This Week in History
HISTORY, 24 Jul 2023
What is the Kellogg-Briand Pact?By the way, as you may know, even though the Kellogg-Briand Pact was eventually unimplemented, it became the backbone of the Article 9 of the Peace Constitution of Japan.
Article 9.Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes.In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized.
The first paragraph of the Article 9 was drafted by Charles Kades#), Harvard Law School graduated lawyer. He prepared the draft based on the Kellogg-Briand Pact.
The second paragraph of the Article 9 was added by Kijuro Shidehara.
Perhaps, it can be said that Article 9, especially its first paragraph, stemmed from the Pact via Kades, whereas its second paragraph stemmed from Shidehara.
24 July 1959: Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev have a “kitchen debate” (history.com) ->>> Cold War Era!
26 July 1908: FBI founded (history.com)
27 July 1953: Armistice ends Korean War hostilities (history.com) ->>> Korean War!
28 July 1914: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia (history.com) ->>> World War I
29 July 1958: NASA Created (history.com)
Now, the U.S.,NATO, Ukraine and their followers (such as Japan) are fighting (politically and/or militarily) with Russia. These countries should remember Bismarck’s words: “Never fight with Russian.” https://www.azquotes.com/
quote/1415030“Hungarian PM Viktor Orban has pledged not to “fight” Russia or let the country get dragged into the Ukraine conflict as long as his government remains in power.” NATO member warns it will never fight Russia — RT World News
Satoshi Ashikaga is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment. Having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, he prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature. His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace. His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, audio/visual documentation of nature and culture, and more.
This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 24 Jul 2023.
Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week in History, is included. Thank you.
This work is licensed under a CC BY-NC 4.0 License.
Join the discussion!
We welcome debate and dissent, but personal — ad hominem — attacks (on authors, other users or any individual), abuse and defamatory language will not be tolerated. Nor will we tolerate attempts to deliberately disrupt discussions. We aim to maintain an inviting space to focus on intelligent interactions and debates.