This Week in History

HISTORY, 3 Aug 2015

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

August 3–9

“It’s never too late to start over. If you weren’t happy with yesterday, try something different today. Don’t stay stuck. Do better.” – Alex Elle


2014  The Islamic State [aka ISIS or ISIL]* captures the Iraqi town of Sinjar, home to the country’s Yazidi religious minority population; residents fled in advance of the extremists, who have demanded that non-Muslim residents convert to Islam or face death.

*For some relevant information on ISIL or ISIS, visit the date of June 29, 2014 of This Week in History.

Sinjar Massacre and Relevant Issues:


2010  Widespread rioting erupts in Karachi, Pakistan, after the assassination of a local politician, leaving at least 85 dead and at least 17 billion Pakistani rupees (US$200 million) in damage.

2007  Former Deputy Director of the Chilean secret police Raúl Iturriaga is captured after having been on the run following a conviction for kidnapping.

2005  Mahmoud Ahmadinejad becomes President of Iran.

2005  President of Mauritania Maaouya Ould Sid’Ahmed Taya is overthrown in a military coup while attending the funeral of King Fahd in Saudi Arabia.

2004  The pedestal of the Statue of Liberty reopens after being closed since the September 11 attacks.

1997  Oued El-Had and Mezouara massacre in Algeria; a total of 116 villagers killed, 40 in Oued El-Had and 76 in Mezouara.

1981  Senegalese opposition parties, under the leadership of Mamadou Dia, launch the Antiimperialist Action Front – Suxxali Reew Mi.

1981  Senegalese opposition parties, under the leadership of Mamadou Dia, launch the Antiimperialist Action Front – Suxxali Reew Mi.

1977  Tandy Corporation announces the TRS-80, one of the world’s first mass-produced personal computers.

1977  The United States Senate begins its hearing on Project MKUltra.

1972  The United States Senate ratifies the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

1961  The New Democratic Party of Canada is founded by the merger of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation and the Canadian Labour Congress.

1960  Niger gains independence from France.

1959  Portugal’s state police force PIDE fires upon striking workers in Bissau, Portuguese Guinea, killing over 50 people.

1958  The nuclear submarine USS Nautilus travels beneath the Arctic ice cap.

1948  Whittaker Chambers accuses Alger Hiss of being a communist and a spy for the Soviet Union.

1944  Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp gases 4,000 gypsies.

1940  World War II: Italian forces begin the invasion of British Somaliland.

1936  A fire wipes out Kursha-2 in the Meshchera Lowlands, Ryazan Oblast, Russia, killing 1,200 and leaving only 20 survivors.

1929  Jiddu Krishnamurti, tagged as the messianicWorld Teacher“, shocks the Theosophy movement by dissolving the Order of the Star, the organisation built to support him.

1914  World War I: Germany declares war against France.

1913  A major labor dispute, known as the Wheatland Hop Riot, starts in Wheatland, California.

1903  Macedonian rebels in Kruševo proclaim the Kruševo Republic, which exists only for 10 days before Ottoman Turks lay waste to the town.

1860  The Second Maori War begins in New Zealand.

1811  First ascent of Jungfrau, third highest summit in the Bernese Alps by brothers Johann Rudolf and Hieronymus Meyer.

1795  Treaty of Greenville is signed.

1645  Thirty Years’ War: the Second Battle of Nördlingen sees French forces defeating those of the Holy Roman Empire.

1601  Long War: Austria captures Transylvania in the Battle of Goroszló.




 2006  A massacre is carried out by Sri Lankan government forces, killing 17 employees of the French INGO Action Against Hunger (known internationally as Action Contre la Faim, or ACF).

2002  Soham murders: Ten-year-old school girls Jessica Chapman and Holly Wells go missing from the town of Soham, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom.

1995  Operation Storm [= Operacija Oluja] begins in Croatia.

Operation Storm (Oljuja):

Krajina, Republic of Serbian Krajina, Croatian Serbs/Krajina Serbs:

Operation Storm: To Regain the Croatian ethnic Serb Controlled Territories of the Krajina Region in Croatia, Or To Implement the Ethnic Cleansing of the Croatian ethnic Serbs in the Krajina Region, Or Both? :

Third Parties’ Involvement in the Operation Storm:

Mandate and Functions of UNCRO (United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia):

The Case on the Operation Storm at the ICTY (International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia):

International Court of Justice – Case of the Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide (Croatia vs. Serbia):

1987  The Federal Communications Commission rescinds the Fairness Doctrine which had required radio and television stations to present controversial issues “fairly”.

1984  The Republic of Upper Volta changes its name to Burkina Faso.

1979  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1977  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1977  US President Jimmy Carter signs legislation creating the United States Department of Energy.

1969  Vietnam War: At the apartment of French intermediary Jean Sainteny in Paris, American representative Henry Kissinger and North Vietnamese representative Xuan Thuy begin secret peace negotiations. The negotiations will eventually fail.

1967  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1967  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1965  The Constitution of Cook Islands comes into force, giving the Cook Islands self-governing status within New Zealand.

1964  Gulf of Tonkin incident: U.S. destroyers USS Maddox and USS Turner Joy report coming under attack in the Gulf of Tonkin.

1964  American civil rights movement: Civil rights workers Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman and James Chaney are found dead in Mississippi after disappearing on June 21.

1947  The Supreme Court of Japan is established.

1946  An earthquake of magnitude 8.0 hits northern Dominican Republic. One hundred are killed and 20,000 are left homeless. An earthquake of magnitude 8.0 hits northern Dominican Republic. One hundred are killed and 20,000 are left homeless.

1944  The Holocaust: A tip from a Dutch informer leads the Gestapo to a sealed-off area in an Amsterdam warehouse, where they find and arrest Jewish diarist Anne Frank, her family, and four others.

1936  Prime Minister of Greece Ioannis Metaxas suspends parliament and the Constitution and establishes the 4th of August Regime.

1924  Diplomatic relations between Mexico and the Soviet Union are established.

1915  World War I: The German 12th Army occupies Warsaw during the Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive and the Great Retreat of 1915.

1914  World War I: Germany invades Belgium. In response, Belgium and the United Kingdom declare war on Germany. The United States declares its neutrality.

1889  The Great Fire of Spokane, Washington destroys some 32 blocks of the city, prompting a mass rebuilding project.

1873  American Indian Wars: While protecting a railroad survey party in Montana, the United States 7th Cavalry, under Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer clashes for the first time with the Cheyenne and Lakota people near the Tongue River; only one man on each side is killed.

1854  The Hinomaru is established as the official flag to be flown from Japanese ships.

1824  The Battle of Kos is fought between Turkish and Greek forces.

1821  Atkinson & Alexander publish The Saturday Evening Post for the first time as a weekly newspaper.

1796  French Revolutionary Wars: Napoleon leads the French Army of Italy to victory in the Battle of Lonato.

1791  The Treaty of Sistova is signed, ending the Ottoman–Habsburg wars.




 2010  Ten members of International Assistance Mission Nuristan Eye Camp team are killed by persons unknown in Kuran wa Munjan District of Badakhshan Province in Afghanistan.

1995  Yugoslav Wars: The city of Knin, Croatia, a significant Serb stronghold, is captured by Croatian forces during Operation Storm. The date is celebrated in Croatia as Victory Day.

Also see “Operation Storm [= Operacija Oluja] begins in Croatia” in the entry of the date of August 4, 1995.

1989  General elections are held in Nicaragua with the Sandinista National Liberation Front winning a majority.

1982  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1981  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1981  President Ronald Reagan fires 11,359 striking air-traffic controllers who ignored his order for them to return to work.

1979  In Afghanistan, Maoists undertake an attempted military uprising.

1974  Vietnam War: The U.S. Congress places a $1 billion limit on military aid to South Vietnam.

1971  The first Pacific Islands Forum (then known as the “South Pacific Forum”) is held in Wellington, New Zealand, with the aim of enhancing cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean.

1969  Mariner program: Mariner 7 makes its closest fly-by of Mars (3,524 kilometers).

1966  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1965  The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 begins as Pakistani soldiers cross the Line of Control dressed as locals.

1964  Vietnam War: Operation Pierce Arrow: American aircraft from carriers USS Ticonderoga and USS Constellation bomb North Vietnam in retaliation for strikes against U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin.

1963  The United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union sign a nuclear test ban treaty.

1962  Apartheid in South Africa: Nelson Mandela is jailed. He would not be released until 1990.

1960  Burkina Faso, then known as Upper Volta, becomes independent from France.

1958  Herbert Hoover eclipses John Adams as having the longest retirement of any former U.S President until that time. Hoover would live another six years, his record 31 years 7 months 16 days retirement has since been eclipsed by Jimmy Carter.

1949  In Ecuador, an earthquake destroys 50 towns and kills more than 6,000.

1944  World War II: The Nazis begin a week-long massacre of anywhere between 40,000 and 100,000 civilians and prisoners of war in Wola, Poland.

1944  World War II: Polish insurgents liberate a German labor camp in Warsaw, freeing 348 Jewish prisoners.

1944  World War II: Possibly the biggest prison breakout in history occurs as 545 Japanese POWs attempt to escape outside the town of Cowra, New South Wales, Australia.

1941  World War II: The Battle of Smolensk concludes with Germany capturing about 300,000 Soviet Red Army prisoners.

1940  World War II: The Soviet Union formally annexes Latvia.

1925  Plaid Cymru is formed with the aim of disseminating knowledge of the Welsh language that is at the time in danger of dying out.

1916  World War I: Battle of Romani: Allied forces, under the command of Archibald Murray, defeat an attacking Ottoman army under the command of Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein, securing the Suez Canal and beginning the Ottoman retreat from the Sinai Peninsula.

1914  World War I: The guns of Point Nepean fort at Port Phillip Heads in Victoria (Australia) fire across the bows of the Norddeutscher Lloyd steamer SS Pfalz which is attempting to leave the Port of Melbourne in ignorance of the declaration of war and she is detained; this is said to be the first Allied shot of the War.

1914  World War I: The German minelayer SS Königin Luise lays a minefield about 40 miles (64 km) off the Thames Estuary (Lowestoft). She is intercepted and sunk by the British light-cruiser HMS Amphion.

1906  Persian Constitutional Revolution: Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar, King of Iran, agrees to convert the government to a constitutional monarchy.




 2014  Two former Khmer Rouge leaders, Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea, have been convicted of war crimes during the period of Cambodian genocide in the 1970s; a UN-supported war crimes tribunal sentenced the two men to life in prison; both men are in their 80s.

2011  A march in protest of the death of Mark Duggan in Tottenham, London, ends in a riot, sparking off a wave of rioting throughout the country over the following four nights.

2008  A military junta led by Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz stages a coup d’état in Mauritania, overthrowing president Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi.

1996  NASA announces that the ALH 84001 meteorite, thought to originate from Mars, contains evidence of primitive life-forms.

1991  Takako Doi, chair of the Social Democratic Party, becomes Japan’s first female speaker of the House of Representatives.

1991  Tim Berners-Lee releases files describing his idea for the World Wide Web. WWW debuts as a publicly available service on the Internet.

1990  Gulf War: The United Nations Security Council orders a global trade embargo against Iraq in response to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait.

1988  The Tompkins Square Park Riot in New York City spurs a reform of the NYPD, held responsible for the event.

1976  Zulfikar Ali Bhutto lays the foundation stone of Port Qasim, Karachi.

1970  France performs nuclear test at Mururoa Island.

1965  US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Voting Rights Act of 1965 into law.

1964  Prometheus, a bristlecone pine and the world’s oldest tree, is cut down.

1962  Jamaica becomes independent from the United Kingdom.

1960  Cuban Revolution: Cuba nationalizes American and foreign-owned property in the nation.

1958  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Johnston Island.

1946  US officially submits to jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.

United States’ Withdrawal from the International Court of Justice:

American Exceptionalism:

Myth of American Exceptionalism:

1945  World War II: Hiroshima, Japan is devastated when the atomic bombLittle Boy” is dropped by the United States B-29 Enola Gay. Around 70,000 people are killed instantly, and some tens of thousands die in subsequent years from burns and radiation poisoning.

Hiroshima Travel Guide:

Hiroshima Radioactive Level Today:

The Environmental Effects of the Atomic Bomb:

See the sections of The Atomic Bomb and its Environmental Impact and The Atomic Bomb and its Impact on the Human Health in the entry of Nagasaki Atomic Bombing of the date of AUGUST 9, 1945.

YouTube videos on the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb case:

Nuclear Zero Lawsuits of the Republic of Marshall Islands (2014):

1944  The Warsaw Uprising occurs on August 1. It is brutally suppressed and all able-bodied men in Kraków are detained afterwards to prevent a similar uprising, the Kraków Uprising, that was planned but never carried out.

1940  Estonia was illegally annexed by the Soviet Union.

1926  Gertrude Ederle becomes the first woman to swim across the English Channel.

1917  World War I: Battle of Mărăşeşti between the Romanian and German armies begins.

1915  World War I: Battle of Sari Bair: The Allies mount a diversionary attack timed to coincide with a major Allied landing of reinforcements at Suvla Bay.

1914  World War I: Serbia declares war on Germany; Austria declares war on Russia.

1914  World War I: First Battle of the Atlantic: Two days after the United Kingdom had declared war on Germany over the German invasion of Belgium, ten German U-boats leave their base in Heligoland to attack Royal Navy warships in the North Sea.

1912  The Bull Moose Party meets at the Chicago Coliseum.

1901  Kiowa land in Oklahoma is opened for white settlement, effectively dissolving the contiguous reservation.

1890  At Auburn Prison in New York, murderer William Kemmler becomes the first person to be executed by electric chair.

1870  Franco-Prussian War: The Battle of Wörth results in a decisive Prussian victory.

1870  Franco-Prussian War: The Battle of Spicheren is fought, resulting in a Prussian victory.

1861  The United Kingdom annexes Lagos, Nigeria.

1825  Bolivia gains independence from Spain.

1824  Battle of Junin Peru.



 2011  Nepal, India exercises a smoking ban in public places.

2008  The start of the Russo-Georgian War over the territory of South Ossetia.

1999  The Chechnya-based Islamic International Brigade invades the neighboring Russian Dagestan.

1998  The United States embassy bombings in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya kill approximately 212 people.

1987  Lynne Cox becomes first person to swim from the United States to the Soviet Union, crossing from Little Diomede Island in Alaska to Big Diomede in the Soviet Union.

1981  The Washington Star ceases all operations after 128 years of publication.

1978  US President Jimmy Carter declares a federal emergency at Love Canal due to toxic waste that had been negligently disposed of.

1976  Viking program: Viking 2 enters orbit around Mars.

1966  Race riots occur in Lansing, Michigan.

1964  Vietnam War: The U.S. Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution giving US President Lyndon B. Johnson broad war powers to deal with North Vietnamese attacks on American forces.

1962  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1960  Côte d’Ivoire (aka Ivory Coast) becomes independent from France.

1959  Explorer program: Explorer 6 launches from the Atlantic Missile Range in Cape Canaveral, Florida.

1957  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1955  Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering, the precursor to Sony, sells its first transistor radios in Japan.

1947  Thor Heyerdahl‘s balsa wood raft the Kon-Tiki, smashes into the reef at Raroia in the Tuamotu Islands after a 101-day, 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi) journey across the Pacific Ocean in an attempt to prove that pre-historic peoples could have traveled from South America.

1946  The government of the Soviet Union presented a note to its Turkish counterparts which refuted the latter’s sovereignty over the Turkish Straits, thus beginning the Turkish Straits crisis.

1944  IBM dedicates the first program-controlled calculator, the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (known best as the Harvard Mark I).

1942  World War II: The Battle of Guadalcanal begins as the United States Marines initiate the first American offensive of the war with landings on Guadalcanal and Tulagi in the Solomon Islands.

1940  World War II: Alsace-Lorraine is annexed by the Third Reich.

1938  The Holocaust: The building of Mauthausen concentration camp begins.

1933  The Simele massacre: The Iraqi government slaughters over 3,000 Assyrians in the village of Simele. The day becomes known as Assyrian Martyrs Day.

1930  The last confirmed lynching of blacks in the Northern United States occurs in Marion, Indiana. Two men, Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith, are killed.

1927  The Peace Bridge opens between Fort Erie, Ontario and Buffalo, New York.

1909  Alice Huyler Ramsey and three friends become the first women to complete a transcontinental auto trip, taking 59 days to travel from New York, New York to San Francisco, California.

1890  Anna Månsdotter becomes the last woman in Sweden to be executed, for the 1889 Yngsjö murder.

1819  Simón Bolívar triumphs over Spain in the Battle of Boyacá.

1791  American troops destroy the Miami town of Kenapacomaqua near the site of present-day Logansport, Indiana in the Northwest Indian War.

1789  The United States Department of War is established.

1782  George Washington orders the creation of the Badge of Military Merit to honor soldiers wounded in battle. It is later renamed to the more poetic Purple Heart.

1714  The Battle of Gangut: The first important victory of the Russian Navy.



 2013  The Pentagon will furlough 650,000 civilian employees without pay for six days this year after receiving warnings that mandatory budget cuts might idle defense workers for a longer period of time.

2012  Archeologist excavating the Templo Mayor, one of the Aztec‘s main temples in their capital city of Tenochtitlan (now Mexico city), make an unprecedented find – the skeleton of a young woman inside a burial, surrounded by piles of 1,789 human bones

2012  Viktor Yanukovych, Ukraine’s President, signs a controversial law concerning the status of 18 languages as regional and minority languages; the law allows officials in Russian-speaking regions of the country to use Russian in documents and at public events.

2010  2010 China floods: A mudslide in Zhugqu County, Gansu, China, kills more than 1,400 people.

2008  The opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics take place in Beijing.

2000  Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley is raised to the surface after 136 years on the ocean floor and 30 years after its discovery by undersea explorer E. Lee Spence.

1997  The UN approves a sale-price formula for Iraqi crude oil sales under the oil-for-food plan.

1990  Iraq occupies Kuwait and the state is annexed to Iraq. This would lead to the Gulf War shortly afterward.

The Date of Iraq’s Annexation of Kuwait:

There seems to be some unclarity or confusion on the information regarding the date of Iraq’s annexation of Kuwait. Some websites indicate that its date was 2 August 1990, the day Iraq invaded Kuwait. On this question, this article relies on the information on According to, the timeline, from August 2 to 28, is as follows:

  • August 2: Iraq invades Kuwait and seizes Kuwaiti oil fields. Kuwait’s emir flees. Iraq masses troops along the Saudi border. U.N. condemns Iraq’s invasion and demands withdrawal.
  • August 8: [Saddam] Hussein proclaims annexation of Kuwait. Hussein proclaims annexation of Kuwait.
  • August 28: Iraq declares Kuwait its 19th province, renames Kuwait City al-Kadhima.

Some Background Information on Iraq’s Invasion of Kuwait:

Some Pertinent Information and/or Arguments:

1989  Space Shuttle program: STS-28 Mission: Space Shuttle Columbia takes off on a secret five-day military mission.

1988  The “8888 Uprising” occurs in Burma.

1974  President Richard Nixon, in a nationwide television address, announces his resignation from the office of the President of the United States effective noon the next day.

1973  Kim Dae-jung, a South Korean politician and later president of South Korea, is kidnapped.

1967  The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is founded by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.

1963  The Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), the current ruling party of Zimbabwe, is formed by a split from the Zimbabwe African People’s Union.

1960  South Kasai secedes from the Congo.

1957  USSR offers Syria economic/military aid.

1946  First flight of the Convair B-36, the world’s first mass-produced nuclear weapon delivery vehicle, the heaviest mass-produced piston-engine aircraft, with the longest wingspan of any military aircraft, and the first bomber with intercontinental range.

1945  Soviets declare war on Japan; invade Manchuria.

1945  Truman signs United Nations Charter.

1945  Nuremberg Principles signed.

1942  Quit India Movement is launched in India against the British rule in response to Mohandas Gandhi‘s call for swaraj or complete independence.

1940  The “Aufbau Ost” directive is signed by Wilhelm Keitel.

1929   The German airship Graf Zeppelin begins a round-the-world flight.

1927  The predecessor to the Philippine Stock Exchange opens.

1918  World War I: The Battle of Amiens begins a string of almost continuous victories with a push through the German front lines (Hundred Days Offensive).

1908  Wilbur Wright makes his first flight at a racecourse at Le Mans, France. It is the Wright Brothers’ first public flight.

1874  The Republic of Ploiești, a failed Radical-Liberal rising against Domnitor Carol of Romania.

1844  The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, headed by Brigham Young, is reaffirmed as the leading body of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).

1794  Joseph Whidbey leads an expedition to search for the Northwest Passage near Juneau, Alaska.



 2014  Michael Brown, an unarmed 18-year-old African American male in Ferguson, Missouri, was shot and killed by a Ferguson police officer, sparking protests and unrest in the city.

2006  At least 21 suspected terrorists were arrested in the 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot that happened in the United Kingdom. The arrests were made in London,Birmingham, and High Wycombe in an overnight operation.

1999  Russian President Boris Yeltsin fires his Prime Minister, Sergei Stepashin, and for the fourth time fires his entire cabinet.

1993  The Liberal Democratic Party of Japan loses a 38-year hold on national leadership.

1974  As a direct result of the Watergate scandalRichard Nixon becomes the first President of the United States to resign from office. His Vice PresidentGerald Ford, becomes president.

1971   The Troubles: The British Army in Northern Ireland launches Operation Demetrius. Hundreds of people are arrested and interned, thousands are displaced, and twenty are killed in the violence that followed.

1968  Yugoslav president Tito visits Prague.

1965  Singapore is expelled from Malaysia and becomes the only country to date to gain independence unwillingly.

1945  The Red Army (Soviet Armed Forces) invades Japanese-occupied Manchuria.

1945  World War II: Nagasaki is devastated when an atomic bomb, Fat Man, is dropped by the United States B-29 Bockscar. 35,000 people are killed outright, including 23,200-28,200 Japanese war workers, 2,000 Korean forced workers, and 150 Japanese soldiers.

City of Nagasaki:

Atomic Bomb and Nagasaki:

The Atomic Bomb and its Environmental Impact:

The Atomic Bomb and its Impact on the Human Health:

1944  Continuation War: The Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive, the largest offensive launched by Soviet Union against Finland during the Second World War, ends to a strategic stalemate. Both Finnish and Soviet troops at the Finnish front dug to defensive positions, and the front remains stable until the end of the war.

1944  The United States Forest Service and the Wartime Advertising Council release posters featuring Smokey Bear for the first time.

1942  World War II: Battle of Savo IslandAllied naval forces protecting their amphibious forces during the initial stages of the Battle of Guadalcanal are surprised and defeated by an Imperial Japanese Navy cruiser force.

1942  Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi is arrested in Bombay by British forces, launching the Quit India Movement.

1936  Summer Olympic Games: Games of the XI OlympiadJesse Owens wins his fourth gold medal at the games.

1914  Start of the Battle of Mulhouse, part of a French attempt to recover the province of Alsace and the first French offensive of World War I.

1892  Thomas Edison receives a patent for a two-way telegraph.

1877  Indian Wars: Battle of Big Hole – A small band of Nez Percé Indians clash with the United States Army

1854  Henry David Thoreau publishes Walden.

1842  The Webster–Ashburton Treaty is signed, establishing the United States–Canada border east of the Rocky Mountains.

1814  Indian Wars: the Creek sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson, giving up huge parts of Alabama and Georgia.

1810  Napoleon annexes Westphalia as part of the First French Empire.


Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

(Sources and references:  to August_9; to august/9; to august_9.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace” through peace journalism.


This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 3 Aug 2015.

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