This Week in History
HISTORY, 29 Jun 2015
June 29–July 5
QUOTE OF THE WEEK:
2014 The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (= ISIL, aka ISIS) self-declared its caliphate in Syria and northern Iraq.
ISIS and the United States:
- ISIS in Iraq stinks of CIA/NATO ‘dirty war’ op – RT Op-Edge
- Obama ordered CIA to train ISIS jihadists: Declassified documents – Examiner.com
- Washington and ISIS: The Evidence
- ISIS leader a confirmed CIA puppet
- Secret Pentagon Report Reveals West Saw ISIS as Strategic Asset – GovtSlaves.info
- How the US Helped ISIS – JacobinMag.com
- ISIS: US-made monster running amok in Middle East, by Robert Bridge – RT.com
- ISIS arming themselves with US-made military hardware to wage jihad across the Middle East after seizing weapons from Syrian rebels and Iraqi soldiers – Daily Mail
- US intentionally holding back attacks on obvious key ISIL target in Syria, Iraq: Report – PressTV.ir
- What Iraq Thinks: “It Is Obvious To Everyone That ISIS Is A Creation Of The United States And Israel” – ZeroHedge.com
- Why Iran Believe the Militant Group ISIS Is an American Plot – Time.com
- ISIS Made in U.S.A.? – FinalCall.com
- How America Made ISIS – Their Videos and Ours, Their “Caliphate” and Ours, by Tom Engelhardt – CommonDreams.org
- How America Made ISIS – OpenDemocracy.net
- ISIS Fires American-Made Missiles At Syrian Army: “U.S. Funding, Arming ISIS From the Beginning” – SHTFplan.com
- PHOTOS: See how America fight(!) with ISIL: ISIS Terrorists Drive American Humvees! – IslamicInvitationTurkey.com
- YouTube video (14 min. 59 sec.) ISIS EXPOSED 100% AS CIA OPERATION “The Next Bin Laden is Here” – Don’t Be Fooled
- YouTube video (27 min.00 sec.) ISIS: The Creation of The CIA
- YouTube video (16 min. 20 sec.): ISIS ‘Flames Of War’ HOAX: The Road To WW3 – DON’T BE FOOLED!
- YouTube video (8 min. 05 sec.): ISIS was created by the CIA and Mossad
- ISIS: A CIA Creation to Justify War Abroad and Repression at Home – The Vigilant Citizen
- ISIS Domestic Terror Threat Created by CIA and U.S. Military – Alex Jones – Infowars.com
- Former CIA Contractor: We Created ISIS – Amtvmedia.com
- Iran Didn’t Create ISIS; We Did – The Diplomat
- ISIS used to be al-Qaeda in Iraq – 17 things about ISIS and Iraq you need to know – Vox.com and Middle East Security Report 14, September 2013, by Jessica D. Lewis, – Al-Qaeda in Iraq Resurgent: Breaking the Walls Campaign Part 1
- YouTube video (4 min. 25 sec.): ‘US fighting alongside ISIS’: Direct American role in strengthening jihadists?
- YouTube video (4 min. 44 sec.): Iran Exposes ISIS! Top Commander Says It’s Supported by US, Israel and KSA!
- Teheran Times 6-18-14…”Iran will never cooperate with U.S. in war against ISIL: top commander”
- Don’t Worry, Whatever It Is We’re Doing in the Middle East, It’s Totally Not a ‘War’
Training, Support and Funding:
- General Wesley Clerk: “ISIS Got Started Through Funding From Our Friends & Allies” – ZeroHedge.com
- The Forbidden Truth: Islamic State (ISIS) Recruiter Admits Getting Funds From America – GlobalResearch.ca
- Islamic State operative confesses to receiving funding from US – report – RT.com
- America’s Allies Are Funding ISIS – TheDailyBeast.com
- Blowback! U.S. Trained Islamists Who Joined ISIS
- Report claims America created the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) –NJtoday.net
- YouTube video (3 min. 01 sec.): This is why the US created ISIS
- YouTube video (7 min. 01 sec.): US allies funding ISIS – Gen. Dempsey
- YouTube video (3 min. 21 sec.): Exactly how the US trained and armed ISIS
- YouTube video (11 min. 47 sec.): General Wesley Clark explains ISIS was created by U.S. allies
- Iraq Crisis: ISIS Terrorists were Trained by US in 2012 for Syria Conflict
- Snowden Bombshell: ISIS Leader CIA/MI6 Asset, Trained By Israel
- You Do Realize that the US Funded and Trained ISIS, Right?
- Key members of ISIS were trained by CIA and U.S. Special Forces
- Militant Islamic Group ISIS Trained at US Base in Jordan
- CIA ramping up covert training program for moderate Syrian rebels – The Washington Post
- FORMER CIA AGENT: “ISIS LEADER ABU BAKR AL BAGHADI WAS TRAINED BY ISRAELI MOSSAD.”
- Former CIA Officer: “ISIS were trained by the United States in Jordan”
- CIA and NATO have trained and financed ISIS
- How America Made ISIS – Their Videos and Ours, Their “Caliphate” and Ours
- How the West Created the Islamic State
- Did We Really Create ISIS?
- The Creation of ISIS
ISIS and Israel:
- Why Aren’t ISIS and Al-Qaeda Attacking Israel?- HAARETZ
- UN Report Reveals How Israel is Coordinating with ISIS Militants Inside Syria
- Video: ISIS, Saudi Arabia, the CIA and Israel Exposed – Intellihub.com
- ISIS: What Does It Mean for Israel? – Ronald Tiersky
- Israel bolsters ties to Jordan as ISIS looms – CNN
- The Silence of the Israelis on ISIS – Consortium
- Israel and ISIS, two sides of the same coin – Al Arabiya News
- Why the Islamic State isn’t in any rush to attack Israel
- The University of Al-Qaeda? America’s “Terrorist Academy” in Iraq Produced ISIS Leaders
- Secret Pentagon Report Reveals US “Created” ISIS As A “Tool” To Overthrow Syria’s President Assad
- YouTube video (10 min. 09 sec.): Israel Joining ISIS
- New UN report reveals collaboration between Israel and Syrian rebels – The Jerusalem Post
- UN finds credible ties between ISIS And Israel Defense Forces – AddictingInfo.org
Supply of Weapons to ISIS:
- Report: The Islamic State’s Best Weapon Was Born in the USA – Foreign Policy
- Made in USA: Report Shows ISIS Using US Arms from ‘Syrian Rebels’ – AntiWar.com
- ISIS Video: America’s Air Dropped Weapons Now in Our Hands
- Did the U.S. Just Accidentally Give Weapons to ISIS?
- Report: US Military Arming ISIS
- S. continues to airdrops weapons and aid to ISIS – a group they’re allegedly fighting
- More American Weapons for ISIS
- S. Airdrops Weapons to ISIS as Iraqi Army Makes Gains
- Right into enemy hands? ISIS shows off new weapons allegedly airdropped by US (VIDEO)
- CAUGHT RED-HANDED : Two British Planes Shot Down in Iraq Carrying Weapons for ISIS Terrorists
- US and BRITISH Planes Have Been Making Airdrops of Weapons to ISIS – YouTube video (6 min. 07 sec.)
- Report: Iraqi Forces AGAIN Claim US is Supplying ISIS with Weapon Drops: Claim to have shot down US chopper full of weapons
- Terrorists Supported by America: U.S. Helicopter Delivering Weapons to the Islamic State (ISIS), Shot Down by Iraq “Popular Forces”
How ISIS Uses Oil to Finance Its Terror Operations
- America’s Allies Are Funding ISIS
- The Scary Amount of Oil Money ISIS Makes Every Day – The Daily Signal
- ISIS is rolling in cash, but from where? – CBS News
- ISIS earns $3 million from oil sales every day, expert says – Daily Sabah
- Is everything we know is ISIS’s oil money wrong? – Vox.com
- ISIS Oil Revenue: Islamic State Makes Money By Selling Gas To Bashar Assad, New BBC2 Documentary Claims – International Business Times
- YouTube video (3 min 47 sec.): Ali Soufan Interviewed on BBC This World: World’s Richest Terror Army
- ISIS Generates $720 MILLION a Year in Oil Revenue! – Liberty News
- Inside Islamic State’s Oil Empire: How Captures Oilfields Fuel Isis Insurgency – Aina.org
- ISIS’ Sources of Revenue Unclear But Group Well Financed – Newsmax.com
- ISIS Finances Are Strong – The New York Times
- ISIS is about to make A LOT of money off ‘the archaeological equivalent of a beheading’ – Business Insider
Buyers of ISIS Oil:
- ISIS Oil: The West loves cheap oil… –Windows to Russia
- NATO US, UK Rothschild Zionist Buy ISIS Stolen Oil. Boycott Russian Oil
- ISIS is selling cheap oil to its enemies – from Syria’s government to the Kurds – Pri.org
- Islamic State Smuggles Oil into Turkey – With Hostages as Insurance – Bloomberg.com
- Who’s Buying ISIS’ Oil? Kerry Says They’re Looking Into It – PJ Media
- Israel is Doomed! US Caught Buying Oil Stolen by ISIS – SimmersReport.com
- YouTube video (8 min. 21 sec.): Is the U.S. Buying Oil from ISIS in Syria?
- Thanks to Islamic State ISIS, the world is getting cheap oil! Terrorist group selling oil as cheap as $20 per barrel! – Shameonyou.buzz
- ISIS Oil is Cheaper and Flowing to Europe – 123 Islamic State ISIS ISIL
- Supporting Terror: EU States Buying Islamic States Oil – Israel National News
- CLAIM: EU Countries Buying ISIS Oil – One News Page
- European Union Buying ISIS Oil – Shoebat.com
- EU Ambassador to Iraq Admits: We’re ‘Funding ISIS’ By Buying Their Oil!
- EU Members Purchasing Oil from ISIS
- Petrodollar Panic: EU Officials Admit Buying Oil From ISIS – Zerohedge.com
Guantánamo Bay Prison:
- Guantánamo Bay Naval Base (Cuba) – The New York Times
- Guantanamo Bay – Historic Naval Base meets Suburban America
- Guantanamo Bay [GTMO] “GITMO”
- Guantanamo Bay Naval Station Fast Facts – CNN
- The Cost of the Guantanamo Bay Prison – Human Rights First
Human Rights at Guantánamo:
- Does Guantanamo Bay violates human rights? – Debate.org
- Human Rights in Guantanamo Bay – Globalization.wikispaces.com
- Guantanamo, Bagram and Illegal US Detentions – Amnesty International
- Human Rights/Prisoners’ Rights in Guantanamo detention Bay – academia.edu
- We’ve been at the forefront of the effort to close the prison at Guantanamo. – Human Rights First
- Guantanamo Prisoner Diary: ‘We’re Gonna Teach You about Great American Sex’
- CIA torture report full text
- Close Guantanamo – Then Give It Back to Cuba
Hamdan vs. Rumsfeld
- Hamdan vs.Rumsfeld – Center for Justice and Accountability
- Hamdan vs. Rumsfeld: Syllabus – Supreme Court of the United States
- Salim Ahmed Hamdan, Petitioner vs. Donald H. Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense, et al. – Supreme Court of the United States – Cornell University Law School Legal Information Institute
- Hamdan vs. Rumsfeld – The Oyez Project
- Background – The Oath in Text: U.S. Policy in the Wake of 9/11: Hamdan vs. Rumsfeld
1994 US reopens Guantanamo Naval Base to process refugees.
- The Cuban refugee experience of Guantánamo Bay – Public History Commons
- Photographs of Cuban Refugees, Guantánamo Bay Naval Base, 1994 – 1995 – UF George A Smathers Libraries
- Operation Sea Signal – Wikipedia
- Timeline – Gitmo
1984 USSR offers to start talking about banning SDI.
- Profile: Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) – History Commons
- Possible Soviet Responses to the US Strategic Defense Initiative – NIC M 83-10017 12 September 1983
- Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) United States Defense System – Encyclopedia Britannica
- The Soviet Military On SDI, by Mary C. Fitzgerald – Professional Paper 461/August 1987, Center for Naval Analyses (CNA)
- The Kremlin and SDI – Foreign Affairs Spring 1988 issue
- Overview of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), by Ron Kurtus
- SDI and the Soviet Defense Burden by Gregory G. Hildebrandt – RAND
- How Reagan and SDI Helped End the Cold War
- The Collapse of the Soviet Union and Ronald Reagan
- Did Star Wars Help End the Cold War? Soviet Response to the SDI Program, by Pavel Podvig, Russian Nuclear Forces Project, Working paper, March 2013
1976 The Conference of Communist and Workers Parties of Europe convenes in East Berlin
- History of East Germany – Wikipedia
- German workers and the birth of the united front – International Socialist Review
- Germany: from Revolution to Counter-Revolution – Marxist.com
- The Comintern and the German Communist Party – Columbia.edu
- The origins of the united front policy, by John Riddell – International Socialism
- History of Seychelles – Wikipedia
- History of Seychelles – Seychelles travel
- Seychelles – inforplease.com
- Seychelles History – Destination 360
- History of Seychelles – Indian-Ocean.com
- Overview for Mikhail Baryshnikov – tcm.com
- Mikhail Baryshnikov – Biography and filmography – Holywood.com
- List of Soviet and Eastern Bloc Defectors – Wikipedia
- History of South Africa in the apartheid era – Digital Library
- Crime of apartheid – Wikipedia
- Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid
New York, 30 November 1973, lectured by John Dugard – Audiovisual Library of International Law
- Full text of International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid, G.A. res. 3068 (XXVIII)), 28 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 30) at 75, U.N. Doc. A/9030 (1974), 1015 U.N.T.S. 243, entered into force July 18, 1976. – University of Minnesota Human Rights Library
1932 USSR & China sign non-aggression treaty.
1913 The attack by Bulgarian General Michael Savov on Greek and Serbian positions leads to beginning of the second Balkan War
1874 Greek politician Charilaos Trikoupis publishes a manifesto in the Athens daily Kairoi entitled “Who’s to Blame?” in which he lays out his complaints against King George. He is elected Prime Minister of Greece the next year.
- History of Hong Kong – Wikipedia
- British Hong Kong – Wikipedia
- Modern Hong Kong under British rule (1950s – 1997)
- China Resumes Control of Hong Kong, Concluding 156 Years of British Rule
- Why Did China Lease Hong Kong to Britain? – About Education
- CHRONOLOGY: Timeline of 156 years of British rule in Hong Kong – Reuters.com
- History of Sudan – Wikipedia
- Alert Series – Sudan: Human Rights Since the 1989 Coup
- Following the June 30, 1989, military coup by Lieutenant General Omar el-Bashir’s Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) against the civilian government of Prime Minister Sadiq el-Mahdi, human rights conditions have deteriorated for almost all sectors of Sudan’s population. – RefWorld.org
1977 The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization disbands.
- Belgian Congo History – The Ultimate History Project
- Belgian Congo – Encyclopedia Britannica
- History of the Belgian Congo: Imperialism, Genocide & Atrocities – Study.com
1922 In Washington D.C., U.S. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes and Dominican Ambassador Francisco J. Peynado sign the Hughes-Peynado agreement, which ends the United States occupation of the Dominican Republic.
- Tunguska Event (1908) – World-Mysteries.com
- This Day in Science – The Tunguska explosion – EarthSky.org
- The Tunguska event: A Siberian meteor mystery from 1908 – The Guardian
- The Tunguska event was an explosion that occurred at 60 degrees 55’N 101degrees 57’E, near the Podkamennaya (Under Rock) Tunguska River, in what is now Evenk Autonomous Okrug, at 7:17 AM on June 30, 1908. – ScienceDaily.com
- Russian meteor blast recalls massive 1908 ‘Tunguska event’ – Fox News
- Tunguska Event Scientist Says He Found Meteorite Fragments Possibly Linked To 1908 Impact In Siberia – Huffington Post
- The Tunguska Event – ViewZone.com
- Special relativity – Einstein online
- Introduction of Special Relativity – About Education
- Einstein’s Special Relativity for Dummies – Dummies.com
- How Special Relativity Works – HowStuffWorks.com
- 1860 Oxford Evolution Debate – wn.com
- Jonathan Smith, “The Huxley-Wilberforce ‘Debate’ on Evolution, 30 June 1860” – BranchCollective.org
- Wilberforce and Huxley: A Legendary Encounter, by J.R. Lucas
2013 The United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) begins its operative peacekeeping mandate in Mali.
- MINUSMA – United Nations Stabilization Mission in Mali – UN.org
- UN Peacekeepers begin operations in Mali – dw.de
- UNSC strongly endorses “multidimensional approach” to UN peacekeeping – SAFPI.org
- The Ongoing Evolution of Peacekeeping – Peace Operation Monitor
- Peacebuilding, UN Peace Operations, Multidimensional Peacekeeping – Academia.edu
2008 Rioting erupts in Mongolia in response to allegations of fraud surrounding the 2008 legislative elections.
2007 Smoking in England is banned in all public indoor spaces.
2006 The first operation of Qinghai–Tibet Railway in China.
2003 Over 500,000 people protest against efforts to pass anti-sedition legislation in Hong Kong.
2002 The International Criminal Court is established to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. (= The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court comes into force.)
- Website of the International Criminal Court
- Full text of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
- Charter of the International Military Tribunal – Annex to the Agreement for the prosecution and punishment of the major war criminals of the European Axis (“London Agreement”)
- Charter of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East
- Statute of the International Criminal Court for the former Yugoslavia and the website of the International Criminal Court for the former Yugoslavia
- Statute of the International Criminal Court for Rwanda and the website of the International Criminal Court for Rwanda
- Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leon and the website the Special Tribunal for Sierra Leon
- Extraordinary Cambers in the Court of Cambodia (ECCC), aka the Khmer Rouge Tribunal and the official website of the ECCC
- Kosovo Regulation 64 Panels: Regarding this judicious system of Kosovo, visit the following websites below, from 1) to 4), among others:
- KKZ (information on the establishment of the Regulation 64 Panels – Yale Law School
- From UNMIK’s judicial programme (= The Kosovo War and Ethnic Crimes Court (KWECC) to the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX)
- Law on the Jurisdiction, Case Selection and Case Allocation of EULEX judges and prosecutors in Kosovo
- Top Kosovo Judicial Bodies, EU Office, EULEX sign second “Compact” to foster the Rule of Law – EULEX-Kosovo.eu
- East Timor Special Panels for Serious Crimes: Regarding this Special Panel, visit the following websites below, a) and b), among others:
- Serious Panel for Serious Crimes (East Timor) – ibanet.org
- Special Panel for Serious Crimes – Timor Leste – Historical benchmark
- The War Crimes Chamber in Bosnia-Herzegovina (aka the Bosnian War Crimes Chamber) of the Court of Bosnia-Herzegovina
- Statute of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon and the website of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon
- The Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal (formerly Iraqi Special Tribunal) and the Law of the Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal
- The War Crimes Chamber in Serbia (aka the Serbian War Crimes Chamber)
Pertinent Documents and Lectures on International Criminal Law:
- International Courts and Tribunals – UN Documentation – International Law – Dag Hammarskjöld Library Research Guide
- Some documents and lectures on international criminal law – UN Audiovisual Library of International Law
Jurisdiction of the ICC:
- Jurisdiction and Admissibility – ICC website
- High Crimes and Misconceptions: The ICC and Non-Party States, by Madeline Morris
- Complementary of the Jurisdiction of the ICC – TamilNet.com
- The ICC and Universal Jurisdiction, by Dr John Laughland
- The Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court over Nationals of Non-Parties: Legal Basis and Limits, by Dapo Akande
- Implications Of Complimentary Jurisdiction On Universal Jurisdiction – International Law Essay – LawTeacher.net
- Exercise of ICC Jurisdiction – The Case of the Universal Jurisdiction – ICCNow.org
United States and the International Criminal Court (ICC):
- United States and the International Criminal Court – Wikipedia
- United States and the International Criminal Court – Global Issues
- US Withdrawal from ICC Undermines Decades of American Leadership, by Justice Richard J. Goldstone
- US Opposition to the International Criminal Court – Global Policy Forum
- The U.S. Should Not Join the International Criminal Court, by Brett D. Schaefer and Steven Groves – The Heritage Foundation
- US Threatens Military Force If Personnel Held At The Hague – Global Issues
- US Pressuring Other Nations Not Surrender Or Transfer US Nationals To The ICC – Global Issues
- Status of US Bilateral Immunity Agreements (BIAs)
- American Service-Members’ Protection Act – Wikipedia
- S.: ‘Hague Invasion Act’ Becomes Law – Human Rights Watch
- The United States and the International Criminal Court: The Bush Administration’s Approach and a Way Forward Under Obama Adm – Human Rights Watch
- Former Counterterrorism Czar Richard Clarke: Bush, Cheney Committed War Crimes – The Huffington Post
- Mandela Slams Bush on Iraq – CBS News
Arguments on the American Exceptionalism and on the Myth of the American Exceptionalism:
- American exceptionalism – Wikipedia
- American exceptionalism – New World Encyclopedia
- On American Exceptionalism, by Harold Hongju Koh – Yale Law School
- American Exceptionalism – A Double Edged Sword, by Seymour Martin Lipset – The Washington Post
- American exceptionalism, explained – The Washington Post
- American Exceptionalism – All About History
- Book: The Limits of International Law, by Jack L. Goldsmith and Eric A. Posner (2005)
- The Myth of American Exceptionalism, by Stephen M. Walt – TMS – Foreign Affairs
- The Myth of American Exceptionalism, by Michael Gene Sullivan
- The Myth of American Exceptionalism, lectured by Howard Zinn, MIT Video (1h. 33 min. 02 sec.)
- The myth of American Exceptionalism, by Richard Cohen – The Washington Post
- Book: The Assault of International Law, by Jens David Ohlin (2015)
For democracy of Hong Kong, visit the following websites, among many others:
- Democratic development in Hong Kong – Wikipedia
- Democracy in Hong Kong – Council on Foreign Relations
- Huge Crowds Turn Out for Pro-Democracy March in Hong Kong, Defying Beijing – The New York Times
- Warsaw Pact [1955 – 1991] – Encyclopedia Britannica
- The Warsaw Pact – Shsu.edu
- NATO and Warsaw Pact – Cold War Events
- The World War That Never Was – NATO vs. Warsaw Pact, by Colonel (R) Wlibur E. Gray
- NATO vs. Warsaw Pact – mrkscoldwarb
- The Two Germanies, NATO, and The Warsaw Pact – Wilson Center
- Assessing the NATO/Warsaw Pact Military Balance – cbo.gov
1978 The Northern Territory in Australia is granted Self-Government.
1976 Portugal grants autonomy to Madeira.
1968 The Nuclear non-proliferation treaty is signed in Washington, D.C., London and Moscow by sixty-two countries.
- Text on the Nuclear Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons – UN Office for Disarmament Affairs
- Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968) – AtomicArchive.com
- 1968 Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty – Weapons Law Encyclopedia
- Treaty on Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons – Encyclopedia Britannica
- The Merger Treaty enters into force, thus fusing the executives of the European Communities (ECSC, EEC, Euratom). From now on, the European Communities will have a single Commission and a single Council. However, both continue to act in accordance with the rules governing each of the Communities.
- European Communities – Wikipedia
- European Community – infoplease.com
- European Community – Althistory – Wikia
- Rwanda and Burundi Becomes Independent Countries – The New York Times
- A history of Rwanda and Burundi, 1894 – 1990 – by Tony Sullivan
- History of Rwanda – HistoryWorld.net
- History of Rwanda – Wikipedia
- Culture of Rwanda – EveryCulture.com
- History of Burundi – HistoryWorld.net
- History of Burundi – Wikipedia
- Culture of Burundi – EveryCulture.com
- History of Ghana – Wikipedia
- History of Ghana – GhanaWeb
- History of Ghana – HitoryWorld.net
- Ghana – infoplease.com
- Culture of Ghana – EveryCulture.com
- Culture of Ghana – Wikipedia
- Ghana – Langue, Culture, Customs and Etiquette – Kwintessential
- Ghanaian people – Wikipedia
- Kofi Atta Annan Profile: GhanaWeb
- Somalia – Wikipedia
- Somalia – New World Encyclopedia
- History of Somalia – Wikipedia
- Somalia – infoplease.com
- Somalia – CriticalThreats.org
- Somalia News Archives – The New York Times
- TOR for Security Assessment in Gedo, Somalia – ReliefWeb.int
- Somalia Civil War – GlobalSecurity.org
- Somalia Security News and Articles – The Los Angeles Times
- Somalia Security Company Directory – SourceSecurity.com
1959 Specific values for the international yard, avoirdupois pound and derived units (e.g. inch, mile and ounce) are adopted after agreement between the U.S.A., the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries.
1959 The Party of the African Federation holds its constitutive conference.
1957 The International Geophysical Year begins.
1949 The merger of two princely states of India, Cochin and Travancore, into the state of Thiru-Kochi (later re-organized as Kerala) in the Indian Union ends more than 1,000 years of princely rule by the Cochin Royal Family.
1947 – The Philippine Air Force is established
1921 The Communist Party of China is founded.
- What is the Meaning of SOS? – BoatSafe.com
- SOS – infoplease.com
- Mayday and SOS – infoplease.com
- Mayday – Wikipedia
- Distress signal – Wikipedia
- Procedure word – Wikipedia
1870 The United States Department of Justice formally comes into existence.
2013 Reports that Pope John Paul II will be canonized are confirmed as his case awaits approval from Pope Francis, and confirmation of an alleged second miracle from the Vatican Congregation for the Causes of Saints.
- John Paul II – w2.vatican.va
- Pope John Paul II – Chronology of Coverage – The New York Times
- In 1947, a young Polish priest named Karol Wojtyla made the pilgrimage to a small town in Puglia to have his confession heard by Padre Pio, the mysterious Italian monk with the Christ-like stigmata wounds on his hands. – TIME
- What did John Paul II do in World War II? – PG News – old.post-gazette.com
- The Holocaust speech by John Paul II – powerfulwords.info
- Pope John Paul II – Jewish Virtual Library
- Another Side of the Pope: John Pau II’s Balkan Legacy – Balkananalysis.com
- Saint John Paul II – Catholic Online
- Why is John Paul II the Fatima Pope? – ewtn.com
1971 USSR performs underground nuclear test.
1966 The French military explodes a nuclear test bomb codenamed Aldébaran in Mururoa, their first nuclear test in the Pacific.
- France’s Nuclear Weapons – NuclearWeaponsArchive.org
- France and Weapons of Mass Destruction – Wikipedia
- Nuclear Weapons – France Nuclear Forces – GlobalSecurity.org
- Walmart – History Timeline – corporate.walmart.com
- History of Walmart – Wikipedia
- A Brief History of Walmart – Reclaim Democracy
- The Economic Impact of Wal-Mart – Global Insight
- Walmart’s Impact on America – EconomicCrisis.org
- Walmart Economy – WalmartEconomy.com
- High-altitude nuclear explosion – Wikipedia
- Nuclear testing at Bikini Atoll – Wikipedia
- Bikini Atoll Nuclear Test Site – UNESCO
- A Short History of the People of Bikini Atoll – BikiniAtoll.com
- Gallery of U.S. Nuclear Tests – NuclearWeaponArchive.org
- List of nuclear weapons tests of the United States – Wikipedia
- Kinkakuji – learn.bowdoin.edu
- Kinkakuji Temple – Japan Travel Advice
- The Temple of the Golden Pavilion – Wikipedia
- Mishima Yukio’s Kinkakuji – The Kyoto Project
- Kinkakuji by Yukio Mishima
- Indian independence movement – Wikipedia
- Indian Independence Movement – A Fight for Political Freedom – tcnj.edu
- Towards Independent India – greetingindia.tripod.com
- Colonial India, Gandhi, and Eventual Independence – wmich.edu
- Amelia Earhart Official Website
- Amelia Earhart – History.com
- What Happened to Amelia Earhart – History.com
- Amelia Earhart: What happened? – The Washington Post
- Amelia Earhart Plane Wreckage Spotted in Sonar Image, Expert Suggests – ABC News
- Amelia Earhart: Biography & Facts About Disappearance – livescience.com
- Amelia Earhart – What Really Happened – MilitaryCorruption.com
1917 The East St. Louis Riots end.
For discussions on the contemporary situation on the Middle East, Islam and/or democracy, visit the following websites, among many others:
- It’s Time to Bring Imperialism Back to the Middle East/The Ruins of Empire in the Middle East, by Robert D. Kaplan
- A Warning against Kaplan’s Argument That “It’s Time to Bring Imperialism Back to the Middle East” by Johan Galtung and Naakow Hayford – Transcend.org/tms
- It’s Time to Bring Imperialism Back to the Middle East (for Israel?) – A Response to Robert D. Kaplan – LateEmpire.com
- Democracy in the Middle East – Wikipedia
- Islamic democracy – Wikipedia
- Islam and Democracy – An Obscure Relationship – Al-Islam.com
- What does the Religion of Peace Teach About Democracy –TheReligionOfPeace.com
- Islam and Democracy: Perceptions and Misperceptions, by Dr. Mohammad Omar Farooq – GlobalWebPost.com
- Islam and Democracy – PoliticalIslam.com
- The Future Democracy in the Middle East: Islamist and Illiberal – The Atlantic.com
- Middle East “Democracy” – RealClearPolitics.com
- The Struggle for Middle East Democracy – aucegyt.edu
- Transition to Democracy in the Middle East – unc.edu
- Why Western democracy never work in the Middle East – The Telegraph
2013 2013 Egyptian coup d’état: President of Egypt Mohamed Morsi is overthrown by the military after four days of protests all over the country calling for Morsi’s resignation, to which he didn’t respond. President of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Adly Mansour is declared acting president.
1996 Stone of Scone is returned to Scotland.
- Shooting Down Iran Air Flight 655 [IR655] – History of Iran – Iran Chamber Society
- From Monitor Archives: The shooting down of Iran Air Flight 655 – The Christian Science Monitor
- If you walked into any high school classroom in the United States and asked the students to describe their country’s relationship with Iran, you’d probably hear words like “enemy” and “threat,” maybe “distrust” and “nuclear.” But ask them what the number 655 has to do with it, and you’d be met with silence. – The Washington Post
- “I will never apologize for the United States — I don’t care what the facts are… I’m not an apologize-for-America kind of guy.” – George Bush, Aug 2 1988: These are the words of the (at time) Vice President of the United States after a civilian aircraft carrying 290 passengers, 66 of which were children, was shot down by the reckless USS Vincennes on July 3, 1988. The coverup and lack of apology, continues to this day. – Daily Kos
- Exclusive — On July 3, 1988, and American warship shot down an Iranian airliner, killing 290 civilians. This is the true story of how it happened — and how the Pentagon tried to cover up the tragic blunder. – Sea of Lies
- Remembering Iran Air Flight 655, by Ali Chenar in Tehran – PBS.org
- William C. Rogers III – Wikipedia
- Storm Center: The USS Vincennes and Iran Air Flight 655: A Personal Account of Tragedy and Terrorism, by Will Rogers, Gene Gregston, and Sharon Rogers – Amazon.com
- Vincennes: A Case Study, by Lieutenant Colonel David Evans, U.S. Marine Corps (Retired) – U.S. Navel Institute
- Brzezinski: According to the official version of history, CIA aid to the Mujahadeen began during 1980, that is to say, after the Soviet army invaded Afghanistan, 24 Dec 1979. But the reality, secretly guarded until now, is completely otherwise: Indeed, it was July 3, 1979 that President Carter signed the first directive for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul. – How Jimmy Carter and I Started the Mujahideen – counterpunch.org
- Former CIA director Robert Gates later admitted in his memoirs that aid to the rebels began in June 1979. In a candid 1998 interview, Zbigniew Brezinski, Carter’s national security adviser, confirmed that U.S. aid to the rebels began before the invasion – Afghanistan, the CIA, bin Laden, and the Taliban, by Phil Gasper – Third World Traveler
- The CIA’s Intervention in Afghanistan – Information Clearing House
- Soviet-Afghan War – Wikipedia
- The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, by James Phillips – The Heritage Foundation
- Afghanistan War – infoplease.com
1940 World War II: In order to stop the ships from falling into German hands the French fleet of the Atlantic based at Mers El Kébir, is bombarded by the British fleet, coming from Gibraltar, causing the loss of three battleships: Dunkerque, Provence and Bretagne. One thousand two hundred sailors perish.
1913 Confederate veterans at the Great Reunion of 1913 reenact Pickett’s Charge; upon reaching the high-water mark of the Confederacy they are met by the outstretched hands of friendship from Union survivors.
1884 Dow Jones and Company publishes its first stock average.
1844 The last pair of great auks is killed.
2014 The European Banking Authority cautions banks against accepting or trading in virtual currencies such as Bitcoin until such transactions can be regulated by the European Commission; regulators cited the risk of fraud and money laundering.
- The Rwandan Genocide – Facts & Summary – History.com
- A Short History of the Rwanda Genocide – About Education
- Genocide in Rwanda – United Human Rights Council
- Rwanda – The wake of a genocide – Rwanda-Genocide.org
- Rwanda Genocide: 100 days of slaughter – BBC News
- The Rwandan Patriotic Front – Human Rights Watch
- Rwandan Patriotic Front – Encyclopedia Britannica
- Rwanda Genocide – Rwandan Patriotic Front – RwandanInformation.Blogspot.com
- The Rwanda “Genocide Fax” Deconstructed, by Emily Willard – NSArchive.WordPress.com
- The US and Genocide in Rwanda 1994 – The National Security Archive
- Clinton documents reveal response to Rwanda genocide criticism – The Guardian
- Refusing to Call It Genocide: Documents Show Clinton Administration Ignored Mass Killing in Rwanda – DemocracyNow.org
- The UN’s Response To The “Genocide Fax” Was An Insult To Intelligence, Rwanda And Humankind – Umuvugizi.WordPress.com
- The UN, Rwanda and ‘Genocide Fax’ – 20 Years Later – Huffington Post
- THE GENOCIDE FAX” from UNAMIR Commander Romeo Dallaire – SudanReeves.org
- The Rwanda Genocide Timeline – TheRwandaGenocide.WordPress.com
1982 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.
1977 The George Jackson Brigade plants a bomb at the main power substation for the Washington state capitol in Olympia, in solidarity with a prison strike at the Walla Walla State Penitentiary Intensive Security Unit
1969 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.
1950 Radio Free Europe first broadcasts.
1946 After 381 years of near-continuous colonial rule by various powers, the Philippines attains full independence from the United States.
1943 World War II: In Gibraltar, a Royal Air Force B-24 Liberator bomber crashes into the sea in an apparent accident moments after takeoff, killing sixteen passengers on board; only the pilot survives.
1903 Dorothy Levitt is reported as the first English woman to compete in a ‘motor race’.
1903 Philippine–American War officially is concluded.
1886 The people of France offer the Statue of Liberty to the people of the United States.
2004 The first Indonesian presidential election is held.
1999 U.S. President Bill Clinton imposes trade and economic sanctions against the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
1996 Dolly the sheep becomes the first mammal cloned from an adult cell.
1989 Iran–Contra affair: Oliver North is sentenced by U.S. District Judge Gerhard A. Gesell to a three-year suspended prison term, two years probation, $150,000 in fines and 1,200 hours community service. His convictions were later overturned.
1975 Cape Verde gains its independence from Portugal.
- American Anthropological Association Statement on “Race”, May 17, 1998
- Race and sports – Wikipedia
- Culture, Race, and Gender in Sports, by Alisa Alexander
- White Americans’ Genetic Explanations for a Perceived Race Difference in Athleticism: The Relation to Prejudice toward and Stereotyping of Blacks, Jane P. Sheldon – Athletic Insight
- Ethnicity and racism in sports – personal.umich.edu
1962 Algeria becomes independent from France.
- History of Algeria (1962 – 99) – Wikipedia
- History of Algeria – Encyclopedia Britannica
- Algeria – infoplease.com
- History of Algeria – NationsOnline.org
- A Synopsis of History of Algeria – Algeria.com
- Algeria – FactMonster.com
- Israeli national law – Wikipedia
- Israel’s Basic Laws: The Law of Return (July 5, 1950) – Jewish Virtual Library
- Law of Return 5710 – 1950 – Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Israel’s Law of Return – PalestineFact.org
- Is the Law of Return Unjust? – The Daily Beast
- Israel’s dilemma?: Who can be an Israeli? – Los Angeles Times
1945 World War II: The liberation of the Philippines is declared.
1811 Venezuela declares independence from Spain.
Satoshi Ashikaga is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment.
(Sources and references: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_29 to July_5; http://www.historyorb.com/events/june/29 to july/5; http://www.brainyhistory.com/days/june_29.html to july_5.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)
- The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
- One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace” through peace journalism.
This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 29 Jun 2015.
Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week in History, is included. Thank you.
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