This Week in History
HISTORY, 20 Nov 2023
20-26 November 2023
Video of the Week:
- “Nazi Germany ‘s influence in Hungary has led some historians to conclude that the country increasingly became a client state after 1938. The Kingdom of Hungary was an Axis Power during World War II…”
- Hungary in World War II
 Hungary During WWII:
 Nuremberg Trials:
- Nuremberg Trials Begin
- Text of the Charter of the International Military Tribunal
- War Crimes on Trial: The Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials
 Victor’s Justice:
- Nuremberg Tribunal: A Precedent for Victor’s Justice
- (PDF) Is Victor’s Justice in Nuremberg Trial Justified or not
- Victor’s Justice, Selfish Justice
- Victor’s Justice: Selecting “Situations” at the International Criminal Court
- Beyond Victor’s Justice? The Challenge of Prosecuting the Winners at the International Criminal Trib
- “From the Nuremberg Charter to the Rome Statute: Defining the Elements “
- Applying the Principles of Nuremberg in the ICC
- NUREMBERG AND THE CRIME AGAINST PEACE
- Principles of International Law Recognized in the Charter of the Nürnberg Tribunal and in the Judgment of the Tribunal, 1950
- The Absolute Clarity of International Legal Practice’s Rejection of Immunity Before International Criminal Courts
- History of child rights | UNICEF
- Declaration of the Rights of the Child
- Children’s Rights: What is the UNCRC?
- The Convention on the Rights of the Child: The children’s version | UNICEF
- Committee on the Rights of the Child | OHCHR
- Children and the law
- Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict
- Children recruited by armed forces or armed groups
- Child soldiers | How does law protect in war?
- Child Recruitment and Use – Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict
- International Peacekeeping and Child Soldiers
 My Lai Massacre:
- My Lai Massacre: Vietnam War & Colin Powell
- My Lai Massacre | Facts, Map, & Photos
- What Caused American Soldiers to Commit Atrocities in Vietnam?
1977 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat becomes the first Arab leader to officially visit Israel, when he meets Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin and speaks before the Knesset in Jerusalem, seeking a permanent peace settlement.
1979 Grand Mosque seizure: About 200 Sunni Muslims revolt in Saudi Arabia at the site of the Kaaba in Mecca during the pilgrimage and take about 6000 hostages. The Saudi government receives help from Pakistani special forces to put down the uprising. → Mosque of Makkah: The Attack, Seizure on Masjid Al Haram (Part 1)
 Velvet Revolution:
- Czechoslovakia 1918-1993
- History of Czechoslovakia (1989–1992)
- 1989 Twenty Years On: The End of Communism and the Fate of Eastern Europe
- Velvet Revolution: The Prospects | Timothy Garton Ash
- Why was it called the Velvet Revolution?
- Velvet Revolution: Prague’s ghosts of communism
- HAVEL CONVERSATION: Lou Reed, Vaclav Havel, and the Velvet Revolution
- How the US embassy in Prague aided Czechoslovakia’s Velvet Revolution
- Armenia’s Velvet Revolution: Lessons from the Caucasus
 CIA and Color Revolutions in the World:
- Colour revolution
- Democratisation, NGOs and “colour revolutions”
- New report unveils how CIA schemes color revolutions around the world
- Color Revolutions are Not About Color
- CIA Staged ‘Color Revolutions,’ Hacker Attacks Around Globe
- Report reveals CIA behind ‘color revolutions’ – Opinion
- Oliver Stone Says Ukraine’s Revolution Was Actually A CIA Plot
- Annus mirabilis papers
- On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies : A. Einstein : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming
- Albert Einstein Autographs and Signed Documents For Sale
1920 Irish War of Independence: On “Bloody Sunday” in Dublin, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) assassinated a group of British Intelligence agents, and British forces killed 14 civilians at a Gaelic football match at Croke Park.
- What Is The Second Vatican Council? And, Why Did It Create Controversy?
- Library : A Summary and Guide to the Documents of the Second Vatican Council
- Religion and the Cold War
- The Vatican, Italy and the Cold War
- DISPLACED PERSONS AND THE VATICAN. A COLD WAR HISTORY
- The Vatican-Moscow Treaty and Vatican II
- Vatican II’s Unpublished Condemnations of Communism:
- Why Did Vatican II Ignore Communism?
- Vatican II’s lost condemnations of communism revealed to public for first time
- The Catholic Case for Communism
- The Communist Infiltration of the Catholic Church
- The CIA Plan for the Destruction of the Church, June 29, 1953.
- How the CIA ideologically outmaneuvered the Catholic Church at the Second Vatican Council
- Vatican II and CIA Propaganda with David A. Wemhoff – YouTube
- What the CIA targeted for destruction at Vatican II
- Doctrinal Warfare, the CIA, and the Colonizing of the Catholic Mind
- Vatican 2, Geopolitics, the CIA & the Jesuits
- THE VATICAN’S TOP SECRET: The substitution of Sr. Lucy at the Request of the CIA
- Sister Lucy Truth answers Church Militant: Was the true Fatima Seer replaced with an Impostor?
- The 1992–1993 Interviews – Sister Lucy Truth
- Explosive: Major TV Network to air Documentary on Vatican’s “Sister Lucy” Imposture
- The Vatican’s Top Secret: The Disappearance and Replacement of Sister Lucia of Fatima
- Lucy of Fatima and the Woman who Replaced Her: The ‘Sister Lucy Truth’ Project Explained
- New Evidence: Two Sister Lucys of Fatima
- The Murder and Replacement of Sister Lucia
- Liberation Theology and Vatican II – Shalom/Salaam/Peace
- How the KGB created Liberation Theology
- LIBERATION THEOLOGY: A PRODUCT OF THE COLD WAR
- Liberation Theology: Soviet Plant or Native Weed, It’s Poisonous
- Communist Defector Says KGB Created “Liberation Theology”
- Former Soviet spy: We created Liberation Theology
- LIBERATION THEOLOGY AND THE SOVIET UNION
1969 U.S. President Richard Nixon and Japanese Premier Eisaku Satō agree on the return of Okinawa to Japanese control in 1972. The U.S. retains rights to bases on the island, but these are to be nuclear-free.
- Okinawa Confidential, 1969
- S. Veterans Reveal 1962 Nuclear Close Call Dodged in Okinawa
- Japan Confirms Secret Nuclear Pacts With U.S.
- The Nuclear Vault: Nuclear Noh Drama – Tokyo, Washington and the Case of the Missing Nuclear Agreements
- Nuclear Weapons on Okinawa Declassified December 2015
- NEW DOCUMENTS ON OKINAWA REVERSION
- Six Decades of US-Japanese Government Collusion in Bringing Nuclear Weapons to Japan.
- Okinawan Perspectives on Japan’s Imperial Institution
- “ Hidenari Terasaki…conveying to me the Emperor’s ideas..stated that the Emperor hopes that the United States will continue the military occupation of Okinawa and other islands of the Ryukyus.”
- Hidenari Terasaki (1900 – 1951)
- Japan signs land lease to U.S. military
- The Dangerous Illusion of Japan’s Unconditional Surrender During World War II
- 1971: U.S. Pledges to Return Okinawa to Japan
- Why the U.S. Has So Many Bases on Okinawa
- OKINAWA ISLANDS RETURNED BY U.S. TO JAPANESE RULE
- Dayton peace (dis)agreement, 25 years on
- Dayton Accords: Serbs threaten to disband the federation
- Dayton, WPS and the entrenched “manliness” of ethnic power-sharing peace agreements
- How Diplomacy Forged The Dayton Accords
- Conflict Resolution: Lessons from the Dayton Peace Process
 Enlargement of NATO:
- Timeline of NATO expansion since 1949
- Enlarging NATO: A Questionable Idea Whose Time Has Come
- The U.S. Decision to Enlarge NATO: How, When, Why, and What Next?
- How America’s NATO expansion obsession plays into the Russia-Ukraine crisis
- A look at the debate over NATO expansion eastward that’s at the heart of conflict now
- Ukraine war follows decades of warnings that NATO expansion into Eastern Europe could provoke Russia
- Did NATO ‘betray’ Russia by expanding to the East?
- W. Bush Admits US Broke Promise on NATO Expansion; Says Ukraine Should ‘Destroy as Many Russian Troops’ as Possible
- New Documents: US Promised Not to Expand NATO Eastward
- Newly Declassified Documents: Gorbachev Told NATO Wouldn’t Move Past East German Border
- James A. Baker III’s Words on NATO Loom in Ukraine Standoff
- “Document Number 119 of the Gorbachev Foundation archives contains a detailed transcript of the discussion…This document shows that James Baker repeatedly assured Gorbachev that the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) would not expand.”
- Soviet and U.S. transcripts of highest-level meetings that ended the Cold War | National Security Archive
1943 World War II: Cairo Conference: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Chinese Premier Chiang Kai-shek meet in Cairo, Egypt, to discuss ways to defeat Japan.
1963 U.S. President John F. Kennedy is assassinated and Texas Governor John Connally is seriously wounded by Lee Harvey Oswald, who also kills Dallas Police officer J. D. Tippit after fleeing the scene. U.S Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn in as the 36th President of the United States afterwards.
 Iran-Contra Affair:
- Iran-Contra Affair Timeline
- A timeline of U.S.-Iran relations
- The contra war in Nicaragua – Noam Chomsky
- Understanding the Iran-Contra Affairs – The Iran-Contra Affairs
- Iran-Contra Affair | Definition, History, Oliver North, Importance, & Facts
- The Iran-Contra Scandal – Association for Diplomatic Studies & Training
- CIA involvement in Contra cocaine trafficking
- President Reagan gives CIA authority to establish the Contras
- THE REAGAN ADMINISTRATION’S BATTLE FOR CONTRA AID
- The CIA, Contras, Gangs, and Crack
- CIA-Contra Connection | Recent Central American History
- The US-Iran conflict: A timeline of how we got here
- How The CIA Overthrew Iran’s Democracy In 4 Days
- CIA admits 1953 Iranian coup it backed was undemocratic
- 64 Years Later, CIA Finally Releases Details of Iranian Coup
- “It’s Always About Oil”: CIA & MI6 Staged Coup in Iran 70 Years Ago,
- Helping the Contras: The Effectiveness of U.S. Support for Foreign Rebels During the Nicaraguan Contra War (1979–1990)
- Document exposes new US plot to overthrow Nicaragua’s elected socialist gov’t
- The Psyops Manual The CIA Gave To Nicaragua’s Contras Is Totally Bonkers
- How USAID created Nicaragua’s anti-Sandinista media apparatus, now under money laundering investigation
- Cocaine politics : drugs, armies, and the CIA in Central America
- “For three years Enrique “Ric” Prado was the “tip of the spear” of the CIA’s efforts in the battle for Nicaragua.”
- Special Reports – Cocaine, Conspiracy Theories And The Cia In Central America | Drug Wars
- Fleeing a hell the US helped create: why Central Americans journey north
- United States involvement in regime change in Latin America
1989 After a week of mass protests against the Communist regime known as the Velvet Revolution, Miloš Jakeš and the entire Politburo of the Czechoslovak Communist Party resign from office. This brings an effective end to Communist rule in Czechoslovakia.
 Iran Nuclear Deal:
- A comprehensive timeline of the Iran nuclear deal
- World powers reach nuclear deal with Iran to freeze its nuclear program
- Iran nuclear deal framework
- The Iran nuclear deal: full text
- Security Council, Adopting Resolution 2231 (2015), Endorses Joint Comprehensive Agreement on Iran’s Nuclear Programme
- Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action
- Nuclear facilities in Iran
- Iran is seeking Russia’s help to bolster its nuclear program,
- Iran has enough enriched uraniam to build ‘several’ nuclear weapons,
- An Iranian nuclear facility is so deep underground that US airstrikes likely couldn’t reach it
 Iran and Venezuela:
- Venezuela’s Troubling Nuclear Ties | Council on Foreign Relations
- ‘Iran is a main destination for uranium smuggling from Venezuela’
- Venezuelan leader, Iranian president sign 20-year agreement
2016 The government of Colombia and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People’s Army sign a revised peace deal, bringing an end to the country’s more than 50-year-long civil war.
1943 World War II: Statehood of Bosnia and Herzegovina is re-established at the State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
1975 Suriname gains independence from the Netherlands.
1981 Pope John Paul II appoints Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (the future Pope Benedict XVI) Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.
1986 Iran–Contra affair: U.S. Attorney General Edwin Meese announces that profits from covert weapons sales to Iran were illegally diverted to the anti-communist Contra rebels in Nicaragua. → Iran-Contra Affairs Timeline
- Hawaii’s History: From Polynesian Settlement to Modern Day
- International Court Recognizes The Hawaiian Kingdom as a State
- United Nations Acknowledges the Occupation of the Hawaiian Kingdom
- Hawaii’s Legal Case Against the United States
- Legal status of Hawaii
- How the US Stole Hawaii – YouTube
- The Struggle For Hawaiian Sovereignty – Introduction
- How Native Hawaiians have been pushed out of Hawai’i – YouTube
1941 World War II: The Hull note is given to the Japanese ambassador, demanding that Japan withdraw from China and French Indochina, in return for which the United States would lift economic sanctions. On the same day, Japan’s 1st Air Fleet departs Hitokappu Bay for Hawaii.
- The Road to Pearl Harbor: The Short Fuse
- Full Text of the Hull Note or Hull Note – “The World and Japan” Database
- Cordell Hull papers,
 The Political Environment Around the U.S.-Japan Relations in 1941:
- Was There an Ultimatum Before Pearl Harbor?
- Intelligence Warnings of the Pearl Harbor Attack Before Dec. 7, 1941
- The US-Japan War Talks as seen in official documents
- How Roosevelt Attacked Japan at Pearl Harbor
- How FDR’s ‘Day of Infamy’ Speech Came to Be and Landed in the History Books
- Soviet Mole Harry White’s Efforts to Trigger the Pearl Harbor Attack
- Operation Snow: How A Soviet Mole in FDR’s White House Triggered Pearl Harbor
- The translation mistake that led to Pearl Harbor
1942 World War II: Yugoslav Partisans convene the first meeting of the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia at Bihać in northwestern Bosnia.
- Casablanca | An Unlikely Classic: Behind The Scenes – YouTube
- Casablanca (1942): As Time Goes By. Sinatra sings – YouTube
- ‘Casablanca’ and the Politics of Sacrifice
- ‘Casablanca’ Ending Explained: Fighting Fascism Requires Sacrifice
- Why Casablanca is the ultimate film about refugees
- “Casablanca is more than just a love story. It is a film about, and stocked with, the waves of refugees fleeing Nazi-occupied Europe during wartime.”
1950 Korean War: People’s Volunteer Army troops from the People’s Republic of China launch a massive counterattack in North Korea against South Korean and United Nations forces (Battle of the Ch’ongch’on River and Battle of Chosin Reservoir), ending any hopes of a quick end to the conflict.
2011 NATO attack in Pakistan: NATO forces in Afghanistan attack a Pakistani check post in a friendly fire incident, killing 24 soldiers and wounding 13 others.
- Nato air attack on Pakistani troops was self-defence, says senior western official
- Tensions High After NATO Air Strikes Kill Pakistani Soldiers
- Pakistan orders closure of key US airbase after ISAF troops conduct cross-border attack
- 2011: New low for US-Pakistan relations
- Pakistan Rages After Strike, While U.S. and Afghanistan Worry
- Taliban may have lured Nato forces to attack Pakistani outpost – US
- Pakistan in the war on terror
- Major non-NATO ally
- Pakistan–United States military relations
- Operation Geronimo and the Future of US-Pakistan Relations
- Pakistan’s Role in the Afghanistan War’s Outcome
 Pakistan and CIA:
- S-Pakistan Military Intelligence Ties Are a Dangerous Spiral
- UNITED STATES/PAKISTAN : ISI and CIA cooperate again under Pakistani army chief of staff Qamar Javed Bajwa
- How the U.S., U.K. and Pakistan Teamed Up To Stop Another 9/11
- Analysis: Is CIA behind ‘regime change’ in Pakistan?
- CIA secret regime change plan to topple PM Imran Khan government in Pakistan?
Satoshi Ashikaga is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment. Having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, he prefers a peaceful and prudent life. His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, constantly remind him of the invaluableness of peace.
Disclaimer: The author and TMS take no responsibility for–and do not necessarily subscribe to–contents of websites hyperlinked as sources.
This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 20 Nov 2023.
Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week in History, is included. Thank you.
This work is licensed under a CC BY-NC 4.0 License.
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