This Week in History

HISTORY, 2 Oct 2023

Satoshi Ashikaga - TRANSCEND Media Service

2-8 October 2023

Quote of the Week:

The central task of our time is to evolve a new system of world order based on principles of peace and justice.”  – Richard A. Falk


2 October

1263  The Battle of Largs is fought between Norwegians and Scots.

1552  Russo-Kazan Wars: Russian troops enter Kazan.

1870  By plebiscite, the citizens of the Papal States accept annexation by the Kingdom of Italy.

1920  Ukrainian War of IndependenceMikhail Frunze orders the Red Army to immediately cease hostilities with the Revolutionary Insurgent Army of Ukraine.

1937  Rafael Trujillo orders the execution of Haitians living in the border region of the Dominican Republic.

1944  World War II: German troops end the Warsaw Uprising.

1958  Guinea declares its independence from France.

1971  South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu is re-elected in a one-man election.

2007  President Roh Moo-hyun of South Korea goes to North Korea for an Inter-Korean summit with North Korean leader Kim Jong-il.

–         North Korea–South Korea relations

–         Timeline of Korean history

2018  The Washington Post journalist Jamal Khashoggi is assassinated in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, Turkey.


3 October

2457BC       Gaecheonjeol, Hwanung (환웅) purportedly descended from heaven. South Korea’s National Foundation Day.

382    Roman Emperor Theodosius I concludes a peace treaty with the Goths and settles them in the Balkans.

1683  Qing dynasty naval commander Shi Lang receives the surrender of the Tungning kingdom on Taiwan after the Battle of Penghu.

1939  The Treaty of Niš is signed by the Ottoman Empire and Russia ending the Russian–Turkish War.

1929  The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes is renamed to Yugoslavia by King Alexander I.

1932  The Kingdom of Iraq gains independence from the United Kingdom.

1935  Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Italy invades Ethiopia.

1942  A German V-2 rocket reaches a record 85 km (46 nm) in altitude.

1943  World War II: German forces murder 92 civilians in Lingiades, Greece.

1951  Korean War: The First Battle of Maryang San pits Commonwealth troops against communist Chinese troops.

–         What Caused the Korean War and Why Did the U.S. Get Involved?

–         Korean War | Map and Timeline

–         United States in the Korean War

1952  The United Kingdom successfully tests a nuclear weapon in the Montebello IslandsWestern Australia, to become the world’s third nuclear power.

–         Nuclear weapons of the United Kingdom

–         Nuclear weapons and the United Kingdom

–         The history of Britain’s nuclear weapons

–         Nuclear Development in the United Kingdom

1962  Project Mercury: US astronaut Wally Schirra, in Sigma 7, is launched from Cape Canaveral for a six-orbit flight.

1963  A violent coup in Honduras begins two decades of military rule.

1990  The German Democratic Republic is abolished and becomes part of the Federal Republic of Germany; the event is afterwards celebrated as German Unity Day.

1993  An American attack against a warlord in Mogadishu fails; eighteen US soldiers and over 350 Somalis die.

1995  O. J. Simpson murder caseO. J. Simpson is acquitted of the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman.

2008  The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 for the U.S. financial system is signed by President George W. Bush.

2009  AzerbaijanKazakhstanKyrgyzstan, and Turkey join in the Turkic Council.

2015  Forty-two people are killed and 33 go missing in the Kunduz hospital airstrike in Afghanistan.

–         Civilian casualties in the war in Afghanistan (2001–2021)

–         Civilian Casualties In Afghanistan Reach A Record High

–         40% of all civilian casualties from airstrikes in Afghanistan – almost 1,600 – in the last five years were children

–         US airstrikes killed at least 22,000 civilians since 9/11, analysis finds

–         Hidden Pentagon Records Reveal Patterns of Failure in Deadly Airstrikes


4 October

1302  The Byzantine–Venetian War comes to an end.

1363  Battle of Lake Poyang: In one of the largest naval battles in history, Zhu Yuanzhang’s rebels defeat rival Chen Youliang.

1511  Formation of the Holy League of Aragon, the Papal States and Venice against France.

1535  The Coverdale Bible is printed, with translations into English by William Tyndale and Myles Coverdale.

1582  The Gregorian Calendar is introduced by Pope Gregory XIII.

1602  Eighty Years’ War and the Anglo-Spanish War: A fleet of Spanish galleys are defeated by English and Dutch galleons in the English Channel.

1636  Thirty Years’ War: The Swedish Army defeats the armies of Saxony and the Holy Roman Empire at the Battle of Wittstock.

1693  Nine Years’ War: Piedmontese troops are defeated by the French.

1824  Mexico adopts a new constitution and becomes a federal republic.

1853  The Crimean War begins when the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Russian Empire.

–         Crimean War | Map, Summary, Combatants, Causes, & Facts

–         Timeline of the Crimean War

1817  World War I: The Battle of Broodseinde is fought between the British and German armies in Flanders.

1925  Great Syrian Revolt: Rebels led by Fawzi al-Qawuqji captured Hama from the  French Mandate of Syria.

1957  Sputnik 1 becomes the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth.

1958  The current constitution of France is adopted.

1966  Basutoland becomes independent from the United Kingdom and is renamed Lesotho.

1985  The Free Software Foundation is founded.

1993  Battle of Mogadishu occurs killing 18 U.S. Special Forces, two UN Peacekeepers and at least 600 Somalian militia men and civilians.

–         Timeline of the 1993 Battle of Mogadishu

–         The Battle of Mogadishu (1993)

–         ‘Black Hawk Down’ And The True Story Of The Battle Of Mogadishu

–         The Day of the Rangers: An unforgettable moment in military history

–         Somalia intervention | UN Peacekeeping, US Military & Humanitarian Aid

1993  Tanks bombard the Russian parliament, while demonstrators against President Yeltsin rally outside.

2003  The Maxim restaurant suicide bombing in Israel kills twenty-one Israelis, both Jews and Arabs.

2006  WikiLeaks is launched.

[1]      WikiLeaks:

–         WikiLeaks – What is WikiLeaks

–        Julian Assange – Wikipedia

–         Wikileaks: Document dumps that shook the world


[2]      The Impact of WikiLeaks on Journalism:

–         How WikiLeaks Changes Things for Us All (

–         Is WikiLeaks Journalism?

–         How WikiLeaks Affects Journalism | Council on Foreign Relations

–         What is the effect of WikiLeaks for Freedom of Information?

2017  Joint Nigerien-American Special Forces are ambushed by Islamic State militants outside the village of Tongo Tongo.


5 October

610    Heraclius arrives at Constantinople, kills Byzantine Emperor Phocas, and becomes emperor.

1143  With the signing of the Treaty of Zamora, King Alfonso VII of León and Castile recognizes Portugal as a Kingdom.

1789  French Revolution: The Women’s March on Versailles effectively terminates royal authority.

1900  Peace congress in Paris condemns British policy in South Africa and asserts Boer Republic‘s right to self-determination.

1905  The Wright brothers pilot the Wright Flyer III in a new world record flight of 24 miles in 39 minutes.

1910  In a revolution in Portugal the monarchy is overthrown and a republic is declared.

1938  In Nazi Germany, Jews’ passports are invalidated.

1943  Ninety-eight American POWs are executed by Japanese forces on Wake Island.

1944  The Provisional Government of the French Republic enfranchises women.

1962  The first of the James Bond film series, based on the novels by Ian FlemingDr. No, is released in Britain.

[1]      Cultural Impact of James Bond:

–         The Cultural Impact of James Bond – PopOptiq

[2]      James Bond Films in the Cold War Era:

–         (PDF) Popular Geopolitics and Motion Pictures: Cold War in James Bond Movies

–         James Bond Films in Response to Growing Tensions During the Cold War

–         “Ian Fleming’s infamous spy novels about the MI6 agent James Bond also referenced elements of the Cold War when being adapted into films. One example of this includes the first Bond film, Dr. No, which was released in 1962..

–         How JFK used James Bond to fight the Cold War

1962  The first Beatles single “Love Me Do” is released in Britain.

[1]      How the Beatles Changed the World:

–        Cultural impact of the Beatles

–         20 ways The Beatles changed the world

–         How the Beatles Changed the World (Documentary) – YouTube

[2]      The Beatles and World Peace:

–         The Beatles: Standing For Peace And Social Justice

–         The Beatles: Their Anti-War Legacy And Role In The Anti-War Movement

–         Exploring The Memories Of World War II Through The Eyes Of The Beatles

1966  A reactor at the Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station near Detroit suffers a partial meltdown.

1968  A Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association march in Derry is violently suppressed by police.

1988  A Chilean opposition coalition defeats Augusto Pinochet in his re-election attempt.

2000  Mass demonstrations in Serbia force the resignation of Slobodan Milošević.


6 October

69BC Third Mithridatic War: The military of the Roman Republic subdue Armenia.

1762  Seven Years’ War: The British capture Manila from Spain and occupy it.

1908  The Bosnian crisis erupts when Austria-Hungary formally annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina.

1915  Entente forces land in Thessaloniki, to open the Macedonian front against the Central Powers

1915  Combined Austro-Hungarian and German Central Powers, reinforced by the recently joined Bulgaria launched a new offensive against Serbia under command of August von Mackensen .

1920  Ukrainian War of Independence: The Starobilsk agreement is signed by representatives of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Makhnovshchina.

1939  World War II: The Battle of Kock is the final combat of the September Campaign in Poland.

1943  World War II: Thirteen civilians are burnt alive by a paramilitary group in Crete during the Nazi occupation of Greece.

1944  World War II: Units of the 1st Czechoslovak Army Corps enter Czechoslovakia during the Battle of the Dukla Pass.

1973  Egypt and Syria launch coordinated attacks against Israel, beginning the Yom Kippur War.

[1]      Yom Kippur War:

–         Yom Kippur War | Summary, Causes, Combatants, & Facts

–         Yom Kippur War timeline

–         The October Arab-Israeli War of 1973: What happened?

[2]      Yom Kippur War in October 1973:

–         “In October 1973, the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC), led by King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, proclaimed an oil embargo targeted at nations that had supported Israel during the Yom Kippur War.

–         “The Valley of Tears (Hebrewעֵמֶק הַבָּכָא, Emek HaBakha) is the name given to an area in the Golan Heights after it became the site of a major battle in the 1973 Yom Kippur War…which was fought from 6 October to 9 October.

–         Timeless Lessons from the October 1973 Arab-Israeli War

1976  Premier Hua Guofeng arrests the Gang of Four, ending the Cultural Revolution in China.

1977  The first prototype of the Mikoyan MiG-29, designated 9-01, makes its maiden flight.

1981  Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is murdered by Islamic extremists.

1987  Fiji becomes a republic.

1995  The first planet orbiting another sun, 51 Pegasi b, is discovered.

2010  Instagram, a mainstream photo-sharing application, is founded.


7 October

3761BC       The epoch reference date (start) of the modern Hebrew calendar.

1403  Venetian–Genoese wars: The Genoese fleet under a French admiral is defeated by a Venetian fleet at the Battle of Modon.

1513  War of the League of Cambrai: Spain defeats Venice.

1828  Morea expedition: The city of Patras, Greece, is liberated by the French expeditionary force.

1879  Germany and Austria-Hungary sign the “Twofold Covenant” and create the Dual Alliance.

1912  The Helsinki Stock Exchange sees its first transaction.

1913  Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving vehicle assembly line.

1919  KLM, the flag carrier of the Netherlands, is founded. It is the oldest airline still operating under its original name.

1929  Photius II becomes Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.

1933  Air France is inaugurated, after being formed by a merger of five French airlines.

1940  World War II: The McCollum memo proposes bringing the United States into the war in Europe by provoking the Japanese to attack the United States.

–         Full Text of the McCollum Memorandum:

–         “This memo, which proves that the government of the United States desired to lure Japan into an attack, was declassified in 1994. It took fifty years for the truth about Pearl Harbor to be revealed.

–         Pearl Harbor – Mother of All Conspiracies

1944  World War II: During an uprising at Birkenau concentration camp, Jewish prisoners burn down Crematorium IV.

–         Auschwitz II-Birkenau / History / Auschwitz-Birkenau

–         Auschwitz Birkenau German Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camp (1940-1945) – UNESCO World Heritage Centre

–         Timeline: The history of Auschwitz-Birkenau

1949  The communist German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is formed.

1950  Mother Teresa establishes the Missionaries of Charity.

1958  The 1958 Pakistani coup d’état inaugurates a prolonged period of military rule.

1959  The Soviet probe Luna 3 transmits the first-ever photographs of the far side of the Moon.

1963  President Kennedy signs the ratification of the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.

1977  The Fourth Soviet Constitution is adopted.

1985  Four men from the Palestine Liberation Front hijack the MS Achille Lauro off the coast of Egypt.

1987  Fiji becomes a republic.

1991  Croatian War of Independence: Bombing of the Banski Dvori in Zagreb, Croatia.

–         Tudjman’s Police Minister Admits Croatia Started the War by Attacking Serbs

–         Civil War: Croatia (1991-1992 and 1995)

–         Croatia’s 1990s Paramilitaries: From Government Critics to Collaborators

–         Serbian and Croatian Nationalism and the Wars In Yugoslavia

2000  Israeli-Palestinian conflictHezbollah militants capture three Israeli Defense Force soldiers in a cross-border raid.

2001  The U.S. invasion of Afghanistan begins with an air assault and covert operations on the ground, starting the longest war in American history.

[1]      War in Afghanistan (2001-2021):

–         War in Afghanistan (2001–2021)

–         “The War is Worth Waging”: Afghanistan’s Vast Reserves of Minerals and Natural Gas

–         The US War in Afghanistan and the Grab for Central Asian Oil

[2]      From 9/11 To War in Afghanistan:

–         9/11 Analysis: From Reagan’s Al Qaeda Sponsored War on Afghanistan to George W. Bush’s 9/11

–         Timeline: How September 11, 2001 led to US’s longest war

–         US planned war in Afghanistan long before September 11

[3]      War in Afghanistan, Oil, Gas and Minerals:

–         Afghanistan: It’s About Oil

–         Oil and 9-11: The Connection

–         Oil and Empire: Afghanistan and 9/11

–         Bush, Enron, UNOCAL and the Taliban

–         USA: Unocal Advisor Named Representative to Afghanistan

–         Afghanistan- A War For Gas And Oil Pipelines…


–         Pipeline Politics: Oil, Gas And The US Interest In Afghanistan

–         Oil company adviser named US representative to Afghanistan

–         Taliban Oil

–         Afghanistan Oil Pipeline

–         U.S. Bases in Afghanistan Located Along Projected Oil Pipeline Route

–         Afghanistan’s minerals to boost Taliban coffers

–         Taliban Vows to Protect Gas Pipeline as War Expands to West Afghanistan

–         The TAPI Pipeline in Post-U.S. Withdrawal Afghanistan

2002  The Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on STS-112 to continue assembly of the International Space Station.


8 October

451    The first session of the Council of Chalcedon begins.

876    Frankish forces led by Louis the Younger prevent a West Frankish invasion and defeat emperor Charles II (“the Bald”).

1480  The Great Stand on the Ugra River puts an end to Tartar rule over Moscow

1573  End of the Spanish siege of Alkmaar, the first Dutch victory in the Eighty Years’ War.

1813  The Treaty of Ried is signed between Bavaria and Austria.

1856  The Second Opium War between several western powers and China begins with the Arrow Incident.

–         Opium Wars | Causes & Effects

–         CAUSES and EFFECTS of the Second Opium War

–         The Second Opium War | Origins

1879  War of the Pacific: The Chilean Navy defeats the Peruvian Navy in the Battle of Angamos.

1895  Korean Empress Myeongseong is assassinated by Japanese infiltrators.

1912   The First Balkan War begins when Montenegro declares war against the Ottoman Empire.

–         Balkan Wars

–         First Balkan War

1939  World War II: Germany annexes western Poland.

1941  World War II: During the preliminaries of the Battle of Rostov, German forces reach the Sea of Azov with the capture of Mariupol.

1943  World War II: Around 30 civilians are executed by Friedrich Schubert‘s paramilitary group in Kallikratis, Crete.

1967  Guerrilla leader Che Guevara and his men are captured in Bolivia.

–         Legacy of Che Guevara

–         Che Guevara: Freedom Fighter or Myth?

–         Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara: The Full Story Of The Revolutionary Icon

–         Was Che Guevara a mass murderer?. You know how much I admire Che Guevara…

–         The Inconvenient Truth Behind Revolutionary Icon Che Guevara

–         10 Facts that You Might Not Know About Che Guevara

–         The Death of Che Guevara: U.S. declassified documents

1973  Yom Kippur War: Israel loses more than 150 tanks in a failed attack on Egyptian-occupied positions.

[1]      Yom Kippur War:

–         Yom Kippur War | Summary, Causes, Combatants, & Facts

–         NSA Review Of Intelligence Failures In The Yom Kippur War

[2]      Yum Kippur War in October 1973:

–         The October Arab-Israeli War of 1973: What happened?

–         “In October 1973, the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC), led by King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, proclaimed an oil embargo targeted at nations that had supported Israel during the Yom Kippur War.

–         Valley of Tears

–         Timeless Lessons from the October 1973 Arab-Israeli War

1982  Poland bans Solidarity and all other trade unions.

[1]      Solidarity Movement in Poland:

–         History of Solidarity

–         The Rise and Fall of Poland’s Solidarity Movement

[2]      CIA and “Solidarity”:

–         The CIA and “Solidarity”

–         A Covert Action: Reagan, the CIA, and the Cold War Struggle in Poland

–         The AFT, the CIA, and Solidarność

–         In Defense of Communism: Solidarność: The CIA-backed ‘Trojan Horse’ of Poland’s Counterrevolution


[3]      Catholic Church and “Solidarity”:

–         Before Solidarity, There Was the Polish Church

–         Role of the Catholic Church in Resisting Communist Rule in Poland

–         Polish women reject the Catholic Church’s hold on their country

1991  Upon the expiration of the Brioni Agreement, Croatia and Slovenia sever all official relations with Yugoslavia.

2001  U.S. President George W. Bush announces the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security.

2020  Second Nagorno-Karabakh WarAzerbaijan twice deliberately targeted the Church of the Holy Savior Ghazanchetsots of Shusha

–         Timeline of the Second Nagorno-Karabakh War

–         The Second Nagorno-Karabakh War: A Milestone in Military Affairs

–         The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: A Visual Explainer

–         The Second Nagorno-Karabakh War in a Global South Perspective

–         The Second Nagorno-Karabakh War: Takeaways for Singapore’s Ground-Based Air Defense


Satoshi Ashikaga is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment. Having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, he prefers a peaceful and prudent life.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, constantly remind him of the invaluableness of peace.


This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 2 Oct 2023.

Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week in History, is included. Thank you.

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