This Week in History

HISTORY, 27 Nov 2023

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

27 Nov – 3 Dec 2023

Video of the Week:

Israeli Amir and Palestinian Amjad: ‘we are no enemies!’ – YouTube


27 November

1912  Spain declares a protectorate over the north shore of Morocco.

1945  CARE (then the Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe) is founded to send CARE Packages of food relief to Europe after World War II.

1965  Vietnam WarThe Pentagon tells U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ) that if planned operations are to succeed, the number of American troops in Vietnam has to be increased from 120,000 to 400,000.

[1]      Timeline of America’s Vietnam War:

[2]     Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ) and the Vietnam War:

[3]      Relevant Aspects of the Vietnam War, L.B.J and the U.S. Society:

Opinion | How Vietnam Killed the Great Society

1975  The Provisional IRA assassinates Ross McWhirter, after a press conference in which McWhirter had announced a reward for the capture of those responsible for multiple bombings and shootings across England.

[Irish Republican Army]


28 November

1821  Panama Independence Day: Panama separates from Spain and joins Gran Colombia

1843  Ka Lā Hui (Hawaiian Independence Day): The Kingdom of Hawaii is officially recognized by the United Kingdom and France as an independent nation.

[History of Hawaii]

1885  Bulgarian victory in the Serbo-Bulgarian War preserves the Unification of Bulgaria.

1917  The Estonian Provincial Assembly declares itself the sovereign power of Estonia.

1918  The Soviet Forces moved against Estonia when the 6th Red Rifle Division struck the border town of Narva, which marked the beginning of the Estonian War of Independence.

1920  FIDAC (The Interallied Federation of War Veterans Organisations), the first international organization of war veterans is established in ParisFrance.

1943  World War IITehran Conference: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran, Iran, to discuss war strategy.

1958  Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon become autonomous republics within the French Community.

1960  Mauritania becomes independent of France.

1964  Vietnam WarNational Security Council members agree to recommend that U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson adopt a plan for a two-stage escalation of bombing in North Vietnam.

1965  Vietnam War: In response to U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson’s call for “more flags” in Vietnam, Philippine President-elect Ferdinand Marcos announces he will send troops to help fight in South Vietnam.

1975  East Timor declares its independence from Portugal.

[History of East Timor]

1989  Cold WarVelvet Revolution: In the face of protests, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia announces it will give up its monopoly on political power.

1990  British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher resigns as leader of the Conservative Party and, therefore, as Prime Minister. She is succeeded in both positions by John Major.

1991  South Ossetia declares independence from Georgia.

2020  Over seven hundred civilians are massacred by the Ethiopian National Defense Force and Eritrean Army in Aksum, Ethiopia.


29 November

1943  The second session of the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ), held to determine the post-war ordering of the country, concludes in Jajce [pronounced  “Yah-eeh-tseh”] (present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina).

[Yugoslav National Movement ]

1944  Albania is liberated by the Partisans.

1945  The Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia is declared.

[1]      History of Yugoslavia:

[2]      Creation of Yugoslavia – Wikipedia:

[3]      Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia :

[3]      Breakup of SFR Yugoslavia:

1947  The UN General Assembly approves a plan for the partition of Palestine.

[1]      UN General Assembly Resolution 181 :

[2]      Analysis: The Unfair and Illegal Partition of Palestine:

[3]      What’s the Israel-Palestine conflict about?

1947  French forces carry out a massacre at Mỹ Trạch, Vietnam during the First Indochina War.

2007  The Armed Forces of the Philippines lay siege to the Peninsula Manila after soldiers led by Senator Antonio Trillanes stage a mutiny.


30 November

1941  The Holocaust: The SS-Einsatzgruppen round up 11,000 Jews from the Riga Ghetto and kill them in the Rumbula massacre.

1947  Civil War in Mandatory Palestine begins, leading up to the creation of the State of Israel and the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

[Mandatory Palestine ]

1966  DecolonizationBarbados becomes independent from the United Kingdom.

1967  Decolonization: South Yemen becomes independent from the United Kingdom.

1967  The Pakistan Peoples Party is founded by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who becomes its first chairman.

1981  Cold War: In Geneva, representatives from the United States and the Soviet Union begin to negotiate intermediate-range nuclear weapon reductions in Europe. (The meetings end inconclusively on December 17.)

1995  Official end of Operation Desert Storm.

1999  Exxon and Mobil sign a US$73.7 billion agreement to merge, thus creating ExxonMobil, the world’s largest company:

[1]      ExxonMobil:

[2]      Major U.S. military operations/actions to protect oil Exxon and Afghanistan:

[3]      The U.S. Interest and Exxon Mobil in Iraq:


01 December

1913  Crete, having obtained self rule from Turkey after the First Balkan War, is annexed by Greece.

1918  Transylvania unites with Romania, following the incorporation of Bessarabia (March 27) and Bukovina (November 28) and thus concluding the Great Union.

1918  Iceland becomes a sovereign state, yet remains a part of the Danish kingdom.

1918  The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) is proclaimed.

1964  Vietnam War: U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson and his top-ranking advisers meet to discuss plans to bomb North Vietnam.

1971  Purge of Croatian Spring leaders starts in Yugoslavia at the meeting of the League of Communists at the Karađorđevo estate

1973  Papua New Guinea gains self-government from Australia.

1988  World AIDS Day is proclaimed worldwide by the UN member states.

1988  Benazir Bhutto, is named as the Prime Minister of Pakistan, becoming the first female leader to lead a Muslim nation.

1991  Ukrainian voters overwhelmingly approve a referendum for independence from the Soviet Union.

2006  The law on same-sex marriage came into force in South Africa for the first time on the African continent.

2009  The Treaty of Lisbon entered into force in the European Union.

2019  The outbreak of coronavirus infection began in Wuhan.


02 December

1942  During the Manhattan Project, a team led by Enrico Fermi initiates the first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.

1947  Jerusalem Riots of 1947: Arabs riot in Jerusalem in response to the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine.

1949  Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others is adopted.

1950  Korean War: The Battle of the Ch’ongch’on River ends with a decisive Chinese victory and UN forces are completely expelled from North Korea.

1954  The Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, between the United States and Taiwan, is signed in Washington, D.C.

1956  The Granma reaches the shores of Cuba‘s Oriente ProvinceFidel CastroChe Guevara and 80 other members of the 26th of July Movement disembark to initiate the Cuban Revolution.

1957  UNSC Resolution 126 relating to the Kashmir conflict is adopted.

[Kashmir Conflict]

1962  Vietnam War: After a trip to Vietnam at the request of U.S. President John F. KennedyU.S. Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield becomes the first American official to comment adversely on the war’s progress.

1971  Abu DhabiAjmanFujairahSharjahDubai, and Umm al-Quwain form the United Arab Emirates.

1976  Fidel Castro becomes President of Cuba, replacing Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado.

1989  The Peace Agreement of Hat Yai is signed and ratified by the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) and the governments of Malaysia and Thailand, ending the over two-decade-long communist insurgency in Malaysia.

1991  Canada and Poland become the first nations to recognize the independence of Ukraine from the Soviet Union.

1999  The United Kingdom devolves political power in Northern Ireland to the Northern Ireland Executive following the Good Friday Agreement.

2001  Enron files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

[1]      G.W.Bush and Enron:

[2]      D. Cheney and Enron:

[3]      Enron, Afghanistan and 9/11:

[3]      The Fall of Enron:


03 December

1912  BulgariaGreeceMontenegro, and Serbia (the Balkan League) sign an armistice with the Ottoman Empire, temporarily halting the First Balkan War. (The armistice will expire on February 3, 1913, and hostilities will resume.)

1920  Following more than a month of Turkish–Armenian War, the Turkish-dictated Treaty of Alexandropol is concluded.

1925  Final agreement is signed between the Irish Free StateNorthern Ireland and the United Kingdom formalizing the Partition of Ireland.

1938  Nazi Germany issues the Decree on the Utilization of Jewish Property forcing Jews to sell real propertybusinesses, and stocks at below market value as part of Aryanization.

1944  Greek Civil WarFighting breaks out in Athens between the ELAS and government forces supported by the British Army.

1971  Indo-Pakistani War of 1971: Pakistan launches a pre-emptive strike against India and a full-scale war begins.

[1]      India-Pakistan Conflict: An Overview:

[2]      Indo-Pakistan War of 1971:

[2]      Indo-Pakistan Relations and the Intelligence Communities:

1979  Iranian Revolution: Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini becomes the first Supreme Leader of Iran.

[1]      Iranian Revolution in 1979:

[2]      1953 Iranian coup d’état:

1989  In a meeting off the coast of Malta, U.S. President George H. W. Bush and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev release statements indicating that the Cold War between NATO and the Warsaw Pact may be coming to an end.

[1]      The Malta Summit 1989:

[2]      The Malta Summit and the Discussions on Non-enlargement of NATO:

[3]      From Malta to Ukraine:


Satoshi Ashikaga is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment. Having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, he prefers a peaceful and prudent life.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, constantly remind him of the invaluableness of peace.

Disclaimer: The author and TMS take no responsibility for–and do not necessarily subscribe to–contents of websites hyperlinked as sources.


This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 27 Nov 2023.

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