This Week in History

HISTORY, 30 Oct 2023

Satoshi Ashikaga - TRANSCEND Media Service

30 Oct – 5 Nov 2023

The Video of the Week:
Imagine (World Version) – YouTube


30 October

1864  The Treaty of Vienna is signed, by which Denmark relinquishes one province each to Prussia and Austria.

1905  Czar Nicholas II issues the October Manifesto, nominally granting the Russian peoples basic civil liberties and the right to form a duma. (October 17 in the Julian calendar)

1918  World War I: The Ottoman Empire signs the Armistice of Mudros with the Allies.

1918  World War I: Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, a state union of Kingdom of Hungary and Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia is abolished with decisions of Croatian and Hungarian parliaments

1941  Holocaust: Fifteen hundred Jews from Pidhaytsi are sent by Nazis to Bełżec extermination camp.

1944  Holocaust: Anne and Margot Frank are deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where they die from disease the following year, shortly before the end of WWII.

1947  The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the foundation of the World Trade Organization (WTO), is founded.

1953  President Eisenhower approves the top-secret document NSC 162/2 concerning the maintenance of a strong nuclear deterrent force against the Soviet Union.

1956  Hungarian Revolution: The government of Imre Nagy recognizes newly established revolutionary workers’ councils. Army officer Béla Király leads anti-Soviet militias in an attack on the headquarters of the Hungarian Working People’s Party.

1961  The Soviet Union detonates the Tsar Bomba, the most powerful explosive device ever detonated.

1961  Due to “violations of Vladimir Lenin‘s precepts”, it is decreed that Joseph Stalin‘s body be removed from its place of honor inside Lenin’s tomb and buried near the Kremlin Wall with a plain granite marker.

1968  A squad of 120 North Korean Army commandos land in boats along a 25-mile long section of the eastern coast of South Korea in a failed attempt to overthrow the dictatorship of Park Chung Hee and bring about the reunification of Korea.

1980  El Salvador and Honduras agree to put the border dispute fought over in 1969’s Football War before the International Court of Justice.

1991  The Israeli-Palestinian conflict: The Madrid Conference commences in an effort to revive peace negotiations between Israel and Palestine.

2014  Sweden becomes the first European Union member state to officially recognize the State of Palestine.


31 October

1922  Benito Mussolini is made Prime Minister of Italy

1938  Great Depression: In an effort to restore investor confidence, the New York Stock Exchange unveils a fifteen-point program aimed to upgrade protection for the investing public.

1940  World War II: The Battle of Britain ends: The United Kingdom prevents a possible German invasion.

1956  Suez Crisis: The United Kingdom and France begin bombing Egypt to force the reopening of the Suez Canal.

[1]      Suez Crisis in the Cold War Era:

[2]     Suez Crisis and the Protocol of Sèvres:

[3]      CIA, MI6, Israel and the Suez Crisis:

[4]      First UN Peacekeeping Operation (UNEF I):

1956  Hungarian Revolution of 1956: A Revolutionary Headquarters is established in Hungary. Following Imre Nagy‘s announcement of October 30, banned non-Communist political parties are reformed, and the MDP is replaced by the MSZMPJózsef Mindszenty is released from prison. The Soviet Politburo makes the decision to crush the Revolution.

1961  In the Soviet UnionJoseph Stalin‘s body is removed from the Lenin’s Mausoleum, also known as the Lenin Tomb.

1968  Vietnam War October surprise: Citing progress with the Paris peace talks, US President Lyndon B. Johnson announces to the nation that he has ordered a complete cessation of “all air, naval, and artillery bombardment of North Vietnam” effective November 1.

1984  Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi is assassinated by two Sikh security guards.

1998  Iraq disarmament crisis begins: Iraq announces it would no longer cooperate with United Nations weapons inspectors.

[1]      Iraq Disarmament Crisis:

[2]      Why did Bush go to war in Iraq? | Opinions:

2003  Mahathir Mohamad resigns as Prime Minister of Malaysia and is replaced by Deputy Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, marking an end to Mahathir’s 22 years in power.

2011  The global population of humans reaches seven billion. This day is now recognized by the United Nations as the Day of Seven Billion.


01 November

1814  Congress of Vienna opens to re-draw the European political map after the defeat of France in the Napoleonic Wars.

1911  World’s first combat aerial bombing mission takes place in Libya during the Italo-Turkish War. Second Lieutenant Giulio Gavotti of Italy drops several small bombs.

1918  Western Ukraine separates from Austria-Hungary.

1928  The Law on the Adoption and Implementation of the Turkish Alphabet, replaces the Arabic alphabet with the Latin alphabet.

1945  The official North Korean newspaper, Rodong Sinmun, is first published under the name Chongro.

1951  Operation Buster–Jangle: Six thousand five hundred United States Army soldiers are exposed to ‘Desert Rock’ atomic explosions for training purposes in Nevada. Participation is not voluntary.

1952  Nuclear weapons testing: The United States successfully detonates Ivy Mike, the first thermonuclear device, at the Eniwetok atoll. The explosion had a yield of ten megatons TNT equivalent.

[1]      Ivy Mike:

[2]      After-Effects of Nuclear Tests in the Region of the Marshall Islands:

1954  The Front de Libération Nationale fires the first shots of the Algerian War of Independence.

1955  The establishment of a Military Assistance Advisory Group in South Vietnam marks the beginning of American involvement in the conflict.

1963  The 1963 South Vietnamese coup begins.

1993  The Maastricht Treaty takes effect, formally establishing the European Union.

2000  Serbia and Montenegro joins the United Nations.

2001  TurkeyAustralia, and Canada agree to commit troops to the invasion of Afghanistan.


02 November

1914   World War I: The Russian Empire declares war on the Ottoman Empire and the Dardanelles is subsequently closed.

1917  The Balfour Declaration proclaims British support for the “establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people” with the clear understanding “that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities”. The Declaration caused a political chain reaction among the Jewish people. It led the Zionism movement to the achievement of the foundation of Israel in 1948, which causedNakba”, which produced the Israel-Palestine Conflict that has continued to this date.

[1]     What Was the Balfour Declaration of 1917 and Why Is It Significant?:

[2]     Who was behind the Balfour Declaration?:

[3]     Britain’s True Motivation Behind the Balfour Declaration:

1917  The Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet, in charge of preparation and carrying out the Russian Revolution, holds its first meeting

1949  The Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference ends with the Netherlands agreeing to transfer sovereignty of the Dutch East Indies to the United States of Indonesia.

1951  Canada in the Korean War: A platoon of The Royal Canadian Regiment defends a vital area against a full battalion of Chinese troops in the Battle of the Song-gok Spur. The engagement lasts into the early hours the next day.

1956  Hungarian RevolutionNikita Khrushchev meets with leaders of other Communist countries to seek their advice on the situation in Hungary, selecting János Kádár as the country’s next leader on the advice of Josip Broz Tito.

1956  Suez Crisis: Israel occupies the Gaza Strip.

[1]      Suez Crisis in the Cold War Era:

[2]     Suez Crisis, Israel and the U.S.:

1963  South Vietnamese President Ngô Đình Diệm is assassinated following a military coup.

1964  King Saud of Saudi Arabia is deposed by a family coup, and replaced by his half-brother Faisal.

1965  Norman Morrison, a 31-year-old Quaker, sets himself on fire in front of the river entrance to the Pentagon to protest the use of napalm in the Vietnam war.

1967  Vietnam War: US President Lyndon B. Johnson and “The Wise Men” conclude that the American people should be given more optimistic reports on the progress of the war.


03 November

1898  France withdraws its troops from Fashoda (now in Sudan), ending the Fashoda Incident.

1918  The German Revolution of 1918–19 begins when 40,000 sailors take over the port in Kiel.

1920  Russian Civil War: The Russian Army retreats to Crimea, after a successful offensive by the Red Army and Revolutionary Insurgent Army of Ukraine.

1946  The Constitution of Japan is adopted through Emperor’s assent.

1949  Chinese Civil War: The Battle of Dengbu Island occurs.

1956  Suez Crisis: The Khan Yunis killings by the Israel Defense Forces in Egyptian-controlled Gaza result in the deaths of 275 Palestinians.

[1]      Suez Crisis in the Cold War Era:

[2]      Why Was The Suez Crisis So Important?:

[3]      Suez Crisis, CIA and MI6:

[4]     Suez Crisis and Israel:


1956  Hungarian Revolution: A new Hungarian government is formed, in which many members of banned non-Communist parties participate. János Kádár and Ferenc Münnich form a counter-government in Moscow as Soviet troops prepare for the final assault.

1961  U Thant is unanimously appointed as the 3rd Secretary-General of the United Nations, becoming the first non-European individual to occupy the post.

1967  Vietnam War: The Battle of Dak To begins.

1969  Vietnam War: U.S. President Richard M. Nixon addresses the nation on television and radio, asking the “silent majorityto join him in solidarity on the Vietnam War effort and to support his policies.

1973  Mariner programNASA launches the Mariner 10 toward Mercury. On March 29, 1974, it becomes the first space probe to reach that planet.

1975  Syed Nazrul IslamA. H. M. QamaruzzamanTajuddin Ahmad, and Muhammad Mansur Ali, Bangladeshi politicians and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman loyalists, are murdered in the Dhaka Central Jail.

1978  Dominica gains its independence from the United Kingdom.

1986  Iran–Contra affair: The Lebanese magazine Ash-Shiraa reports that the United States has been secretly selling weapons to Iran in order to secure the release of seven American hostages held by pro-Iranian groups in Lebanon.

1988  Sri Lankan Tamil mercenaries attempt to overthrow the Maldivian government. At President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom‘s request, the Indian military suppresses the rebellion within 24 hours.

1997  The United States imposes economic sanctions against Sudan in response to its human rights abuses of its own citizens and its material and political assistance to Islamic extremist groups across the Middle East and East Africa.

2014  One World Trade Center officially opens in New York City, replacing the Twin Towers after they were destroyed during the September 11 attacks.

2022  A peace agreement is signed between the Ethiopian government and the Tigray People’s Liberation Front, ending the Tigray War.


04 November

1429  Armagnac–Burgundian Civil WarJoan of Arc liberates Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier.

1783  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart‘s Symphony No. 36 is performed for the first time in Linz, Austria.

1868  Camagüey, Cuba, revolts against Spain during the Ten Years’ War.

1918  World War I: The Armistice of Villa Giusti between Italy and Austria-Hungary is implemented.

1936  Spanish Civil WarLargo Caballero reshuffles his war cabinet, persuading the anarcho-syndicalist CNT to join the government..

1956  Soviet troops enter Hungary to end the Hungarian revolution against the Soviet Union that started on October 23. Thousands are killed, more are wounded, and nearly a quarter million leave the country.

1960  At the Kasakela Chimpanzee Community in Tanzania, Dr. Jane Goodall observes chimpanzees creating tools, the first-ever observation in non-human animals.

1962  The United States concludes Operation Fishbowl, its final above-ground nuclear weapons testing series, in anticipation of the 1963 Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.

1966  The Arno River floods Florence, Italy, to a maximum depth of 6.7 m (22 ft), leaving thousands homeless and destroying millions of masterpieces of art and rare books. Venice is also submerged on the same day at its record all-time acqua alta of 194 cm (76 in).

1970  Vietnam War: The United States turns over control of the air base at Bình Thủy in the Mekong Delta to South Vietnam.

1973  The Netherlands experiences the first car-free Sunday caused by the 1973 oil crisis. Highways are used only by cyclists and roller skaters.

1979  Iran hostage crisis: A group of Iranian college students overruns the U.S. embassy in Tehran and takes 90 hostages.

1995  Israel-Palestinian conflictIsraeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated by an extremist Israeli.

[1]      The Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin:

[2]      Oslo Peace Accord II:

[3]      Oslo Peace Accord II, Oppositions and Difficulties:

2020  The Tigray War begins with Tigrayan rebels launching attacks on Ethiopian command centers.


05 November

1768  The Treaty of Fort Stanwix is signed, the purpose of which is to adjust the boundary line between Indian lands and white settlements set forth in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 in the Thirteen Colonies.

1828  Greek War of Independence: The French Morea expedition to recapture Morea (now the Peloponnese) ends when the last Ottoman forces depart the peninsula.

1862  American Indian Wars: In Minnesota, 303 Dakota warriors are found guilty of rape and murder of whites and are sentenced to death. Thirty-eight are ultimately hanged and the others reprieved.

1911  After declaring war on the Ottoman Empire on September 29, 1911, Italy annexes Tripoli and Cyrenaica.

1914  World War IFrance and the British Empire declare war on the Ottoman Empire.

1916  The Kingdom of Poland is proclaimed by the Act of 5th November of the emperors of Germany and Austria-Hungary.

1943  World War II: Bombing of the Vatican.

1950  Korean War: British and Australian forces from the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade successfully halted the advancing Chinese 117th Division during the Battle of Pakchon.

1956  Suez Crisis: British and French paratroopers land in Egypt after a week-long bombing campaign.

[1]      Suez Crisis in the Cold War Era:

[2]      Why Was The Suez Crisis So Important?:

[3]      Suez Crisis, CIA and MI6:

2006  Saddam Hussein, the former president of Iraq, and his co-defendants Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti and Awad Hamed al-Bandar, are sentenced to death in the al-Dujail trial for their roles in the 1982 massacre of 148 Shia Muslims.

[1]      Saddam Hussein’s Trial:

[2]      The Victor’s “Justice”:

[3]      What Was the 2003 Iraq War?:

[4]      From the Persian Gulf War to the 2003 Iraq War:


Satoshi Ashikaga is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment. Having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, he prefers a peaceful and prudent life.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, constantly remind him of the invaluableness of peace.


This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 30 Oct 2023.

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