Hate Crime, Xenophobia, Racism, Sinophobia, Islamophobia, Anti-Semitism: Call It What You Will, a Crime Has Been Committed

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR, 29 Mar 2021

Prof. Hoosen Vawda – TRANSCEND Media Service

A Minorities Centered, Anti Social, Crime Pandemic

25 Mar 2021 – The SARS Cov-2 Pandemic has highlighted another pandemic of anti-social behaviour and acrimony against minorities in many countries.  This is the resurgence of Xenophobia, hate crimes against fellow humanoids and heightening of anti-Semitic as well as Sinophobic[1] and Islamophobic[2] or currently designated as “Islamoprejudice”, which is debatable, sentiments in various communities. The usual subjects of these acrimonious behavioural patterns are in the minority.[3]

Let me begin by quoting, Ms. Navi Pillay, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights[4], when in, July 2012, she declared that “We should be aware that hatred is not a natural and spontaneous sentiment, it is usually the outcome of propaganda and incitement to hatred, hostility and violence carried out at several levels, including social, political and media.”  While I have great respect for Ms Pillay, I respectfully disagree with her statement, for I am of the opinion that human beings, from the time of evolution, were hunters and hoarders[5], to ensure their individual survival, instead of ensuring the good of others and the community as a whole.

This basic survival mode philosophy so violently demonstrated in the workings of the reptilian brain[6], which is devoid of higher cortical functions and in the process of physical as well as social evolution over the millennia, we have come to behave in a so called “normal manner”, as dictated by the applicable norms and accepted standards of behaviour within the social constraints.  Hence, in humanoids, there is an innate proclivity towards violence and aggressive behaviour, as programmed by the primitive reptilian brain, based on survival instincts during the process of evolution.[7]

This is well demonstrated in disinhibited alcoholics and drug addicts, periodically, when they are recapitulating our primitive origins and demonstrating our disinhibited, Neanderthal[8] behavioural pattern.  The Homo sapiens sapiens[9], the pinnacle of human evolution, normally functions with great levels of cortical inhibitions during daily life[10]. This higher level of social functioning, of the modern humanoid, is again dictated and programmed by social norms.

Therefore, it is not entirely surprising that humanoids will engage in envy generated against strangers or any person who is perceived by the reptilian component of the human brain, as a threat to the survival of a particular humanoid individual or group, which is different. This will result in engaging in hateful acrimony and activities of varying intensities, eventually leading to the causation of a hate crime, under conditions of total disinhibition of the higher cortical function, which is normally inhibiting the lower primitive parts of the brain of the modern human being, with an upregulation of the limbic system[11].

This, neuroanatomical and neurophysiological body of basic sciences knowledge, therefore, needs us to examine the definition of xenophobia[12].  This term is derived from Greek and is an amalgamation of two words. Xenophobia is a broad notion, associated with a variety of meanings. The Greek words ξένος (xenos), meaning “foreigner”, “stranger”, and φόβος (phobos), meaning “fear”. Manifestations of xenophobia are usually triggered by intense dislike or hatred against people that are perceived as outsiders, strangers or foreigners to a group, community, or nation, based on their presumed or real descent, national, ethnic or social origin, race, colour, religion, phenotype, racial superiority, gender, sexual orientation or other grounds.

The manifestations of xenophobia include acts of direct discrimination, hostility or violence and incitement, essentially due to innate hatred. Xenophobic acts are intentional as the goal is to humiliate, denigrate and physically hurt the person(s) and the “associated” group of people.  This was the rationale for the Holocaust,[13] where the brutal Nazi regime decimated over six million children, women and men of Jewish origins, in addition to the Roamer[14] people, gypsies, Russian prisoners of war and others who did not share the phenotypic features of the so called the Superior Aryan Race in Germany.[15] These unfortunate victims were preselected in terms of Hitter’s opinion of racial purity based on: blue eyes and blonde hair? at the time during World War 11, bringing about the Holocaust, indeed a sad and horrific chapter in recent human history.

It is to be noted that hate crimes, xenophobia and Christianophobia[16] dates to Biblical times in ancient history.  The plight of the Children of Israel under Pharaonic Egypt[17]is a classic example of deep-seated hatred against the people of Moses.  Thereafter, the anti-Christian persecutions of followers of Jesus Christ, the Christian, by the various Roman Emperors who introduced the killing of Christians, again children, women and men, often fed to wild animal at public events in the Colosseum[18] which encapsulated, unimaginable torture, coupled with gore and glory for some.  These events were a prelude to gladiatorial games.  Christians were covered in tar and feathers, tied to poles to provide illumination during the evenings in the Colosseum for the events held there by Emperor Nero and the likes of Caligula.[19]  The historian Appian claims that the military commander Marcus Junius Brutus, before the battle of Philippi in 42BC, met an ‘Ethiopian’ outside the gates of his camp: his soldiers instantly hacked the man to pieces, taking his appearance for a bad omen – to the superstitious Roman, black was the colour of death.”[20]

During the late 13th century Nomadic hordes of Mongols came cross Europe massacring entire population of major cities in Eastern Europe such as Zagreb and Prague.[21] This was not only the element of brutality of conquests, but also deep-seated hatred of people who did not look file the Mongols.

In Britain under the later Monarchy of King Henry VIII[22], during the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority, Catholic priests and Catholics, in general, suffered torture of the most brutal nature accompanied by execution by hanging, beheading, disembowelment, quartering and sending of the quarters to far reaches of his country, as a message to dissidents, with the head of the victim spiked and displayed in marketplaces, all because they were Catholics. Prominent clerics were executed in this barbaric manner[23].  This constituted hate crime by present day standards.

In America, deep seated anti-Black sentiments and hatred by white American invaders was directed against Indigenous American Indians, leading to their decimation.  In fact, the bisons were killed off, depriving the great American Indian tribes being starved to death during cold harsh winters.[24] “Every Buffalo Dead Is an Indian Gone.” Those were the words of a U.S. Army colonel in 1867, General Phil Sheridan.[25]

Analogous incidents of xenophobia occurred in early South Africa history when the British invaders persecuted the Dutch original immigrants to the Cape of Good Hope and led to the Great Trek[26] in history. Later on, the British placed thousand of Afrikaners into concentration camps in South Africa during the Anglo-Boer war[27], where starvation, harsh climatic conditions and abject living conditions in these camps, led to thousands of the Afrikaner perishing, often from pulmonary tuberculosis.

In New Zealand, the British were reported to cut off both hands of Maori Chiefs[28] and causing death due to starvation.  The aborigines were similarly treated by the British as part of their occupied colonies and subjects, taking over their land in greater Australia.[29]

Therefore, humanoids have a long and nefarious history of endogenous dislike of people who are different from themselves and whom they harassed, since they were in the minority.  Numerous, such atrocities have been committed in history, such as the Armenian[30] and Rohingya genocide[31] in recent history, which is still ongoing. Rohingyas, is another example of hate crimes against people of a different religious affiliation and serious crime against humanity.

Recently, under the presidency of the former president Donald J. Trump, utterances of statements such as “Kung Flu Virus and “The Chinese virus”[32] stirred up discrimination against people of Asian origins in the greater region of Atlanta in the United States.  These verbal, indirect incitement, led to the shootings and killings of at least 6 ladies in spas across the city.[33]  This can be classified as Hate Crimes engendered by comments from politicians end supremacist groups in addition the deep-seated acrimony and aggression, as demonstrated by law enforcement officer with the infamous kneeling, for 8 minutes on the neck of Mr George Floyd, in 2020.[34]  This is  a typical example of hate crime against a minority person, the African American, individuals.  These sort of hate crimes on the increase during covered pandemic, where general mobility restrictions have tipped the balance in individuals and let to extremely violent crimes against minorities specially in the states where official condonation was generated by speeches made by politicians. The incidence of hate crimes against Asian Americans rose by 149% in 2020 in 16 major cities compared with 2019, according to the Centre for the Study of Hate and Extremism[35]

“One less Asian to put up with’: Family receives hand-written hate letter after father’s death.  Claudia Choi, daughter of Byong Choi, 83, who died of died of tuberculosis in his bone marrow on 24 February, said the letter was postmarked the same date as the funeral.[36]

“Now that Byong is gone, it’s one less Asian we have to put up with in Leisure World… You fricken Asians are taking over our American community!” It is not resting well with all and everybody who lives here – true statement!!” the letter read.[37]  “Watch out! Pack your bags and go back to your country where you belong,” it added.

The New Zealand mosque shootings[38] is another example of domestic terrorism and hate crimes generated by white supremacists. Two consecutive mass shootings occurred at mosques in a terrorist attack in Christchurch, New Zealand, during Friday Prayer on 15 March 2019.[7] The attack, carried out by a single gunman who entered both mosques, began at the Al Noor Mosque in the suburb of Riccarton at 1:40 pm and continued at Linwood Islamic Centre.

In South Africa, xenophobic attacks against foreigners and their businesses, where local individuals engaged in violence, which erupted in the central business district of the city of Durban at the beginning of March 2021 when good belonging to foreign street vendors were set alight.[39]  In this case the Durban Metro spokesperson reported that it is alleged that the uMkhonto we Sizwe Military Veterans[40], of the armed wing of the ruling African National Congress attached and assaulted foreign vendors and petrol bombed some of their shops. Two foreign nationals were stabbed by the group. Following this incident, about 200 foreign national flocked into the Mennonite Social Services refugee offices in Durban, stating that they are feeling unsafe and want intervention by the refugee office. As usual the police are investigating but there is a lack of political will resulting in definitive action to prevent these recurring attacks against foreigners in South Africa. The basic issue is economics.

In other countries such as Brazil, Brazilians of darker skin tone are typically depicted as housekeepers or in positions of lower socioeconomic standing.[41]  Muslim and Sikh Canadians have faced racism and discrimination in recent years, especially since 2001.[42]

The situation was so Draconian at one stage, that the Immorality Act was promulgated in in South Africa.[43]  Immorality Act was the title of two acts of the Parliament of South Africa which prohibited, amongst other things, sexual relations between white people and people of other races. The first Immorality Act, of 1927, prohibited sex between whites and blacks, until amended in 1950 to prohibit sex between whites and all non-whites. The second Immorality Act, of 1957, continued this prohibition and also dealt with many other sex offences. The ban on interracial sex was lifted in 1985, but certain sections of the 1957 act dealing with prostitution remain in force as the “Sexual Offences Act, 1957”.

Xenophobia like racism is a crime[44] In many ways, xenophobia is no different from racism. Its victims suffer real harm. Those who commit these crimes are motivated by prejudice, intolerance, ignorance and hatred based on people’s identities. Xenophobia and Afrophobia – the hatred of foreigners from other African countries, are forms of racism. Victims of xenophobia, as with racism, are excluded, discriminated against and marginalised.

In South Africa, xenophobia rears its ugly head periodically and during the SARS Cov-2 pandemic , the economic burden and impact of the lockdowns have further aggravated the problem of unbridled violence against foreigners, with their murders, burning of their businesses and the law enforcement officer often complicit in these crimes.

The Dalit[45] community in India, often the forgotten “untouchables”, considered the primitive humanoids, are categorised in the lowest echelons of the social caste system, prevalent in India.  This caste system is deeply entrenched in the general society, at every possible level of social order and functionality.   There are many theories on this social out casting of the disempowered Dalit and it is the subject of great debate, globally.

One common point of view as to the historical and current treatment of Dalits by the society is that they are predestined to serve their fate based on their past actions in their previous reincarnation[46].  The teachings in Hinduism proclaims that “Just as how are your doings, in your previous reincarnation, such with be your fate in the present cycle”[47] (Jaise dharma waise karma).   Therefore, the Brahmins[48] have decreed, that the Dalits must not be assisted in any way to improve their lot in life as their present state is a form of punishment for their deeds of misdemeanour in their previous life, based on reincarnation.  There is also another opinion on the present fate of the Dalits, based on the caste system. The origin of the caste system in India[49] is highly contentious. The notion of class divisions and sects in the Indian society initially appeared in the Vedas, which are the ancient spiritual texts upon which Hinduism is based. According to the Vedas, a social order emerged, based on the hierarchy at creation from the body of Purusha, or primitive man.  This philosophy dictates that the Brahmins were created from his head, Ksyatriyas from his arms; Vaisyas from his thighs; and Shudras from his feet. This is based on a social order, or importance in a cranio-caudal direction. All members of Purusha’s body represented the necessary parts of a functioning, but socially stratified society. How the Vedic social order evolved into the more rigid Indian caste system is unclear. Some scholars believe Brahmins manipulated the Vedic texts to gain power. Another theory to explain the social status is that around 1500 B.C., Aryan invaders institutionalised the caste system to subdue the indigenous population of India.[50] In either instance, the notion of untouchability emerged at some point in the development of the caste system which is still present today and results in great abuse of a sector of humanity in the Indian Sub-peninsula. Human rights organisations and media often relate countless incidences of Dalits who have been beaten, unlawfully detained, tortured, raped, killed, and had their homes burned in caste violence.

Dalits also are the targets of hate crimes and violence. According to the National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, a total of 98,349 cases of crimes against lower castes were reported between 1994 and 1996, including 1,660 murders and 2,814 rapes.[51] These figures do not include offenses that Dalits did not report for fear of reprisal. Human rights organizations and newspapers tell countless stories of Dalits who have been beaten, unlawfully detained, tortured, raped, killed, and had their homes burned in caste violence, while state officials failed to bring the perpetrators to justice.

On September 14th 2020, a 19-year-old Dalit girl from a village in Uttar Pradesh’s Hathras district, 200km (124 miles) from the Indian capital New Delhi, was raped in a field near her house by four suspects belonging to upper castes in the Hindu religion’s hierarchy.[52] The absolutely shocking aspect of this brutal rape and murder was the fact that the local authorities forcefully cremated her body in the middle of the night, without the consent of the family members under the instructions of the local police chief.  It was reported that the family was “locked up as police burnt the body”.

In Chandigarh two minor Dalit girls were allegedly raped[53] and killed in a similar manner, such is the deep-seated hatred, often overlooked by corrupt law enforcement officers, often receiving bribes from the rich upper classes, who are the usual perpetrators of such hate crimes.[54]

Hate crimes against the marginalized community[55] have increased by more than 7% in the last year, according to data recently released by India’s National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB). Nearly 46,000 crimes against Dalits were recorded nationwide, with the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh recording the highest number of such cases at 11,829, or 25% of the cases. Most of the crimes were violence against women like stalking, harassment, assault and rape. Other crimes included are murder and assault as well as discrimination like preventing a Dalit from using a public space and using social boycotts to evict a person. The rise in registered crimes can also indicate that more victims felt empowered to report to the police.

Dalits in India convert to other religion, for freedom from such human bondage. To overcome this problem and to ensure the status quo, the Indian Government formulated a law,[56] that for religious conversion they need permission of regional official, to prevent loss of work force and keep these untouchables in their place. Ironically, the Dalits can be raped, murdered and the cases are often forgotten, therein no officials are involved to dispense justice.

The Uighurs in Xinjiang[57], China is another area of hate crimes and general abuse being generated against a specific group of the population in view of their religious affiliations and they have been placed into “Training Centres” to undergo a re-doctrination process justified as integration.

Palestine remains a recurrent area of hate crimes against the peoples of the country with occupation of their land, demolition of their houses, which they have occupied for generations.[58]  The irony is that the international community is still doing nothing about the oppressive measures against the Palestinian generated by the occupiers.  The recent Vaccine Apartheid[59] is an example of serious discrimination against a people of different origins, historically.

The widespread anti-Semitic sentiments expressed against the Jewish community in the States was manifested by the Poway synagogue shooting[60] which occurred on April 27, 2019, when a gunman armed with an AR-15 style rifle[61] fired shots inside the Chabad of Poway synagogue in Poway, California[62], a city approximately 20 miles (32 km) north of San Diego. The attack took place on the last day of the Jewish Passover holiday, which fell on a Shabbat. One woman was killed, and three other people were injured, including the synagogue’s rabbi.[63]

The shooter apparently attempted to livestream the shooting on Facebook but failed. An anti-Semitic and racist open letter was posted on 8chan shortly before the shooting and signed with Earnest’s name. It said that Jews were preparing a “meticulously planned genocide of the European race”[64], a white genocide conspiracy theory. In the alleged shooter’s manifesto, he denied that he had learned anti-Semitic beliefs from his family.

Earnest is believed to have written the letter, in which he cited shooters Brenton Tarrant and Robert Bowers for their involvement in the Christchurch mosque shootings and the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting, respectively. He said that Jesus, Paul the Apostle, Martin Luther, Adolf Hitler, Ludwig van Beethoven, “Moon Man” and Pink Guy were figures who inspired him to commit the shooting. Earnest made a joking mention of PewDiePie and referenced “The Day of the Rope”, an event from William Luther Pierce’s neo-Nazi novel “The Turner Diaries (1978), in which African Americans and Hispanics are executed and urged more violent attacks.[65] He condemned President Donald Trump as a pro-Zionist.[66]

The Rwandan genocide[67] was another example of hate crime in which thousands of Houthis were massacred due to their ethnic differences.  Here again, the international community, in the Frances bears full responsibility for not doing anything about the genocide which remain a dark chapter and indeed a significant stain on the International community.

The mechanisms to stop hate crimes[68] and other associated social maladies are comprehensively listed in the Department of Justice of the United website and I take the liberty of quoting this document which enumerates the following actions:-

  1. Act: DO SOMETHING. DO SOMETHING. DO SOMETHING. Do not just sit around waiting for others to act for you. Do not just empathize with the person who is being harassed. Say something, for example, if you are with a group of your friends and they make a derogatory commitment about women, tell them to stop regardless if they call you names. Do the right thing. Your conscience will tell you if something you are doing is right or wrong unless you do not have a conscience (I believe there are very few people that do not have one). If you have doubts about your actions, it probably is. You may be surprised that you are not the only one that feels this way.
  2. Unite: Nothing like uniting for a common cause. There is strength in numbers. Contact people on your college campus, church group, athletic league. The more people the better, the more ideas that can formulate. Also contact groups that are direct targets of street harassment. Contact law enforcement and form a positive healthy relationship (because you want law enforcement on your side). Declare a “Hate-Free” zone (hang a poster displaying the words “Hate-Free Zone.”)
  3. Support the Victims: Victims of hate crimes may feel they are alone and that no one understand what they have gone through. Give your support by giving a shoulder to cry on. If a victim needs moral support while filling out a police report.
  4. Do your Homework: Find out everything you can about the harassing group to better fight against them. Some views that certain groups possess: They want to limit the rights of certain groups. They want to divide society along racial, ethnic or religious lines. They believe in conspiracies. They try to silence any opposition. They are antigovernment and fundamentalist. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center most hate crimes are not committed by hate groups but by “freelancers”, hence the guys who commonly use derogatory language towards us in the public realm. They are considered a hate group even though they do not meet or know each other.
  5. Create an Alternative: Do not attend a hate rally, when I first read this tip I wondered why would I do that to begin with but some people may get the idea to give hate groups a direct opposition. DON’T DO IT. Fight people the legal way. NO NEED FOR VIOLENCE.

Everyone has a role in stopping hate and creating safe, inclusive communities. How can you take action against hate crimes, as follows:-[69]

  1. Identify Potential Partners – Community Policing Model
  2. Develop Law Enforcement – Community Partnerships
  3. Understand the Problem
  4. Identify a Group to Interface with Law Enforcement for Victims
  5. Invite Law Enforcement and/or Community Groups to Your School
  6. Create Public Awareness

The bottom line is the change of political will and treating all humanoid equally, irrespective of their origins, religious beliefs. language, economic status and cultures.  The individual perpetrators of hate crimes need to control the reptilian drives of their brains and the entire nervous system, as conducive to good, acceptable social norms [70].

References:

[1] https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/sinophobia#:~:text=%20Meaning%20of%20Sinophobia%20in%20English%20%201,politicians%2C%20when%20speaking%20off%20the%20record.%20More%20

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamophobia

[3] http://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol35/2/

[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navi_Pillay

[5] https://www.history.com/topics/pre-history/hunter-gatherers

[6] https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/managing-your-memory/201712/don-t-listen-your-lizard-brain

[7] https://www.lifepersona.com/the-reptilian-brain-theory-of-the-triune-brain

[8] https://www.bing.com/search?q=neanderthals+definition&cvid=f9f6bd76141f4842be05b2ae030f0426&aqs=edge.1.0l7.8004j0j1&pglt=299&FORM=ANNTA1&PC=U531

[9] https://www.bing.com/search?q=Homo+sapiens+sapiens&aqs=edge..69i57.209946j0j9&pglt=299&FORM=ANNTA1&PC=U531

[10] https://europepmc.org/article/PMC/PMC7955845

[11] https://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/6-ways-the-limbic-system-impacts-physical-emotional-and-mental-health-0316197

[12] Microsoft Word – Xenophobia (final).doc (ohchr.org)

[13] https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/the-holocaust

[14] https://www.thefreedictionary.com/roamer

[15] https://hitlersmasterrace.weebly.com/

[16] https://www.gotquestions.org/Christianophobia.html

[17] https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Pharaonic+Egypt

[18] https://www.natgeokids.com/au/discover/history/romans/colosseum/

[19] https://www.umw.edu/greatlives/lecture/nero-and-caligula/

[20] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenophobia

[21] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongol_invasion_of_Europe

[22] https://www.bing.com/search?q=Monarchy+of+King+Henry+VIII&aqs=edge..69i57.411744j0j1&pglt=299&FORM=ANNTA1&PC=U531

[23] https://history.howstuffworks.com/historical-figures/10-henry-viii-executions.htm

[24] https://culturacolectiva.com/history/the-us-killed-bisons-to-exterminate-native-americans

[25] https://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/philip-sheridan#:~:text=Philip%20Henry%20Sheridan%20%281831-88%29%20was%20an%20aggressive%20Union,he%20chose%20Sheridan%20as%20his%20new%20cavalry%20commander.

[26] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Trek

[27] https://www.sahistory.org.za/article/first-anglo-boer-war

[28] https://www.wcl.govt.nz/maori/wellington/turtonchiefs.html

[29] https://www.reference.com/history/did-british-affect-indigenous-peoples-australia-15853f4b9356db7e

[30] https://www.bing.com/news/search?q=armenian+genocide+us+acknowledgement&qpvt=armenian+genocide+us+acknowledgement&FORM=EWRE

[31] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2016_Rohingya_persecution_in_Myanmar

[32] https://news.yahoo.com/whats-the-purpose-of-the-phrase-chinese-virus-182000816.html

[33] https://www.reuters.com/news/picture/eight-killed-including-six-asian-women-i-idUSRTXAIZZJ

[34] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Killing_of_George_Floyd

[35] Atlanta shooting of Asian women was racially motivated, US enator says (timeslive.co.za)

[36] https://www.bing.com/news/search?q=Byong+Choi&qpvt=Byong+Choi&FORM=EWRE

[37] https://www.msn.com/en-za/news/world/one-less-asian-to-put-up-with-family-receives-hand-written-hate-letter-after-fathers-death/ar-BB1eXiKx?ocid=msedgdhp&fullscreen=true#image=1

[38] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christchurch_mosque_shootings

[39] The Springfield Weekly Gazette: Page 2, 11th March 2021.

[40] https://ewn.co.za/Topic/Umkhonto-We-Sizwe-Military-Veterans-Association

[41] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racism_in_Guyana

[42] https://phys.org/news/2018-03-muslims-high-discrimination-canada.html

[43] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immorality_Act

[44] https://thisisafrica.me/politics-and-society/xenophobia-like-racism-must-be-treated-as-a-crime/

[45] https://religionunplugged.com/news/2020/10/26/violence-against-marginalized-dalit-community-on-a-rise-in-india

[46] https://newagespirituality.com/reincarnation/

[47]https://timeforchange.org/reincarnation-of-our-soul-rebirth/

[48] https://www.bing.com/search?q=brahmins&cvid=5202252de866463fb12475339348edd8&aqs=edge.0.0l7.3773j0j1&pglt=299&FORM=ANNTA1&PC=U531

[49] https://www.thoughtco.com/history-of-indias-caste-system-195496

[50] https://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1486&context=hrbrief

[51] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Commission_for_Scheduled_Tribes

[52] https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/10/2/hathras-they-locked-us-inside-our-home-and-burnt-her-body

[53] https://mumbaimirror.indiatimes.com/news/india/two-minor-dalit-girls-raped-murdered-in-separate-incidents/articleshow/62507416.cms?utm_source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst

[54] https://www.india.com/news/agencies/two-minor-dalit-girls-raped-murdered-in-separate-incidents-2843233/

[55] https://religionunplugged.com/news/2020/10/26/violence-against-marginalized-dalit-community-on-a-rise-in-india

[56] https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2018/04/dalit-buddhism-conversion-india-modi/557570/

[57] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uyghurs

[58] https://imeu.org/article/discrimination-hate-crimes-against-christian-palestinians-in-the-holy-land

[59] https://www.thesouthafrican.com/news/world-news/israels-covid-19-vaccine-apartheid-against-palestinians-constitutes-a-war-crime/

[60] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poway_synagogue_shooting

[61] Kimball, Spencer (April 27, 2019). “‘It was a hate crime’: One dead, three injured in synagogue shooting in San Diego area”. CNBC. Archived from the original on April 29, 2019.

[62] Paul, Deanna; Mettler, Katie (April 27, 2019). “Shooting at California synagogue leaves 1 dead, 3 injured in what mayor calls a ‘hate crime’ that ‘will not stand”. Washington Post.

[63] https://www.cbsnews.com/news/poway-synagogue-shooting-san-diego-sheriffs-detain-man-today-2019-04-27-live-updates

[64] https://www.jewishboston.com/read/we-didnt-tell-you-so/

[65] https://www.britannica.com/topic/The-Turner-Diaries

[66] https://www.bing.com/news/search?q=He+condemned+President+Donald+Trump+as+a+pro-Zionist&qpvt=He+condemned+President+Donald+Trump+as+a+pro-Zionist&FORM=EWRE

[67] https://www.history.com/topics/africa/rwandan-genocide

[68] https://derrickhatecrimes.weebly.com/solutions.html

[69] https://www.justice.gov/hatecrimes/preventing-hate-crimes-your-community

[70] https://siimland.com/how-your-reptilian-brain-controls-your-behavior/#:~:text=%20How%20Your%20Reptilian%20Brain%20Controls%20Your%20Behavior,Strikes%20Back.%20If%20our%20reptilian%20brain…%20More%20

______________________________________________

Prof.  Hoosen Vawda, BSc, MBChB (Natal), ATLS, ACLS (NZ), PhD (Wits):
-Community Health and Indigent Programme Services–Social Outreach, Medical Programme (Not for Profit Organisation)
-Lifestyle Change Management – PR: 1501305, MP: 0193801
-email: vawda@ukzn.ac.za


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This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 29 Mar 2021.

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