This Week in History

HISTORY, 4 Sep 2023

Satoshi Ashikaga - TRANSCEND Media Service

4-10 September 2023

Quote of the Week:

The more you understand your true spiritual identity, and your connection with the Supreme, the easier it will be to love your Self.” – Stephen Knapp (Sri Nandanadana dasa)


4 September

476    Romulus Augustulus is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself “King of Italy“, thus ending the Western Roman Empire.

1870  Emperor Napoleon III of France is deposed and the Third Republic is declared.

1886  American Indian Wars: After almost 30 years of fighting, Apache leader Geronimo, with his remaining warriors, surrenders to General Nelson Miles in Arizona.

1888  George Eastman registers the trademark Kodak and receives a patent for his camera that uses roll film.

1944  World War II: Finland exits from the war with Soviet Union.

1957   American Civil Rights MovementLittle Rock Crisis: The governor of Arkansas calls out the National Guard to prevent African American students from enrolling in Little Rock Central High School, resulting in the lawsuit Cooper v. Aaron the following year.

1967  Vietnam WarOperation Swift begins when U.S. Marines engage the North Vietnamese in battle in the Que Son Valley.

–         Outline of the Vietnam War – Wikipedia

–         Vietnam War: Causes, Facts & Impact (

1975  The Sinai Interim Agreement relating to the Arab–Israeli conflict is signed.

1985  The discovery of Buckminsterfullerene, the first fullerene molecule of carbon.

1998  Google is founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, two students at Stanford University.


5 September

917    Liu Yan declares himself emperor, establishing the Southern Han state in southern China, at his capital of Panyu.

1666  Great Fire of London ends: Ten thousand buildings, including Old St Paul’s Cathedral, are destroyed, but only six people are known to have died.

1798  Conscription is made mandatory in France by the Jourdan law.

1877  American Indian WarsOglala Sioux chief Crazy Horse is bayoneted by a United States soldier after resisting confinement in a guardhouse at Fort Robinson in Nebraska.

1905  Russo-Japanese War: In New Hampshire, United States, the Treaty of Portsmouth, mediated by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, ends the war.

1915  The pacifist Zimmerwald Conference begins.

1941  Whole territory of Estonia is occupied by Nazi Germany.

1945  Cold WarIgor Gouzenko, a Soviet Union embassy clerk, defects to Canada, exposing Soviet espionage in North America, signalling the beginning of the Cold War.

1960  Muhammad Ali (then known as Cassius Clay) wins the gold medal in the light heavyweight boxing competition at the Olympic Games in Rome.

1969  Mỹ Lai Massacre: U.S. Army Lieutenant William Calley is charged with six specifications of premeditated murder for the death of 109 Vietnamese civilians in My Lai.

–         My Lai Massacre: Vietnam War & Colin Powell – HISTORY

–         “Calley and his soldiers, who had been expecting to engage the 48th VC Battalion, were not sure what to do in the absence of any enemy, much less any resistance to their entry into My Lai.

–         The Ghosts of My Lai | History | Smithsonian Magazine

1970  Vietnam WarOperation Jefferson Glenn begins: The United States 101st Airborne Division and the South Vietnamese 1st Infantry Division initiate a new operation in Thừa Thiên–Huế Province.

–         Was My Lai just one of many massacres in Vietnam War? – BBC News

–         The Vietnam War Crimes You Never Heard Of | History News Network

–         List of massacres in Vietnam | Military Wiki | Fandom

1972  Munich massacre: A Palestinian terrorist group called “Black September” attacks and takes hostage 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympic Games. Two die in the attack and nine are murdered the following day.

1978  Camp David AccordsMenachem Begin and Anwar Sadat begin peace discussions at Camp David, Maryland.

1981  The first women arrive at what becomes Greenham Common Women’s Peace Camp in the UK.

1984  Western Australia becomes the last Australian state to abolish capital punishment.

1990  Sri Lankan Civil War: Sri Lankan Army soldiers slaughter 158 civilians.

–         TIMELINE: Sri Lanka — 25 years of civil war | Reuters

–        Overview of the Sri Lankan Civil War (


6 September

394    Battle of the FrigidusRoman emperor Theodosius I defeats and kills Eugenius the usurper. His Frankish magister militum Arbogast escapes but commits suicide two days later.

1492  Christopher Columbus sails from La Gomera in the Canary Islands, his final port of call before crossing the Atlantic Ocean for the first time.

1632  Thirty Years’ War: In the Battle of Nördlingen, the Catholic Imperial army defeats Swedish and German Protestant forces.

1803  British scientist John Dalton begins using symbols to represent the atoms of different elements.

1939  World War II: South Africa declares war on Germany.

1944  World War II: The city of Ypres, Belgium is liberated by Allied forces.

1962  The United States government begins the Exercise Spade Fork nuclear readiness drill.

1972  Munich massacre: Nine Israeli athletes die (along with a German policeman) at the hands of the Palestinian “Black September” terrorist group after being taken hostage at the Munich Olympic Games. Two other Israeli athletes were slain in the initial attack the previous day.

1976  Cold WarSoviet Air Defence Forces pilot Viktor Belenko lands a Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 jet fighter at Hakodate in Japan and requests political asylum in the United States; his request is granted.

1983  The Soviet Union admits to shooting down Korean Air Lines Flight 007, stating that its operatives did not know that it was a civilian aircraft when it reportedly violated Soviet airspace.

1991  The Soviet Union recognizes the independence of the Baltic states EstoniaLatvia, and Lithuania.

1997  The Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales takes place in London. Well over a million people lined the streets and 21⁄2 billion watched around the world on television.

2003  Mahmoud Abbas resigns from his position of Palestinian Prime Minister.

–         Mahmoud Abbas | Biography & Facts | Britannica

–         Palestinian Authority – Mahmoud Abbas, Peace Process, Negotiations | Britannica

–         Palestinian President Abbas: Israel “destroying” two-state solution (

2007  Israel executes the air strike Operation Orchard to destroy a nuclear reactor in Syria.

–         How Israel Destroyed a Syrian Nuclear Facility in 2007 | The National Interest

–         Israel admits striking suspected Syrian nuclear reactor in 2007 – BBC News

–         Israel–Syria relations – Wikipedia

2018  Supreme Court of India decriminalised all consensual sex among adults in private, making homosexuality legal on the Indian lands.


7 September

70      A Roman army under Titus occupies and plunders Jerusalem.

1191  Third CrusadeBattle of ArsufRichard I of England defeats Saladin at Arsuf.

1652  Around 15,000 Han farmers and militia rebel against Dutch rule on Taiwan.

1812  French invasion of Russia: The Battle of Borodino, the bloodiest battle of the Napoleonic Wars, is fought near Moscow and results in a French victory.

1860  Unification of ItalyGiuseppe Garibaldi enters Naples.

1903  The Ottoman Empire launches a counter-offensive against the Strandzha Commune, which dissolves.

1921  The Legion of Mary, the largest apostolic organization of lay people in the Catholic Church, is founded in Dublin, Ireland.

1923  The International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is formed.

1932  The Battle of Boquerón, the first major battle of the Chaco War, commences.

1943  World War II: The German 17th Army begins its evacuation of the Kuban bridgehead (Taman Peninsula) in southern Russia and moves across the Strait of Kerch to the Crimea.

1945  The Berlin Victory Parade of 1945 is held.

1953  Nikita Khrushchev is elected first secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

1965  During an Indo-Pakistani War, China announces that it will reinforce its troops on the Indian border.

–         Timeline: India-Pakistan relations | News | Al Jazeera

–         Conflict Between India and Pakistan | Global Conflict Tracker (

–         Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts – Wikipedia

1965  Vietnam War: In a follow-up to August’s Operation Starlite, United States Marines and South Vietnamese forces initiate Operation Piranha on the Batangan Peninsula.

–         Outline of the Vietnam War – Wikipedia

–         Vietnam War: Causes, Facts & Impact (

–         Category:Battles and operations of the Vietnam War – Wikipedia

–         North Vietnam – Why the USA lost the war in Vietnam – Higher History Revision – BBC Bitesize

1970  Fighting begins between Arab guerrillas and government forces in Jordan.

1986  Desmond Tutu becomes the first black man to lead the Anglican Diocese of Cape Town.

1986   Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet survives an assassination attempt by the FPMR; 5 of Pinochet’s bodyguards are killed.

2005  Egypt holds its first-ever multi-party presidential election.

–         History of modern Egypt – Wikipedia

–         Egypt – Politics, Society, Economy | Britannica

–         Elections in Egypt – Wikipedia

2012  Canada officially cuts diplomatic ties with Iran by closing its embassy in Tehran and orders the expulsion of Iranian diplomats from Ottawa, over nuclear plans and purported human rights abuses.


8 September

617    Battle of HuoyiLi Yuan defeats a Sui dynasty army, opening the path to his capture of the imperial capital Chang’an and the eventual establishment of the Tang dynasty.

1331  Stefan Dušan declares himself king of Serbia.

1380  Battle of Kulikovo: Russian forces defeat a mixed army of Tatars and Mongols, stopping their advance.

1514  Battle of Orsha: In one of the biggest battles of the century, Lithuanians and Poles defeat the Russian army.

1655  Warsaw falls without resistance to a small force under the command of Charles X Gustav of Sweden during The Deluge, making it the first time the city is captured by a foreign army.

1756  French and Indian War: Kittanning Expedition.

1813  At the final stage of the Peninsular War, British-Portuguese troops capture the town of Donostia (now San Sebastián), resulting in a rampage and eventual destruction of the town.

1831  November uprising: The Battle of Warsaw effectively ends the Polish insurrection.

1855  Crimean War: The French assault the tower of Malakoff, leading to the capture of Sevastopol.

1926  Germany is admitted to the League of Nations.

–         1926 in Germany – Wikipedia

–         International relations – Weimar Germany, 1924-1929 – OCR A – GCSE History Revision – OCR A – BBC Bitesize

–         The League of Nations | UN GENEVA

–         Why the League of Nations was doomed before it began (

–         Why Did the League of Nations Fail? Here Are Some Answers – History (

1941  World War II: German forces begin the Siege of Leningrad.

1945  The division of Korea begins when United States troops arrive to partition the southern part of Korea in response to Soviet troops occupying the northern part of the peninsula a month earlier.

–         True Story: Two U.S. Colonels Divided The Korean Peninsula | The National Interest

–         How Korea was divided and why the aftershocks still haunt us today – The Washington Post

–         Why Are North and South Korea Divided? | HISTORY

–         Korea – Division, Geography, History | Britannica

1954  The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) is established.

1974  Watergate scandal: US President Gerald Ford signs the pardon of Richard Nixon for any crimes Nixon may have committed while in office.

2017  Syrian civil war: The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) announce the beginning of the Deir ez-Zor campaign, with the stated aim of eliminating the Islamic State (IS) from all areas north and east of the Euphrates.

–         Timeline of the Syrian civil war – Wikipedia

–         Why Is There a Civil War in Syria? | HISTORY

–         Syria’s War and the Descent Into Horror (

–         Conflict in Syria | Global Conflict Tracker (

2022   Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom dies at Balmoral Castle in Scotland after reigning for 70 years. Her son Charles, Prince of Wales, ascends the throne upon her death as Charles III.


9 September

1000  Battle of SvolderViking Age.

1493  Battle of Krbava Field, a decisive defeat of Croats in Croatian struggle against the invasion by the Ottoman Empire.

1493  Christopher Columbus, with 17 ships and 1,200 men, sails on second voyage from Cadiz.

1739  Stono Rebellion, the largest slave uprising in Britain’s mainland North American colonies prior to the American Revolution, erupts near Charleston, South Carolina.

1855  Crimean War: The Siege of Sevastopol comes to an end when Russian forces abandon the city.

1914  World War I: The creation of the Canadian Automobile Machine Gun Brigade, the first fully mechanized unit in the British Army.

1922  The Greco-Turkish War effectively ends with Turkish victory over the Greeks in Smyrna.

1924  Hanapepe massacre occurs on Kauai, Hawaii.

1944  World War II: The Fatherland Front takes power in Bulgaria through a military coup in the capital and armed rebellion in the country. A new pro-Soviet government is established.

1945  Second Sino-Japanese War: The Empire of Japan formally surrenders to China.

–         September 9, 1945, Japan’s unconditional surrender to China – iMedia (

–         “On Sept 9, 1945, the commander-in-chief of Japan’s China Expeditionary Army, Yasuji Okamura, signed the Japanese Instrument of Surrender in Nanjing.

–         Second Sino-Japanese War | Summary, Combatants, Facts, & Map | Britannica

–         Witnessing Japan’s surrender in China – BBC News

–         End of World War II in Asia – Wikipedia

1947  First case of a computer bug being found: A moth lodges in a relay of a Harvard Mark II computer at Harvard University.

1956  Elvis Presley appears on The Ed Sullivan Show for the first time.

1990  Batticaloa massacre: Massacre of 184 Tamil civilians by the Sri Lankan Army in Batticaloa District.

1991  Tajikistan declares independence from the Soviet Union.

1993  Israeli–Palestinian peace process: The Palestine Liberation Organization officially recognizes Israel as a legitimate state.

2001  Ahmad Shah Massoud, leader of the Northern Alliance, is assassinated in Afghanistan by two al-Qaeda assassins who claimed to be Arab journalists wanting an interview.

2012  The Indian space agency puts into orbit its heaviest foreign satellite yet, in a streak of 21 consecutive successful PSLV launches.

2012  A wave of attacks kills more than 100 people and injure 350 others across Iraq.

–         The long-lasting impact of the U.S. invasion of Iraq | PBS NewsHour

–         What If the U.S. Hadn’t Invaded Iraq in 2003? – The Atlantic

–         The American invasion of Iraq through an Iraqi’s eyes | On Point (

2016  The government of North Korea conducts its fifth and reportedly biggest nuclear test. World leaders condemn the act, with South Korea calling it “maniacal recklessness”.

–         List of nuclear weapons tests of North Korea – Wikipedia

–         North Korea’s Fifth Nuclear Test: What It Means – The Atlantic

–         The 9 September 2016 North Korean Underground Nuclear TestShort Note | Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America | GeoScienceWorld


10 September

1547  The Battle of Pinkie, the last full-scale military confrontation between England and Scotland, resulting in a decisive victory for the forces of Edward VI.

1798  At the Battle of St. George’s Caye, British Honduras defeats Spain.

1918  Russian Civil War: The Red Army captures Kazan.

1919  The Republic of German-Austria signs the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, ceding significant territories to Italy, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia.

1939  World War II: The Canadian declaration of war on Germany receives royal assent.

1943  World War II: In the course of Operation Achse, German troops begin their occupation of Rome.

1967  The people of Gibraltar vote to remain a British dependency rather than becoming part of Spain.

–         Timeline of the history of Gibraltar – Wikipedia

–         History of Gibraltar – Wikipedia

–         The History of Gibraltar and how it came to be British (

1974  Guinea-Bissau gains independence from Portugal.

2002  Switzerland, traditionally a neutral country, becomes a full member of the United Nations.

–         Switzerland decides to join UN | World news | The Guardian

–         Swiss neutrality – Wikipedia

–         Why is Switzerland a Neutral Country? | HISTORY

–         How neutral is Switzerland, really? – SWI

–         From the League to the UN: ending Swiss isolationism – SWI

–         The neutrality and the sanctions of Switzerland (

2007  Former Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif returns to Pakistan after seven years in exile, following a military coup in October 1999.

2008  The Large Hadron Collider at CERN, described as the biggest scientific experiment in history, is powered up in Geneva, Switzerland.

2022  Death of Queen Elizabeth II: King Charles III is formally proclaimed as monarch at a meeting of the Accession Council in St James’s Palace.


Satoshi Ashikaga is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment. Having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, he prefers a peaceful and prudent life.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, constantly remind him of the invaluableness of peace.


This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 4 Sep 2023.

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