This Week in History

HISTORY, 7 Aug 2023

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

7-13 August 2023

Quote of the Week:

Everything has beauty, but not everyone sees it.”  – Confucius

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7 August

1819  A group of South American insurgents under Simón Bolívar defeated Spanish forces at the Battle of Boyacá, which freed New Granada (Colombia and Venezuela) from Spanish control.

1942  Japanese airfield on Guadalcanal seized by Allies

–         Battle of Guadalcanal | Facts, Map, & Significance | Britannica

–         Naval Battle of Guadalcanal – Wikipedia

–         Guadalcanal campaign – Wikipedia

–         Guadalcanal Campaign FULL DOCUMENTARY – Pacific War Animated – YouTube

1960  Côte d’Ivoire gained independence from France.

–         A Brief History of Cote D’Ivoire (thoughtco.com)

–         A Brief History of Cote D’Ivoire (studycountry.com)

–         Culture of Côte d’Ivoire – history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social (everyculture.com)

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8 August

1918  World War I: The Allies launch the Hundred Days Offensive, beginning with the Battle of Amiens where 500 tanks and 10 Allied divisions attacked German lines.

1945  President Harry Truman signs the United Nations Charter

–         Charter of the United Nations

–         Preparatory Years: UN Charter History

–         Today’s Challenges Require More Effective and Inclusive Global Cooperation, Secretary-General Tells Security Council Debate on Multilateralism | UN Press

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9 August

48BC           Caesar’s civil war: Battle of Pharsalus – Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus and Pompey flees to Egypt.

–         Magazines | The Past (the-past.com)

–         The struggle between Gaius Julius Caesar and Gnaeus Pompey | Short history website

–         The Battle of Pharsalus: How Caesar Won a Civil War While Outnumbered Two to One (warhistoryonline.com)

–         Battle of Pharsalus animated map (battlemaps.eu)

1810   Napoleon annexes Westphalia as part of the First French Empire.

–         Napoleon – Wikipedia

–         History of Westphalia

–         Evolution of the French Empire – Wikipedia

–         The First French Empire under Napoleon I, 1812 (Illustration) – World History Encyclopedia

1877   American Indian WarsBattle of the Big Hole: A small band of Nez Percé Indians clash with the United States Army.

1944  Continuation War: The Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive, the largest offensive launched by Soviet Union against Finland during the Second World War, ends to a strategic stalemate. Both Finnish and Soviet troops at the Finnish front dug to defensive positions, and the front remains stable until the end of the war.

1945  Atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki (history.com)

–         Hiroshima, Then Nagasaki: Why the US Deployed the Second A-Bomb | HISTORY

–         What About the Bombing of Nagasaki? – The New Yorker | The New Yorker

–         HOW FAT MAN WORKS ? | Nuclear Bomb ON Nagasaki | WORLD’S BIGGEST NUCLEAR BOMB | Learn from the base. – YouTube

–         History: “Wipe the Soviet Union Off the Map”, 204 Atomic Bombs against 66 Major Cities, US Nuclear Attack against USSR Planned During World War II – The World We Live In (wordpress.com)

–         The Hiroshima Nagasaki “Dress Rehearsal”: Oppenheimer and the U.S. War Department’s Secret September 15, 1945 “Doomsday Blueprint” to “Wipe the Soviet Union off the Map” – Global ResearchGlobal Research – Centre for Research on Globalization

–         Oppenheimer’s Legacy and the Long Shadow of the Nuclear Bomb (foreignpolicy.com)

–         One of the prominent survivors of the atomic bomb attack in Nagasaki was Dr. Takashi Nagai.  He published The Bells of Nagasaki in 1946, just after WWII.  This book can be read in PDF.

–         Trailer: “What never dies” (Takashi Nagai) | New York Encounter 2022 – YouTube

–         The Facade of the Urakami Cathedral:

In Hiroshima, there is the very symbol of the atomic bomb attack; the so-called Atomic Bomb Dorm or the former Commerce and Industry Hall of Hiroshima.  See → ://www.touristinjapan.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/hiroshima-atomic-bomb-dome.jpg

However, there is no such symbolic item of the atomic bomb attack in Nagasaki.  Why?  Actually, the facade of the Urakami Cathedral was supposed to become the one.  See →   urakami-cathedral-nagasaki.jpg (208×186) (transcend.org)

Today, a piece of the facade is exhibited at the southern edge of the Nagasaki Peace Park.  See →   https://i1.wp.com/nipponya.de/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Urakami_4.jpg

Why only that piece?  Because the facade itself was dismantled due to the U.S.-Christian politics.

See → “The Politics of Reconstruction and Reconciliation in U.S-Japan Relations—Dismantling the Atomic Bomb Ruins of Nagasaki’s Urakami Cathedral

What the author heard:

When the workers in Nagasaki were working to dismantle the facade n accordance with the instructions, they failed to do it many times because regardless of their many attempts, the facade did not fall down. It kept standing still. Some of the workers said that it was as if the facade resisted to the workers’ attempts.  When finally the facade fell down to the ground, it produced the deep sound, “Keeeeeh!”  It was as if the sound was the final cry of the grief of the facade. All the workers, then, remained silent.

1971   The Troubles: In Northern Ireland, the British authorities launch Operation Demetrius. The operation involves the mass arrest and internment without trial of individuals suspected of being affiliated with the Irish Republican Army (PIRA). Mass riots follow, and thousands of people flee or are forced out of their homes.

1974  As a direct result of the Watergate scandalRichard Nixon becomes the first President of the United States to resign from office. Vice President Gerald Ford becomes president.

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10 August

1557   Battle of St. Quentin: Spanish victory over the French in the Italian War of 1551–59.

1585  The Treaty of Nonsuch signed by Elizabeth I of England and the Dutch Rebels.

1792   French RevolutionStorming of the Tuileries PalaceLouis XVI of France is arrested and taken into custody as his Swiss Guards are massacred by the Parisian mob.

1864  After Uruguay’s governing Blanco Party refuses Brazil’s demands, José Antônio Saraiva announces that the Brazilian military will begin reprisals, beginning the Uruguayan War.

1905  Russo-Japanese War: Peace negotiations begin in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

1913   Second Balkan War: Delegates from BulgariaRomaniaSerbiaMontenegro, and Greece sign the Treaty of Bucharest, ending the war.

1920  World War IOttoman sultan Mehmed VI‘s representatives sign the Treaty of Sèvres that divides up the Ottoman Empire between the Allies.

1944   World War II: The Battle of Guam comes to an effective end.

1944  World War II: The Battle of Narva ends with a defensive German victory.

1953   First Indochina War: The French Union withdraws its forces from Operation Camargue against the Viet Minh in central Vietnam.

1961   Vietnam War: The U.S. Army begins Operation Ranch Hand, spraying an estimated 20 million US gallons (76,000 m3) of defoliants and herbicides over rural areas of South Vietnam in an attempt to deprive the Viet Cong of food and vegetation cover.

1993  Two earthquakes affect New Zealand. A 7.0 Mw  shock (intensity VI (Strong)) in the South Island was followed nine hours later by a 6.4 Mw  event (intensity VII (Very strong)) in the North Island.

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11 August

3114BC       The Mesoamerican Long Count calendar, used by several pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations, notably the Maya, begins.

490    Battle of Adda River: The Goths under Theodoric the Great and his ally Alaric II defeat the forces of Odoacer on the Adda River, near Milan.

1315  The Great Famine of Europe becomes so dire that even the king of England has difficulties buying bread for himself and his entourage.

1332  Wars of Scottish IndependenceBattle of Dupplin Moor: Scots under Domhnall II, Earl of Mar are routed by Edward Balliol.

1473  The Battle of OtlukbeliMehmed the Conqueror of the Ottoman Empire decisively defeats Uzun Hassan of Aq Qoyunlu.

1675  Franco-Dutch War: Forces of the Holy Roman Empire defeat the French in the Battle of Konzer Brücke.

1812   Peninsular War: French troops engage BritishPortuguese forces in the Battle of Majadahonda.

1898   Spanish–American War: American troops enter the city of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

1918  World War I: The Battle of Amiens ends.

1920  The Latvian–Soviet Peace Treaty, which relinquished Russia‘s authority and pretenses to Latvia, is signed, ending the Latvian War of Independence.

1962   Vostok 3 launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome and cosmonaut Andrian Nikolayev becomes the first person to float in microgravity.

1972   Vietnam War: The last United States ground combat unit leaves South Vietnam.

–         1972 in the Vietnam War – Wikipedia

1975  East Timor: Governor Mário Lemos Pires of Portuguese Timor abandons the capital Dili, following a coup by the Timorese Democratic Union (UDT) and the outbreak of civil war between UDT and Fretilin.

2003  NATO takes over command of the peacekeeping force in Afghanistan, marking its first major operation outside Europe in its 54-year-history.

What Are the Basic Principles of Peacekeeping?  In the case of the UN Peacekeeping, there are three basic principles as follows:

Quote:

There are three basic principles that continue to set UN peacekeeping operations apart as a tool for maintaining international peace and security.

These three principles are inter-related and mutually reinforcing:

  1. Consent of the parties
  2. Impartiality
  3. Non-use of force except in self-defence and defence of the mandate

Unquote:

          Source: Principles of peacekeeping | United Nations Peacekeeping

Some questions on the Peacekeeping of NATO can be raised. A few of them may be as follows:

– What are the basic principles of the peacekeeping of NATO?

– NATO was one of the warring parties in the War in Afghanistan.  Were the principles of the UN peacekeeping applied to NATO’s peacekeeping in Afghanistan?  If that was the case, for instance, how was it possible to be considered that NATO was “impartial” in its peacekeeping in Afghanistan?

– Are the principles of NATO overall the same as those of the UN? (Or are there any substantial differences?

– What is “peacekeeping” for NATO?  (Or what is the definition of NATO’s peacekeeping?)

– Why were not the UN Peacekeepers introduced to Afghanistan, instead of NATO’s peacekeepers?

– What did the general public in Afghanistan consider NATO’s peacekeepers?  Did they consider the NATO forces as the peacekeepers or the occupation forces?

– What are the substantial or essential differences between the role of the Allied “Occupation” Forces of Japan, which brought the political reform to that country and that of the NATO’s “peacekeepers” to Afghanistan?

– What happened to “NATO’s Peacekeeping Operation” when the U.S. troops withdrew from Afghanistan?  See →  Withdrawal of United States troops from Afgh anistan (2020–2021) – Wikipedia

– How about NATO’s Peacekeeping in Kosovo, for instance?

Apart from the above-mentioned questions, by the way, did NATO’s peacekeepers know that the national flower of Afghanistan was the tulip?

–         Afghanistan National Flower: Tulip (nationalopedia.com)

How much did NATO’s peacekeepers respect the culture of the country of their assignment, Afghanistan, for instance?

If Confucius was alive in 2003, he might have said, for instance, “Every country has beauty, but not every soldier (or every peacekeeper) in the country of their assignment sees it.

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12 August

1099  First CrusadeBattle of Ascalon Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid forces led by Al-Afdal Shahanshah. This is considered the last engagement of the First Crusade

1323   The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod Republic is signed, regulating the border between the two countries for the first time.

1492  Christopher Columbus arrives in the Canary Islands on his first voyage to the New World.

1765  Treaty of Allahabad is signed. The Treaty marks the political and constitutional involvement and the beginning of Company rule in India.

1898  The Hawaiian flag is lowered from ʻIolani Palace in an elaborate annexation ceremony and replaced with the flag of the United States to signify the transfer of sovereignty from the Republic of Hawaii to the United States.

1914   World War I: The United Kingdom and the British Empire declare war on Austria-Hungary.

1944   Nazi German troops end the week-long Wola massacre, during which time at least 40,000 people are killed indiscriminately or in mass executions.

1948   Babrra massacre: About 600 unarmed members of the Khudai Khidmatgar movement are shot dead on the orders of the Chief Minister of the North-West Frontier ProvinceAbdul Qayyum Khan Kashmiri, on Babrra ground in the Hashtnagar region of Charsadda District, North-West Frontier Province (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Pakistan.

1950   Korean WarBloody Gulch massacre: 75 American POWs are massacred by the North Korean Army.

1952   The Night of the Murdered Poets: Thirteen prominent Jewish intellectuals are murdered in Moscow, Russia, Soviet Union.

1981  The IBM Personal Computer is released.

1985   Japan Airlines Flight 123 crashes into Osutaka ridge in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, killing 520, to become the worst single-plane air disaster.

2016  Syrian civil war: The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) capture the city of Manbij from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)

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13 August

29BC  Octavian holds the first of three consecutive triumphs in Rome to celebrate the victory over the Dalmatian tribes.

582    Maurice becomes Emperor of the Byzantine Empire.

1819  Spanish–American War: Spanish and American forces engage in a mock battle for Manila, after which the Spanish commander surrendered in order to keep the city out of Filipino rebel hands.

1905  Norwegians vote to end the union with Sweden.

–         Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden – Wikipedia

–         Union between Sweden and Norway – Wikipedia

–         Norway – Union Conflict, 1859-1905 | Britannica

–         1905 Norwegian union dissolution referendum – Wikipedia

1918  Women enlist in the United States Marine Corps for the first time. Opha May Johnson is the first woman to enlist.

1920  Polish–Soviet War: The Battle of Warsaw begins and will last till August 25. The Red Army is defeated.

1937   Second Sino-Japanese War: The Battle of Shanghai begins.

1961   Cold WarEast Germany closes the border between the eastern and western sectors of Berlin to thwart its inhabitants’ attempts to escape to the West, and construction of the Berlin Wall is started. The day is known as Barbed Wire Sunday.

2008   Russo-Georgian War: Russian units occupy the Georgian city of Gori.

2020   Israel–United Arab Emirates relations are formally established.

–         Israel–United Arab Emirates relations – Wikipedia

–         Israel–United Arab Emirates normalization agreement – Wikipedia

–         Five reasons why Israel’s peace deals with the UAE and Bahrain matter – BBC News

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Satoshi Ashikaga is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment. Having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, he prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, audio/visual documentation of nature and culture, and more.


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This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 7 Aug 2023.

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