Hook during the Battle of the Samichon River, just hours before the Armistice Agreement is signed on 27 July 1953, ending the Korean War.

Battle of the Samichon River:

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1953  Arizona Governor John Howard Pyle orders an anti-polygamy law enforcement crackdown on residents of Short Creek, Arizona, which becomes known as the Short Creek raid.

1953  Fidel Castro leads an unsuccessful attack on the Moncada Barracks, thus beginning the Cuban Revolution. The movement took the name of the date: 26th of July Movement

Cuban Revolution:

26th of July Movement:

History/Timelines of the Cuban Revolution:

Fidel Castro:

Cuba or the “Republic of Cuba” (Repúlica de Cuba):

Foreign Relations of Cuba:

Cuba and USSR/Russia:

Cuba and the United States:

History and Culture of Cuba:

Economy of Cuba:

1948  US President Harry S Truman signs Executive Order 9981 desegregating the military of the United States.

1947  Cold War: US President Harry S. Truman signs the National Security Act of 1947 into United States law creating the Central Intelligence Agency, United States Department of Defense, United States Air Force, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the United States National Security Council.

National Security Act of 1947:

History of the CIA:

Intelligence Service Agencies:

1946  Aloha Airlines begins service from Honolulu International Airport

1945  The US Navy cruiser USS Indianapolis arrives at Tinian with parts of the warhead for the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

1945  The Potsdam Declaration is signed in Potsdam, Germany.

Potsdam Declaration:

1945  The Labour Party wins the United Kingdom general election of July 5 by a landslide, removing Winston Churchill from power.

1944  World War II: the Soviet Army enters Lviv, a major city in western Ukraine, capturing it from the Nazis. Only 300 Jews survive out of 160,000 living in Lviv prior to occupation.

Soviet Army’s Advance into Lviv in 1944:

1941  World War II: in response to the Japanese occupation of French Indochina, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the seizure of all Japanese assets in the United States.

1937  End of the Battle of Brunete in the Spanish Civil War.

Battle of Brunete:

Spanish Civil War:

Timelines of the Spanish Civil War:

1936  The Axis powers decide to intervene in the Spanish Civil War.

Axis Powers:

For some more information on the Spanish Civil War, see “1937  End of the Battle of Brunete in the Spanish Civil War,” mentioned above.

1914  Serbia and Bulgaria interrupt diplomatic relationship.

Serbia-Bulgaria Relations:

1908  United States Attorney General Charles Joseph Bonaparte issues an order to immediately staff the Office of the Chief Examiner (later renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation).

1897  Anglo-Afghan War: The Pashtun fakir Saidullah leads an army of more than 10,000 to begin a siege of the British garrison in the Malakand Agency of the North West Frontier Province of India.

Siege of the British Garrison in Malakand:

Anglo-Afghan Wars:

History of Afghanistan

Independence of Afghanistan:

1891  France annexes Tahiti.

1890  In Buenos Aires, Argentina the Revolución del Parque takes place, forcing President Miguel Ángel Juárez Celman‘s resignation.

1887  Publication of the Unua Libro, founding the Esperanto movement.

History of Esperanto (Movement):

1882  The Republic of Stellaland is founded in Southern Africa.

Republic of Stelland:

1847  Liberia declares its independence.


History of Liberia:

1822  First day of the three-day Battle of Dervenakia, between the Ottoman Empire force led by Mahmud Dramali Pasha and the Greek Revolutionary force led by Theodoros Kolokotronis.

1822  José de San Martín arrives in Guayaquil, Ecuador, to meet with Simón Bolívar.




2015  At least seven people are killed and many injured after gunmen attack an Indian police station in Punjab.

2006  The Federal Republic of Germany is deemed guilty in the loss of Bashkirian 2937 and DHL Flight 611, because it is illegal to outsource flight surveillance.

2005   After an incident during STS-114NASA grounds the Space Shuttle, pending an investigation of the continuing problem with the shedding of foam insulation from the external fuel tank.

2002  Ukraine airshow disaster: A Sukhoi Su-27 fighter crashes during an air show at LvivUkraine killing 77 and injuring more than 500 others, making it the deadliest air show disaster in history.

1996  Centennial Olympic Park bombing: In Atlanta, United States, a pipe bomb explodes at Centennial Olympic Park during the 1996 Summer Olympics. One woman (Alice Hawthorne) is killed, and a cameraman suffers a heart attack fleeing the scene. One hundred eleven are injured.

1990  The Jamaat al Muslimeen attempt a coup d’état in Trinidad and Tobago, occupying the Trinidad and the studios of Trinidad and Tobago Television, holding Prime Minister A. N. R. Robinson and most of his Cabinet as well as the staff at the television station hostage for six days.

1990  The Supreme Soviet of the Belarusian Soviet Republic declares independence of Belarus from the Soviet Union. Until 1996 the day is celebrated as the Independence Day of Belarus; after a referendum held that year the celebration of independence is moved to June 3.

1987  RMS Titanic Inc. begins the first expedited salvage of wreckage of the RMS Titanic.

RMS Titanic:

1986  Iraqi jets attack central Iranian city of Arak; Iran threatens missile attack of gulf states supporting Iraq.

1983  Black July: Eighteen Tamil political prisoners at the Welikada high security prison in Colombo are massacred by Sinhalese prisoners, the second such massacre in two days.

Black July of 1983:

Massacre at Welikada Prison:

Tamil Tigers:

Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of the Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of Sri Lanka:

Sri Lanka:

Foreign Relations of Sri Lanka:

Economy of Sri Lanka:

1974  Watergate scandal: The House of Representatives Judiciary Committee votes 27 to 11 to recommend the first article of impeachment (for obstruction of justice) against President Richard Nixon.

Impeachment against President Richard Nixon:

Watergate Scandal:

Watergate Tapes:

“Mystery” of Watergate Tape Gap:

Watergate Scandal Timelines:

1967  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Test Site (Overview):

US Nuclear Weapons Tests (Overview):

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1964  Vietnam War: Five thousand more American military advisers are sent to South Vietnam bringing the total number of United States forces in Vietnam to 21,000.

Vietnam War Overview:

Vietnam War in 1964:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement or Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War:

1962  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests at Novaya Zemlya (Overview):

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

1955  The Allied occupation of Austria stemming from World War II, ends.

1953  Fighting in the Korean War ends when the United States, China, and North Korea sign an armistice agreement. Syngman Rhee, President of South Korea, refuses to sign but pledges to observe the armistice.

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1949  Initial flight of the de Havilland Comet, the first jet-powered airliner.

1942  World War II: Allied forces successfully halt the final Axis advance into Egypt.

1941  Japanese troops occupy French Indochina.

French Indochina:

Japanese Invasion of French Indonesia:

In French Indochina: Vichy France Atrocities and France-Japan Cooperation:

Vichy France:

Vichy Government and the Holocaust Collaboration:

1929  The Geneva Convention of 1929, dealing with treatment of prisoners-of-war, is signed by 53 nations.

Geneva Convention of 1929:

1929  The Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field, consisting of 39 articles in French, was adopted on 27 July 1929, at the end of the Diplomatic Conference of Geneva of 1929, which met from the 27 July until the 1 August of that year.

1921  Researchers at the University of Toronto led by biochemist Frederick Banting prove that the hormone insulin regulates blood sugar.


1919  The Chicago Race Riot erupts after a racial incident occurred on a South Side beach, leading to 38 fatalities and 537 injuries over a five-day period.

1917  The Allies reach the Yser Canal at the Battle of Passchendaele.

1914  Felix Manalo registers the Iglesia ni Cristo with the Philippine government.

1900  Kaiser Wilhelm II makes a speech comparing Germans to Huns; for years afterwards, “Hun” would be a disparaging name for Germans.

1890  Vincent van Gogh shoots himself and dies two days later.

1880  Second Anglo-Afghan War: Battle of MaiwandAfghan forces led by Mohammad Ayub Khan defeat the British Army in battle near Maiwand, Afghanistan.

Battle of Maiwand of 1880:

Anglo-Afghan Wars:

First Anglo-Afghan War:

Second Anglo-Afghan War:

Third Anglo-Afghan War:

History of Afghanistan

Independence of Afghanistan:

1866  The first permanent transatlantic telegraph cable is successfully completed, stretching from Valentia Island, Ireland, to Heart’s Content, Newfoundland.

1865  Welsh settlers arrive at Chubut in Argentina.

1794  French Revolution: Maximilien Robespierre is arrested after encouraging the execution of more than 17,000 “enemies of the Revolution”.

1789  The first U.S. federal government agency, the Department of Foreign Affairs, is established (it will be later renamed Department of State).

1720  The Battle of Grengam marks the second important victory of the Russian Navy.




2010   Airblue Flight 202 crashes into the Margalla Hills north of Islamabad, Pakistan, killing all 152 people aboard. It is the deadliest aviation accident in Pakistan history and the first involving an Airbus A321.

2008  The historic Grand Pier in Weston-super-Mare burns down for the second time in 80 years.

2005  The Provisional Irish Republican Army calls an end to its thirty-year-long armed campaign in Northern Ireland.

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

IRA’s Terrorism:

History of the IRA:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1996  The remains of a prehistoric man are discovered near Kennewick, Washington. Such remains will be known as the Kennewick Man.

1993  Andorra joins the United Nations.


Andorra and the United Nations:

1988  Israeli diplomats arrive in Moscow for 1st visit in 21 years.

Israeli Diplomat in Moscow in 1988:

1983  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

Semipalitinsk Nuclear Test Site (Overview):

USSR’s Nuclear Tests at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk:

USSR’s Nuclear Testing Program:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1978  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1976  The Tangshan earthquake measuring between 7.8 and 8.2 moment magnitude flattens Tangshan in the People’s Republic of China, killing 242,769 and injuring 164,851.

1974  Spetsgruppa A, Russia’s elite special force, was formed.

1965  Vietnam War: U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson announces his order to increase the number of United States troops in South Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000.

Vietnam War in 1965:

LBJ Orders Increase of US Soldiers for Vietnam War:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement or Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War:

1957  Heavy rain and a mudslide (aka mudflow) in Isahaya, western Kyushu, Japan, kills 992.

1955  The Union Mundial pro Interlingua is founded at the first Interlingua congress in Tours, France.

International Auxiliary Language:

1951  Convention relating to the Status of Refugees is adopted.

Convention relating to the Status of Refugees of 1951:

International Refugee Law:

Refugee Definition, Determination of the Refugee Status:

Right of Asylum:

Territorial Asylum:

Extraterritorial Asylum:

Diplomatic Asylum:

Principle of Non-refoulement:

Jus Cogens and the Principle of Non-refoulement:

1948  The Metropolitan Police Flying Squad foils a bullion robbery in the “Battle of London Airport”.

1945  A US Army B-25 bomber crashes into the 79th floor of the Empire State Building killing 14 and injuring 26.

B-25 Bomber’s Crash into the Empire State Building:

1943  World War II: Operation Gomorrah – The Royal Air Force bombs Hamburg, Germany causing a firestorm that kills 42,000 German civilians.

1942  World War II: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin issues Order No. 227 in response to alarming German advances into the Soviet Union. Under the order all those who retreat or otherwise leave their positions without orders to do so are to be tried in a military court, with punishments including duty in a penal battalion, imprisonment in a gulag, or execution.

1935  First flight of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress.

1933  Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Spain are established.

1932  US President Herbert Hoover orders the United States Army to forcibly evict the “Bonus Army” of World War I veterans gathered in Washington, D.C.

1914  World War I: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia after Serbia rejects the conditions of an ultimatum sent by Austria on July 23 following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

1868  The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution is certified, establishing African American citizenship and guaranteeing due process of law.

1866  At the age of 18, Vinnie Ream becomes the first and youngest female artist to receive a commission from the United States government for a statue (of Abraham Lincoln).

1821  José de San Martín declares the independence of Peru from Spain.

1809  Peninsular War: Battle of Talavera – Sir Arthur Wellesley‘s British, Portuguese and Spanish army defeats a French force led by Joseph Bonaparte.

Battle of Talavera:

Peninsular War:

1808  Mahmud II became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam.

1794  French Revolution: Maximilien Robespierre and Louis Antoine de Saint-Just are executed by guillotine in Paris, France.




2013  Two passenger trains collide in the Swiss municipality of Granges-près-Marnand near Lausanne injuring 25 people.

2012  Scientists reveal new research identifying a mechanism by which Earth-warming carbon is pulled deep into the Southern Ocean, and locked away; scientists claim this process may be threatened by global warming.

Global Warming and the Southern Ocean:

2010   An overloaded passenger ferry capsizes on the Kasai River in Bandundu ProvinceDemocratic Republic of the Congo, resulting in at least 80 deaths.

2005  Astronomers announce their discovery of the dwarf planet Eris.

1993  The Supreme Court of Israel acquits alleged Nazi death camp guard John Demjanjuk of all charges and he is set free.

1987  Prime Minister of India Rajiv Gandhi and President of Sri Lanka J. R. Jayewardene sign the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord on ethnic issues.

1987  British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and President of France François Mitterrand sign the agreement to build a tunnel under the English Channel (Eurotunnel).

1980  Iran adopts a new “holy” flag after the Islamic Revolution.

1976  In New York City, David Berkowitz (aka the “Son of Sam“) kills one person and seriously wounds another in the first of a series of attacks.

Son of Sam:

1976  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Nuclear Tests at Semipalitinsk Nuclear Environmental Problems:

1974  France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island.


History of France Nuclear Tests in the Pacific:

France’s Nuclear Tests:

1973  Greeks vote to abolish the monarchy, beginning the first period of the Metapolitefsi.

Modern History of Greece:

1967  During the fourth day of celebrating its 400th anniversary, the city of Caracas, Venezuela is shaken by an earthquake, leaving approximately 500 dead.

1967  Vietnam War: Off the coast of North Vietnam the USS Forrestal catches on fire in the worst US naval disaster since World War II, killing 134.

Vietnam War in 1967:

1965  Vietnam War: The first 4,000 101st Airborne Division paratroopers arrive in Vietnam, landing at Cam Ranh Bay.

1965 in the Vietnam War:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1965  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1965:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Nuclear Tests at Semipalatinsk Nuclear Environmental Problems:

1958  US President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs into law the National Aeronautics and Space Act, which creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

1957  The International Atomic Energy Agency is established.

International Atomic Energy Agency:

History of the IAEA:

US President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” Speech that Initiated an International Atomic Energy Agency:

1955  USSR performs nuclear test at Semipalatinsk/Kazakhstan.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1955:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

1950  Korean War: After four days, the No Gun Ri Massacre ends when the US Army 7th Cavalry Regiment is withdrawn.

No Gun Ri Massacre:

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1948  Olympic Games: The Games of the XIV Olympiad – After a hiatus of 12 years caused by World War II, the first Summer Olympics to be held since the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, open in London.

1937  Tōngzhōu Incident: In Tōngzhōu, China, the East Hopei Army attacks Japanese troops and civilians.

1932  Great Depression: In Washington, D.C., troops disperse the last of the “Bonus Army” of World War I veterans.

World War I Veterans:

Great Depression:

Timeline of the Great Depression:

1921  Adolf Hitler becomes leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party.

1914  The Cape Cod Canal opened.

1900  In Italy, King Umberto I of Italy is assassinated by the anarchist Gaetano Bresci.

1899  The First Hague Convention is signed.

First Hague Convention:

1858  United States and Japan sign the Harris Treaty.

Harris Treaty:

1851  Annibale de Gasparis discovers asteroid 15 Eunomia.

1848  Irish Potato Famine: Tipperary Revolt – In Tipperary, Ireland, then in the United Kingdom, an unsuccessful nationalist revolt against British rule is put down by police.

1693  War of the Grand Alliance: Battle of LandenFrance wins a Pyrrhic victory over Allied forces in the Netherlands.




2014  One hundred and fifty people are trapped after a landslide in Maharashtra, India; 20 are killed.

2012   A power grid failure in Delhi leaves more than 300 million people without power in northern India.

2012   A train fire kills 32 passengers and injures 27 on the Tamil Nadu Express in Andhra Pradesh, India.

2006  The world’s longest running music show Top of the Pops is broadcast for the last time on BBC Two. The show had aired for 42 years.

2003  In Mexico, the last ‘old style’ Volkswagen Beetle rolls off the assembly line.

1990   George Steinbrenner is forced by Commissioner Fay Vincent to resign as principal partner of New York Yankees for hiring Howie Spira to “get dirt” on Dave Winfield.

1982  USSR performs underground nuclear test at Irkutsk.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1982:

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1980  Israel‘s Knesset passes the Jerusalem Law.

1980  Vanuatu gains independence.

Vanuatu and Its Independence:

1974  Watergate scandal: US President Richard Nixon releases subpoenaed White House recordings after being ordered to do so by the Supreme Court of the United States.

Impeachment against President Richard Nixon:

Watergate Scandal:

Watergate Tapes:

“Mystery” of Watergate Tape Gap:

Watergate Scandal Timelines:

1971  Apollo program: Apollo 15 Mission – David Scott and James Irwin on the Apollo Lunar Module the module Falcon land on the Moon with the first Lunar Rover.

1969  Vietnam War: US President Richard Nixon makes an unscheduled visit to South Vietnam and meets with President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu and U.S. military commanders.

Vietnam War in 1969:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

Vietnam War Peace Talks/Negotiations:

1965  US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Social Security Act of 1965 into law, establishing Medicare and Medicaid.

1956  A joint resolution of the U.S. Congress is signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, authorizing In God we trust as the U.S. national motto.

1945  World War II: Japanese submarine I-58 sinks the USS Indianapolis, killing 883 seamen.

1865  The steamboat Brother Jonathan sinks off the coast of Crescent City, California, killing 225 passengers, the deadliest shipwreck on the Pacific Coast of the US at the time.

1863  American Indian Wars: Representatives of the United States and tribal leaders including Chief Pocatello (of the Shoshone) sign the Treaty of Box Elder.

Wars of Native People of North America:

Native People of America (a.k.a. American Indians):

History of Native People of America:

1859  First ascent of Grand Combin, one of the highest summits in the Alps.

1825  Malden Island is discovered by captain George Byron, 7th Baron Byron.

1676  Nathaniel Bacon issues the “Declaration of the People of Virginia”, beginning Bacon’s Rebellion against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.


(Sources and references:   to_july_30;  to july/30;  to july_30.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 24 Jul 2017.

Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week in History, is included. Thank you.

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One Response to “This Week in History”

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