This Week in History

HISTORY, 27 Jun 2016

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

TWH logo history

Jun 27-Jul 3


“Modern man’s besetting temptation is to sacrifice his direct perceptions and spontaneous feelings to his reasoned reflections; to prefer in all circumstances the verdict of his intellect to that of his immediate intuitions.” – Aldous Huxley



2008  In a highly scrutizined election President of Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe is re-elected in a landslide after his opponent Morgan Tsvangirai had withdrawn a week earlier, citing violence against his party‘s supporters.

2008 Zimbabwe Presidential Election:


History of Zimbabwe:

Economy of Zimbabwe:

2007  The Brazilian Military Police invades the favelas of Complexo do Alemão in an episode which is remembered as the Complexo do Alemão massacre.

2007  Tony Blair resigns as British Prime Minister, a position he had held since 1997.

Timelines of Tony Blair’s Government:

1991  Slovenia, after declaring independence two days before is invaded by Yugoslav troops, tanks, and aircraft starting the Ten-Day War.

Slovenia’s Ten-Day War of 1991:

1981  African Charter on Human and People’s Rights (in force on 21 October 1986) is adopted.

African Charter on Human and People’s Rights:        

1981  The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China issues its “Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People’s Republic of China”, laying the blame for the Cultural Revolution on Mao Zedong.

1977  France grants independence to Djibouti.


Djibouti-France Relations:

History of Djibouti:

Economy of Djibouti:

1974  US president Richard Nixon visits the Soviet Union.

Nixon’s Visit to the Soviet Union in 1974:

1973  The President of Uruguay Juan María Bordaberry dissolves Parliament and establishes a dictatorship.

1954  The Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant, the Soviet Union‘s first nuclear power station, opens in Obninsk, near Moscow.

1952  Guatemala passes Decree 900, ordering the redistribution of uncultivated land.

1950  The United States decides to send troops to fight in the Korean War.

Truman’s Decision:

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1946  In the Canadian Citizenship Act, the Parliament of Canada establishes the definition of Canadian citizenship.

1941  German troops capture the city of Białystok during Operation Barbarossa.

Operation Barbarossa:

1941  Romanian governmental forces, allies of Nazi Germany, launch one of the most violent pogroms in Jewish history in the city of Iaşi, (Romania), resulting in the murder of at least 13,266 Jews.

1927  Prime Minister of Japan Tanaka Giichi leads a conference to discuss Japan‘s plans for China; later, a document detailing these plans, the “Tanaka Memorial” is leaked, although it is now considered a forgery.

1905  Battleship Potemkin uprising: sailors start a mutiny aboard the battleship Potemkin, denouncing the crimes of autocracy, demanding liberty and an end to war.

1898  The first solo circumnavigation of the globe is completed by Joshua Slocum from Briar Island, Nova Scotia.

1844 Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, and his brother Hyrum Smith, are murdered by a mob at the Carthage, Illinois jail.

1806  British forces take Buenos Aires during the first British invasions of the Río de la Plata.

1760  Cherokee warriors defeat British forces at the Battle of Echoee near present-day Otto, North Carolina during the Anglo-Cherokee War.

1759  General James Wolfe begins the siege of Quebec.

1743  War of the Austrian Succession: Battle of Dettingen: On the battlefield in Bavaria, George II personally leads troops into battle. The last time that a British monarch would command troops in the field.

1556  The thirteen Stratford Martyrs are burned at the stake near London for their Protestant beliefs.




2009  Honduran president Manuel Zelaya is ousted by a local military coup following a failed request to hold a referendum to rewrite the Honduran Constitution. This was the start of the 2009 Honduran political crisis.

2008  The inaugural meeting of the Community Assembly of Kosovo and Metohija.

2006  Montenegro is announced as the 192nd member state of the United Nations.

Montenegro and the United Nations:

History of Montenegro:

2001  Slobodan Milošević is deported to the ICTY to stand trial.

Slobodan Milošević at ICTY:

1990  An amendment is brought to the Constitution of Croatia changing the status of Serbs from constituent people (konstitutivni narod) of the Croatian nation to national minority.

Constitution of Croatia:

1989  On the 600th anniversary of the battle of Kosovo, Serbian leader Slobodan Milošević delivers the Gazimestan speech on the site of the historic battle.

Milošević’s Gazimestan speech:

Why Is Kosovo Important to Serbs?

History of Kosovo and Kosovo Serbs:

1987  For the first time in military history, a civilian population is targeted for chemical attack when Iraqi warplanes bombed the Iranian town of Sardasht.

First Use of Chemical Weapons against Civilians:

Chemical Weapon Convention:

1981  A powerful bomb explodes in Tehran, killing 73 officials of Islamic Republic Party.

1976  The Angolan court sentences US and UK mercenaries to death sentences and prison terms in the Luanda Trial.

1969  Stonewall Riots begin in New York City, marking the start of the Gay Rights Movement.

1967  Israel annexes East Jerusalem.

East Jerusalem:

1964  Malcolm X forms the Organization of Afro-American Unity.

1956  In Poznań, workers from HCP factory went to the streets, sparking one of the first major protests against communist government both in Poland and Europe.

1950  Korean War: North Korean Army conducted Seoul National University Hospital Massacre.

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1950  Korean War: Packed with its own refugees fleeing Seoul and leaving their 5th Division stranded, South Korean forces blow up the Hangang Bridge to in attempt to slow North Korea’s offensive.

Hangang Bridge Bombing:

1950  Korean War: Suspected communist sympathizers, argued to be between 100,000 and 200,000 are executed in the Bodo League massacre.

Bodo League Massacre:

1950  Korean War: Seoul is captured by North Korean troops.

For more information on the Korean War and its timelines, see1950  Korean War: North Korean Army conducted Seoul National University Hospital Massacre

Capture of Seoul by North Korea:

1948  The Cominform circulates the “Resolution on the situation in the Communist Party of Yugoslavia”; Yugoslavia is expelled from the Communist bloc.

Yugoslavia’s Expulsion from COMINFORM:

1945  Poland‘s Soviet-allied Provisional Government of National Unity is formed over a month after V-E Day.

1942  World War II: Nazi Germany started its strategic summer offensive against the Soviet Union, codenamed Case Blue

Case Blue:

1940  Romania cedes Bessarabia (current-day Moldova) to the Soviet Union after facing an ultimatum.

1936  The Japanese puppet state of Mengjiang is formed in northern China.

1926  Mercedes-Benz is formed by Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz merging their two companies.

1922  The Irish Civil War begins with the shelling of the Four Courts in Dublin by Free State forces.

From Irish Civil War to the Irish War of Independence:

Irish War of Independence:

History of Ireland:

1921  The Serbian King Alexander I proclaims the new Constitution of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, known thereafter as the Vidovdan Constitution (Vidovdanski ustav).


King Alexander I:

1919  The Treaty of Versailles is signed ending World War I.

1914  Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his wife Sophie are assassinated in Sarajevo by Bosnia Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip, the casus belli of World War I.

Franz Ferdinand’s Assassination in Sarajevo:

World War I:

Causes of World War I:

Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) Empire:

History of the Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) Empire:

1895  El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua form the Greater Republic of Central America.

1882  The Anglo-French Convention of 1882 marks the territorial boundaries between Guinea and Sierra Leone.

1881  Secret treaty between Austria and Serbia. “June 28, 1881, a secret treaty between Austria-Hungary and Serbia is signed with Serbia earning the right to be recognized as a monarchy in exchange of surrendering its independence to the Habsburg Empire.

Roots of Sarajevo: Austro-Hungary Empire and Serbia:

Serbia and World War I:

Causes of World War I:

Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) Empire:

History of the Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) Empire:

1865  1865 – The Army of the Potomac is disbanded.

1807  Second British invasion of the Río de la Plata; John Whitelock lands at Ensenada on an attempt to recapture Buenos Aires and is defeated by the locals.

1745  War of the Austrian Succession: A New England colonial army captures Louisbourg, New France, after a forty-seven-day siege (New Style).

1389  The Ottoman Empire defeated the Serbian army in the Battle of Kosovo on the Kosovo field. Both Sultan Murad and Prince Lazar were slain in battle. The Kosovo Myth became important in forming Serbian identity.




2014  The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (= ISIL, aka ISIS) self-declared its caliphate in Syria and northern Iraq.

ISIS and the United States:

Training, Support and Funding:

ISIS and Israel:

Supply of Weapons to ISIS:

How ISIS Uses Oil to Finance Its Terror Operations

Buyers of ISIS Oil:

2006  Hamdan v. Rumsfeld: The U.S. Supreme Court rules that President George W. Bush‘s plan to try Guantanamo Bay detainees in military tribunals violates U.S. and international law.

Guantánamo Bay Prison:

Human Rights at Guantánamo:

Hamdan vs. Rumsfeld

1994  US reopens Guantanamo Naval Base to process refugees.

Guantanamo Naval Base:

History of the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base:

Human Rights in the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base:

1984  USSR offers to start talking about banning SDI.


1976  The Conference of Communist and Workers Parties of Europe convenes in East Berlin

1976  The Seychelles become independent from the United Kingdom.


Foreign Relations of Seychelles:

History of Seychelles:

Economy of Seychelles:

1975  Steve Wozniak tested his first prototype of Apple I computer.

1974  Mikhail Baryshnikov defects from the Soviet Union to Canada while on tour with the Kirov Ballet.

Mikhail Baryshnikov’s Defection:

1974  Isabel Perón is sworn in as the first female President of Argentina. Her husband, President Juan Perón, had delegated responsibility due to weak health and died two days later.

1956  The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 is signed, officially creating the United States Interstate Highway System.

1949  South Africa begins implementing apartheid, its racial segregation rules.

History of Apartheid (1) – Overview – :

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination:

One of the Historical Cases – Nuremberg Laws of Nazi Germany:

History of Apartheid (2):

Anti-Apartheid Movement:

Racism Case Studies (1): Sports and Racism:

Racism Case Studies (2): Beauty Contest and Racism:

1949  US troops withdraw from Korea after WW II.

Withdrawal of the US Troops from Korea:

1945  Carpathian Ruthenia is annexed by the Soviet Union.

1943  FDR writes to Manhattan Project physicist Dr. Robert Oppenheimer.

Manhattan Project:

1916  The Irish Nationalist and British diplomat Roger Casement is sentenced to death for his part in the Easter Rising.

History of Ireland:

Path toward the Irish War of Independence:

Easter Rising of 1916:

1915  The North Saskatchewan River flood of 1915 is the worst flood in Edmonton history.

1914  Jina Guseva attempts to assassinate Grigori Rasputin at his home town in Siberia.

1913  The attack by Bulgarian General Michael Savov on Greek and Serbian positions leads to beginning of the second Balkan War

1895  Doukhobors burn their weapons as a protest against conscription by the Tsarist Russian government.

1888  George Edward Gouraud records Handel‘s Israel in Egypt onto a phonograph cylinder, thought for many years to be the oldest known recording of music.

1881  In Sudan, Muhammad Ahmad declares himself to be the Mahdi, the messianic redeemer of Islam.

1880  France annexes Tahiti.

1874  Greek politician Charilaos Trikoupis publishes a manifesto in the Athens daily Kairoi entitled “Who’s to Blame?” in which he lays out his complaints against King George. He is elected Prime Minister of Greece the next year.

1807  Russo-Turkish War: Admiral Dmitry Senyavin destroys the Ottoman fleet in the Battle of Athos.




1997  The United Kingdom transfers sovereignty over Hong Kong to the People’s Republic of China.

Transfer of Sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997:

History of Hong Kong:

1990  East Germany and West Germany merge their economies.

Unification of German Economy:

Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany:

German Unification and the Unification Treaty:

German Reunification:


Foreign Relations of Germany:

History of Germany:

Economy of Germany:

1989  Sudan suspends interim constitution following coup.


Foreign Relations of Sudan:

Sudan and the United Nations:

Human Rights in Sudan:

History of Sudan:

Sudan People’s Liberation Army/Movement:

Economy of Sudan:

1985  Thirty-nine American hostages from the hijacked TWA Flight 847 are freed in Beirut after being held for 17 days.

1977  The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization disbands.

1972  The first leap second is added to the UTC time system.

1966  The National Organization for Women, the United States’ largest feminist organization, is founded.

1963  Ciaculli massacre: a car bomb, intended for Mafia boss Salvatore Greco, kills seven police officers and military personnel near Palermo.

1960  Congo gains independence from Belgium.

Belgian Congo:

History of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:

Democratic Republic of the Congo:

Foreign Relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:

Economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:

1944  World War II: The Battle of Cherbourg ends with the fall of the strategically valuable port to American forces.

1937  The world’s first emergency telephone number, 999, is introduced in London

1936  Emperor Haile Selassie of Abyssinia appeals for aid to the League of Nations against Italy‘s invasion of his country.

1934  – The Night of the Long Knives, Adolf Hitler‘s violent purge of his political rivals in Germany, takes place.

1922  In Washington D.C., U.S. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes and Dominican Ambassador Francisco J. Peynado sign the Hughes-Peynado agreement, which ends the United States occupation of the Dominican Republic.

1921  U.S. President Warren G. Harding appoints former President William Howard Taft Chief Justice of the United States.

1917  World War I: Greece declares war on the Central Powers.

1908  The Tunguska event occurs in remote Siberia.

Tunguska Event of 1908:

1905  Albert Einstein publishes the article On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, in which he introduces special relativity.

Einstein’s Papers:

Einstein’s Special Relativity:

On Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity:

1886  The first transcontinental train trip across Canada departs from Montreal. It arrives in Port Moody, British Columbia on July 4.

1864  U.S. President Abraham Lincoln grants Yosemite Valley to California for “public use, resort and recreation”.

1860  The 1860 Oxford evolution debate at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History takes place.

Oxford Evolution Debate of 1860:

1794  Native American forces under Blue Jacket attack Fort Recovery.

1758  Seven Years’ War: The Battle of Domstadtl takes place.

Battle of Domstaldtl:

Seven Years’ War:




2013  Neptune‘s moon S/2004 N 1 is discovered.

S/2004 N1:

2013  The United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) begins its operative peacekeeping mandate in Mali.


2013  Croatia becomes the 28th member of the European Union.


History of Croatia:

Economy of Croatia:

Foreign Relations of Croatia:

Croatia and the EU:

2008  Rioting erupts in Mongolia in response to allegations of fraud surrounding the 2008 legislative elections.

Mongolia Election of 2008 and the Riot on July 1, 2008:


History of Mongolia:

Foreign Relations of Mongolia:

Mongolia and the United Nations:

Economy of Mongolia:

2007  Smoking in England is banned in all public indoor spaces.

2007  The Concert for Diana is held at the new Wembley Stadium in London and broadcast in 140 countries.

2006  The first operation of Qinghai–Tibet Railway in China.

2004  Saturn orbit insertion of Cassini–Huygens begins at 01:12 UTC and ends at 02:48 UTC.

2003  Over 500,000 people protest against efforts to pass anti-sedition legislation in Hong Kong.

2002  The International Criminal Court is established to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. (= The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court comes into force.)

International Criminal Court (ICC):

Compare the International Criminal Court with other international judicial institutions in international criminal law:

International Military Tribunals in Nüremberg and in Tokyo:

International Criminal Courts for former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda:

Hybrid Courts and Internationalized Domestic Courts and Tribunals:

  1. Serious Panel for Serious Crimes (East Timor) –
  2. Special Panel for Serious Crimes – Timor Leste – Historical benchmark

Pertinent Documents and Lectures on International Criminal Law:

Jurisdiction of the ICC:

United States and the International Criminal Court (ICC):

Arguments on the American Exceptionalism and on the Myth of the American Exceptionalism:

1997  China resumes sovereignty over the city-state of Hong Kong, ending 156 years of British colonial rule.

For democracy of Hong Kong, visit the following websites, among many others:

1991  The Warsaw Pact is officially dissolved at a meeting in Prague.

1990  German reunification: East Germany accepts the Deutsche Mark as its currency, thus uniting the economies of East and West Germany.

Introduction of Deutsch Mark to (former) East Germany:

Unification of German Economy:

Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany:

German Unification and the Unification Treaty:

German Reunification:


Foreign Relations of Germany:

History of Germany:

Economy of Germany:

1984  The PG-13 rating is introduced by the MPAA.

1979  Sony introduces the Walkman.

1978  The Northern Territory in Australia is granted Self-Government.

1976  Portugal grants autonomy to Madeira.

1970  President General Yahya Khan abolishes One-Unit of West Pakistan restoring the provinces.

1968  The Nuclear non-proliferation treaty is signed in Washington, D.C., London and Moscow by sixty-two countries.

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty:

1968 The United States Central Intelligence Agency‘s Phoenix Program is officially established.

1967 The European Community is formally created out of a merger with the Common Market, the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Commission.

European Community:

1963  The British Government admits that former diplomat Kim Philby had worked as a Soviet agent.

1962  Rwanda and Burundi become independent.

Rwanda and Burundi:

History of Rwanda:

1960  Ghana becomes a Republic and Kwame Nkrumah becomes its first President as Queen Elizabeth II ceases to be its Head of state.

History of Ghana:


Foreign Relations of Ghana:

History of Ghana:

Economy of Ghana:

1960  The independent Somali Democratic Republic, commonly known as Somalia, is formed out of former British and Italian territories.


1959 Specific values for the international yard, avoirdupois pound and derived units (e.g. inch, mile and ounce) are adopted after agreement between the U.S.A., the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries.

1959  The Party of the African Federation holds its constitutive conference.

1957  The International Geophysical Year begins.

1949  The merger of two princely states of India, Cochin and Travancore, into the state of Thiru-Kochi (later re-organized as Kerala) in the Indian Union ends more than 1,000 years of princely rule by the Cochin Royal Family.

1947  – The Philippine Air Force is established

1942  World War II: First Battle of El Alamein.

1921  The Communist Party of China is founded.

1916  World War I: First day on the Somme: On the first day of the Battle of the Somme 19,000 soldiers of the British Army are killed and 40,000 wounded.

1908  SOS is adopted as the international distress signal.


1898  Spanish–American War: The Battle of San Juan Hill is fought in Santiago de Cuba.

Battle of San Juan Hill:

Spanish-American War:

Timeline of the Spanish-American War:

1879 Charles Taze Russell publishes the first edition of the religious magazine The Watchtower.

1874  The Sholes and Glidden typewriter, the first commercially successful typewriter, goes on sale.

1870  The United States Department of Justice formally comes into existence.




2013  The International Astronomical Union names Pluto’s fourth and fifth moons, Kerberos and Styx.

2013  Reports that Pope John Paul II will be canonized are confirmed as his case awaits approval from Pope Francis, and confirmation of an alleged second miracle from the Vatican Congregation for the Causes of Saints.

Pope John Paul II:

John Paul II – Road to Sainthood:

2005  The Live 8 benefit concerts takes place in the G8 states and in South Africa, More than 1,000 musicians performed and are broadcast on 182 television networks and 2,000 radio networks.

1986  Rodrigo Rojas and Carmen Gloria Quintana were burnt alive during a street demonstration against the dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet in Chile.

1976  Fall of the Republic of Vietnam; Communist North Vietnam declares their union to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Socialist Republic of Vietnam:

1971  USSR performs underground nuclear test at Komi, Russia.

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

List of Nuclear Weapons Test Sites:

1966  The French military explodes a nuclear test bomb codenamed Aldébaran in Mururoa, their first nuclear test in the Pacific.

France’s Nuclear Test at Mururoa (Overview):


History of France Nuclear Tests in the Pacific:

France’s Nuclear Tests:

1964  US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 meant to prohibit segregation in public places.

Civil Rights Act of 1964:

History of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States – Overview:

Civil Rights Movements of Various Ethnic Minorities in the United States:

Nonviolence, Movements against Racism, and More:

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination:

1962  The first Wal-Mart store opens for business in Rogers, Arkansas.


1958  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Bikini Atoll.

US Atmospheric Nuclear Test at Bikini Atoll (Overview):

Operation Hardtack I:

Nuclear Tests at Bikini Atoll:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1956  US performs nuclear test at Enwetak (atmospheric tests).

Enwetak Nuclear Test Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1950  The Golden Pavilion at Kinkaku-ji in Kyoto, Japan burns down.


1940  Hitler gave his first tentative orders regarding a possible invasion of Britain.

Operation Sea Lion:

1940  Indian independence leader Subhas Chandra Bose is arrested and detained in Calcutta.

Indian Independence Movement:

1937  Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan are last heard from over the Pacific Ocean while attempting to make the first equatorial round-the-world flight.

Amelia Earhart:

What Happened to Amelia Earhart? :

Achievements of Amelia Earhart:

1934  The Night of the Long Knives ends with the death of Ernst Röhm.

1921  World War I: U.S. President Warren G. Harding signs the Knox–Porter Resolution formally ending the war between the United States and Imperial Germany.

1917  The East St. Louis Riots end.

1900  The first Zeppelin flight takes place on Lake Constance near Friedrichshafen, Germany.

1897  Italian scientist Guglielmo Marconi obtains a patent for radio in London.

1890  The U.S. Congress passes the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

1881  Charles J. Guiteau shoots and fatally wounds U.S. President James Garfield, who eventually dies from an infection on September 19.

1871 Victor Emmanuel II of Italy enters Rome after having conquered it from the Papal States.

1853  The Russian Army crossed the Pruth river into the Danubian Principalities, Moldavia and Wallachia—providing the spark that set off the Crimean War.

1839  Abdülmecid I became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam.

1839  Twenty miles off the coast of Cuba, 53 rebelling African slaves led by Joseph Cinqué take over the slave ship Amistad.

1823  Bahia Independence Day: The end of Portuguese rule in Brazil, with the final defeat of the Portuguese crown loyalists in the province of Bahia.

1822  Thirty-five slaves are hanged in South Carolina, including Denmark Vesey, after being accused of organizing a slave rebellion.




2013  2013 Egyptian coup d’état: President of Egypt Mohamed Morsi is overthrown by the military after four days of protests all over the country calling for Morsi’s resignation, to which he didn’t respond. President of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Adly Mansour is declared acting president.

1996  Stone of Scone is returned to Scotland.

1988  The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey is completed, providing the second connection between the continents of Europe and Asia over the Bosphorus.

1988  United States Navy warship USS Vincennes shoots down Iran Air Flight 655 over the Persian Gulf, killing all 290 people aboard.

Fate of the Iran Air Flight 655:

1979  U.S. President Jimmy Carter signs the first directive for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul.

Secret Aid to the Opponents of the Kabul Regime:


History of Afghanistan:

Economy of Afghanistan:

1970  The Troubles: The “Falls Curfew” begins in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

The Troubles of 1970:

History of Ireland:

Irish War of Independence:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

History of the IRA:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1967  The Aden Emergency: The Battle of the Crater in which the British Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders retake the Crater district following the Arab Police Mutiny.

1952  The Constitution of Puerto Rico is approved by the Congress of the United States.

Puerto Rico:

History of Puerto Rico:

Economy of Puerto Rico:

1944  World War II: Minsk is liberated from Nazi control by Soviet troops during Operation Bagration.

1940  World War II: In order to stop the ships from falling into German hands the French fleet of the Atlantic based at Mers El Kébir, is bombarded by the British fleet, coming from Gibraltar, causing the loss of three battleships: Dunkerque, Provence and Bretagne. One thousand two hundred sailors perish.

1938  United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicates the Eternal Light Peace Memorial and lights the eternal flame at Gettysburg Battlefield.

1938  World speed record for a steam railway locomotive is set in England, by the Mallard, which reaches a speed of 125.88 miles per hour (202.58 km/h).

1913  Confederate veterans at the Great Reunion of 1913 reenact Pickett’s Charge; upon reaching the high-water mark of the Confederacy they are met by the outstretched hands of friendship from Union survivors.

1898  Spanish–American War: The Spanish fleet, led by Pascual Cervera y Topete, is destroyed by the U.S. Navy in Santiago, Cuba.

Spanish-American War:

Timeline of the Spanish-American War:

1886  The New York Tribune becomes the first newspaper to use a linotype machine, eliminating typesetting by hand.

1886  Karl Benz officially unveils the Benz Patent Motorwagen – the first purpose-built automobile.

1884  Dow Jones and Company publishes its first stock average.

1866  Austro-Prussian War is decided at the Battle of Königgratz, resulting in Prussia taking over as the prominent German nation from Austria.

Battle of Königgratz:

Austro-Prussian War:

1849  The French enter Rome in order to restore Pope Pius IX to power. This would prove a major obstacle to Italian unification.

1848  Slaves are freed in the Danish West Indies (now U.S. Virgin Islands) by Peter von Scholten in the culmination of a year-long plot by enslaved Africans.

1844  The last pair of great auks is killed.


Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

(Sources and references:   to_july_3;   to july/3;   to july_3.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.


This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 27 Jun 2016.

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