This Week in History

HISTORY, 11 Jul 2016

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

TWH logo history

July 11-17


“Recently, I’ve come to realize; some people have eagle potential, but a chicken mind. They are well equipped to reach maximum levels of success, but they have determined within themselves to stay in a safe place of comfort… The eagle mentality soars high going beyond the call of duty. It does not believe in impossibilities. It defies all reason and logic; taking bold risks without the fear of failure… The eagle realizes if it begins to dive, all it has to do is open its wings and it will fly… The eagle was somewhat sad for the chicken. However, having an eagle’s mentality is to know when to let those who choose to remain in a state of bareness; go… Greatness will take you to places where others do not dare or are not permitted to go. Allow your thoughts to take you to heights of greatness.”   – Latrina Johnson



2012  Astronomers announce the discovery of Styx, the fifth moon of Pluto.

2006  Mumbai train bombings: Two hundred nine people are killed in a series of bomb attacks in Mumbai, India.

1995  The Srebrenica massacre is carried out.

Srebrenica Genocide Overview:

Srebrenica Genocide:

Arguments that deny or question “Srebrenica”:

Controversies over “Srebrenica”:

YouTube video on the Srebrenica Genocide:

YouTube video on the war in Bosnia overall: a Case of a Bosnian Serb soldier:

War in Bosnia-Herzegovina:

Bosnian War on the Ground:

Timeline of the War in Bosnia-Herzegovina:

1991  Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty (1989) comes into force.

Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty (1989):

1985  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR’s Nuclear Tests at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1977  Martin Luther King, Jr. is posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Martin Luther King, Jr.:

1971  Copper mines in Chile are nationalized.

1965  Israeli Mapai-party nominates David Ben-Gurion.

David Ben-Gurion:

1962  First transatlantic satellite television transmission.

1962  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

Nuclear Tests at the Nevada Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1962  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Christmas Island.

Nuclear Tests at Christmas Islands:

US Atmospheric Nuclear Tests Overview:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Various Weapons Tests and Storage at Johnston Atoll, and Permanent Contamination:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1960  Congo Crisis: The State of Katanga breaks away from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Congo Crisis of 1960:

1960  France legislates for the independence of Dahomey (later Benin), Upper Volta (later Burkina) and Niger.


History of Benin:

Economy of Benin:

History of Burkina Faso:

Burkina Faso:

Foreign Relations of Burkina Faso:

Economy of Burkina Faso:

History of Niger:


Foreign Relations of Niger:

Niger and the United Nations:

Economy of Niger:

1957  Prince Karim Husseini Aga Khan IV inherits the office of Imamat as the 49th Imam of Shia Imami Ismai’li worldwide, after the death of Sir Sultan Mahommed Shah Aga Khan III.

1950  Pakistan joins the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank.


History of Pakistan:

Economy of Pakistan:

Foreign Relations of Pakistan:

Pakistan-United States Relations:

World Bank and the IMF:

Problems of the World Bank and the IMF:

1947  The Exodus 1947 heads to Palestine from France.

Exodus 1947:

1943  World War II: Allied invasion of SicilyGerman and Italian troops launch a counter-attack on Allied forces in Sicily.

1943  Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army within the Reichskommissariat Ukraine (Volhynia) peak.

1940  World War II: Vichy France regime is formally established. Philippe Pétain becomes Prime Minister of France.

Vichy Government (a.k.a. Vichy France):

Vichy Government and the Holocaust Collaboration:

1934  Engelbert Zaschka of Germany flies his large human-powered aircraft, the Zaschka Human-Power Aircraft, about 20 meters at Berlin Tempelhof Airport without assisted take-off.

1921  Former President of the United States William Howard Taft is sworn in as 10th Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, becoming the only person ever to hold both offices.

1921  The Red Army captures Mongolia from the White Army and establishes the Mongolian People’s Republic.


History of Mongolia:

Foreign Relations of Mongolia:

Mongolia and the United Nations:

Economy of Mongolia:

1921  A truce in the Irish War of Independence comes into effect.

From Irish Civil War to the Irish War of Independence:

Irish War of Independence:

History of Ireland:

1920  In the East Prussian plebiscite the local populace decides to remain with Weimar Germany.

1919  The eight-hour day and free Sunday become law for workers in the Netherlands.

1897  Salomon August Andrée leaves Spitsbergen to attempt to reach the North Pole by balloon. He later crashes and dies.

1893  A revolution led by the liberal general and politician, José Santos Zelaya, takes over state power in Nicaragua.

1889  Tijuana, Mexico, is founded.

1833  Noongar Australian aboriginal warrior Yagan, wanted for the murder of white colonists in Western Australia, is killed.




2012  The Turaymisah massacre kills 250 people during a Syrian military operation in a village within the Hama Governorate.

2007  US Army Apache helicopters perform airstrikes in Baghdad, Iraq; footage from the cockpit is later leaked to the Internet.

2006  Hezbollah initiates Operation True Promise.

1979  The island nation of Kiribati becomes independent from United Kingdom.


History of Kiribati:

Economy of Kiribati:

1975  São Tomé and Príncipe declare independence from Portugal.

1971  The Australian Aboriginal Flag is flown for the first time.

1970  A fire consumes the wooden home of Norwegian composer Geirr Tveitt and irretrievably destroys about 90 percent of his output.

1960  Orlyonok, the main Young Pioneer camp of the Russian SFSR, is founded.

1948  Arab–Israeli War: Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion orders the expulsion of Palestinians from the towns of Lod and Ramla.

1943  World War II: Battle of ProkhorovkaGerman and Soviet forces engage in one of the largest tank engagements of all time.

1920  The Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty is signed. Soviet Russia recognizes independent Lithuania.

History of Lithuania:

Independence of Lithuania (1991):

Russia and the Baltic States:

1917  The Bisbee Deportation occurs as vigilantes kidnap and deport nearly 1,300 striking miners and others from Bisbee, Arizona.

1913  Second Balkan War: Serbian forces begin their siege of the Bulgarian city of Vidin; the siege is later called off when the war ends.

Second Balkan War:

First Balkan War:

Balkan Wars:

1879  The National Guards Unit of Bulgaria is founded.

1812  War of 1812: The United States invades Canada at Windsor, Ontario.

1806 Liechtenstein is given full sovereignty after its accession to the Confederation of the Rhine.

1806  Sixteen German imperial states leave the Holy Roman Empire and form the Confederation of the Rhine.




2008  Battle of Wanat begins when Taliban & al-Qaeda guerrillas attack US Army & Afghan National Army troops in Afghanistan. The U.S. deaths were, at that time, the most in a single battle since the beginning of operations in 2001.

2003  French DGSE personnel abort an operation to rescue Íngrid Betancourt from FARC rebels in Colombia, causing a political scandal when details are leaked to the press.

1985  The Live Aid benefit concert takes place in London, England, United Kingdom and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as well as other venues such as Sydney, Australia and Moscow, Russia, Soviet Union.

1980  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

Semipalitinsk Nuclear Test Site:

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1977  Somalia declares war on Ethiopia, starting the Ethiopian-Somali War.

1973  Alexander Butterfield reveals the existence of the “Nixon tapes” to the special Senate committee investigating the Watergate break in.

1962  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests (Overview):

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1942  5,000 Jews of Rovno Polish Ukraine, executed by Nazis.

Execution of Jews of Rovno Polish Ukraine:

1941  World War II: Montenegrins begin a popular uprising against the Axis powers (Trinaestojulski ustanak).

History of Montenegro:

1919  The British airship R34 lands in Norfolk, England, completing the first airship return journey across the Atlantic in 182 hours of flight.

1905  The verdict in the six-month-long Smarthavicharam trial of Kuriyedath Thathri is pronounced, leading to the excommunication of 65 men of various castes.

1878  Treaty of Berlin: The European powers redraw the map of the Balkans. Serbia, Montenegro and Romania become completely independent of the Ottoman Empire.

1854  In the Battle of Guaymas, Mexico, General José María Yáñez stops the French invasion led by Count Gaston de Raousset-Boulbon.




2003  In an effort to discredit U.S. Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson, who had written an article critical of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Washington Post columnist Robert Novak reveals that Wilson’s wife Valerie Plame is a CIA “operative”.

2002  French President Jacques Chirac escapes an assassination attempt unscathed during Bastille Day celebrations.

2000  A powerful solar flare, later named the Bastille Day event, causes a geomagnetic storm on Earth.

1992  386BSD is released by Lynne Jolitz and William Jolitz beginning the Open Source Operating System Revolution. Linus Torvalds releases his Linux soon afterwards.

1984  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

Semipalitinsk Test Site:

USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests:

197USSR performs nuclear test at Atyrau, Kazakhstan.

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1976  Capital punishment is abolished in Canada.

Death Penalty in Canada:

1972  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

  • Note that this underground nuclear test, if actually performed, is not recorded in the 1972 Soviet nuclear tests – Wikipedia. Therefore, the fact about this test, whether it was performed or not, is unconfirmed.

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1969  The United States $500, $1,000, $5,000 and $10,000 bills are officially withdrawn from circulation.

1962  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

Nuclear Tests at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

1958  Iraqi Revolution: In Iraq the monarchy is overthrown by popular forces led by Abdul Karim Kassem, who becomes the nation’s new leader.

Iraqi Revolution of 1958:

1957  Rawya Ateya takes her seat in the National Assembly of Egypt, thereby becoming the first female parliamentarian in the Arab world.

1950  Korean War: North Korean troops initiate the Battle of Taejon.

Battle of Taejon:

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1948  Palmiro Togliatti, leader of the Italian Communist Party, is shot and wounded near the Italian Parliament.

1944  US assault on Coutances Cotentin.

1943  In Diamond, Missouri, the George Washington Carver National Monument becomes the first United States National Monument in honor of an African American.

1933  The Nazi eugenics begins with the proclamation of the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring that calls for the compulsory sterilization of any citizen who suffers from alleged genetic disorders.

1933  Gleichschaltung: In Germany, all political parties are outlawed except the Nazi Party.

Adolf Hitler:

History of Nazi Germany:

History of Germany:


1928  New Vietnam Revolutionary Party is founded in Huế amid providing some of the communist party‘s most important leaders in its early years.

1916  Start of the Battle of Delville Wood as an action within the Battle of the Somme, which was to last until 3 September 1916.

1900  Armies of the Eight-Nation Alliance capture Tientsin during the Boxer Rebellion.

1881  Billy the Kid is shot and killed by Pat Garrett outside Fort Sumner.

1874  The Chicago Fire of 1874 burns down 47 acres of the city, destroying 812 buildings, killing 20, and resulting in the fire insurance industry demanding municipal reforms from Chicago’s city council.




2014  Mohammed Zakari, a leader of Islamist militant group Boko Haram, has been arrested by Nigerian police; Boko Haram is implicated in hundreds of deaths and kidnappings, and Zakari is wanted for the recent killings of seven people.

Mohammed Zakari and Boko Harm:

Boko Haram:

2006  Twitter is launched, becoming one of the largest social media platforms in the world.


2003  AOL Time Warner disbands Netscape. The Mozilla Foundation is established on the same day

2002  Anti-Terrorism Court of Pakistan hands down the death sentence to British born Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh and life terms to three others suspected of murdering The Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.

2002  “American TalibanJohn Walker Lindh pleads guilty to supplying aid to the enemy and to possession of explosives during the commission of a felony.

1991  US troops leave northern Iraq.

US Troops’ Withdrawal from Northern Iraq:

1991 Gulf War and Its Timeline:

1979  US President Jimmy Carter gives his so-called malaise speech, where he characterizes the greatest threat to the country as “this crisis in the growing doubt about the meaning of our own lives and in the loss of a unity of purpose for our nation” but in which he never uses the word malaise.

1975  Space Race: Apollo–Soyuz Test Project features the dual launch of an Apollo spacecraft and a Soyuz spacecraft on the first joint Soviet-United States human-crewed flight. It was both the last launch of an Apollo spacecraft, and the Saturn family of rockets.

1974  In Nicosia, Cyprus, Greek Junta-sponsored nationalists launch a coup d’état, deposing President Makarios and installing Nikos Sampson as Cypriot president.

1971  The United Red Army is founded in Japan.

196USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

196Vietnam War: The United States and South Vietnam begin Operation Hastings to push the North Vietnamese out of the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone.

Vietnam War in 1966:

Operation Hastings:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1957  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Test Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

195Eighteen Nobel laureates sign the Mainau Declaration against nuclear weapons, later co-signed by thirty-four others.

Mainau Declaration of 1955:

1954  First flight of the Boeing 367-80, prototype for both the Boeing 707 and C-135 series.

1927  Massacre of July 15, 1927: Eighty-nine protesters are killed by the Austrian police in Vienna.

1922  Japanese Communist Party is established in Japan.

1920  The Polish Parliament establishes Silesian Voivodeship before the Polish-German plebiscite.

1918  World War I: The Second Battle of the Marne begins near the River Marne with a German attack.

1916  In Seattle, Washington, William Boeing and George Conrad Westervelt incorporate Pacific Aero Products (later renamed Boeing).

1910  – In his book Clinical Psychiatry, Emil Kraepelin gives a name to Alzheimer’s disease, naming it after his colleague Alois Alzheimer.

1838  Ralph Waldo Emerson delivers the Divinity School Address at Harvard Divinity School, discounting Biblical miracles and declaring Jesus a great man, but not God. The Protestant community reacts with outrage.

1834  The Spanish Inquisition is officially disbanded after nearly 356 years.

1815  Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon Bonaparte surrenders aboard HMS Bellerophon.

1799  The Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard during Napoleon‘s Egyptian Campaign.

1789  Gilbert du Motier, marquis de Lafayette, is named by acclamation Colonel General of the new National Guard of Paris.

1741  Aleksei Chirikov sights land in Southeast Alaska. He sends men ashore in a longboat, making them the first Europeans to visit Alaska.




2014  The US adds new sanctions against Russia, prohibiting certain Russian international businesses from accessing US capital markets; the move extends previous sanctions targeting specific individuals and their companies.

2009  Industrial espionage by Chinese: “Dongfan Chung, a former engineer employed by Boeing and Rockwell International, was found guilty of economic espionage on this day. Chung, a Chinese born naturalized United States citizen was accused of giving secretive information about space shuttle technology to China.” –

1999  John F. Kennedy, Jr., piloting a Piper Saratoga aircraft, dies when his plane crashes into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Martha’s Vineyard. His wife Carolyn Bessette-Kennedy and sister-in-law Lauren Bessette are also killed.

1990  The Parliament of the Ukrainian SSR declares state sovereignty over the territory of the Ukrainian SSR.

Ukraine Politics and Historical Overview:

History of Ukraine:

Ukraine-Russian Relations:

1981  Mahathir Mohamad becomes Malaysia‘s 4th Prime Minister.

1979  Iraqi President Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr resigns and is replaced by Saddam Hussein.

Saddam Hussein:

Saddam Hussein’s Trial:

1973  Watergate scandal: Former White House aide Alexander Butterfield informs the United States Senate that President Richard Nixon had secretly recorded potentially incriminating conversations.

Watergate Scandal:

Watergate Tapes:

Watergate Scandal Timelines:

1969  Apollo program: Apollo 11, the first mission to land astronauts on the Moon, is launched from the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Kennedy, Florida.

1965  South Vietnamese Colonel Phạm Ngọc Thảo—an undetected communist spy—was hunted down and killed after being sentenced to death in absentia for a February 1965 coup attempt against Nguyễn Khánh.

Communism and the Vietnam War:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1951  The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger is published for the first time by Little, Brown and Company.

1950  Chaplain–Medic massacre: American POWs were massacred by North Korean Army.

Chaplain-Medic Massacre:

1948  The storming of the cockpit of the Miss Macao passenger seaplane, operated by a subsidiary of the Cathay Pacific Airways, marks the first aircraft hijacking of a commercial plane.

1948  Following token resistance, the city of Nazareth, revered by Christians as the hometown of Jesus, capitulates to Israeli troops during Operation Dekel in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

1945  Manhattan Project: The Atomic Age begins when the United States successfully detonates a plutonium-based test nuclear weapon near Alamogordo, New Mexico.

1942  Holocaust: Vel’ d’Hiv Roundup (Rafle du Vel’ d’Hiv): The government of Vichy France orders the mass arrest of 13,152 Jews who are held at the Winter Velodrome in Paris before deportation to Auschwitz.

1931  Emperor Haile Selassie I signs the first constitution of Ethiopia.

1927  Augusto César Sandino leads a raid on U.S. Marines and Nicaraguan Guardia Nacional that had been sent to apprehend him in the village of Ocotal, but is repulsed by one of the first dive-bombing attacks in history.

1909  Persian Constitutional Revolution: Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar is forced out as Shah of Persia and is replaced by his son Ahmad Shah Qajar.

1809  The city of La Paz, in what is today Bolivia, declares its independence from the Spanish Crown during the La Paz revolution and forms the Junta Tuitiva, the first independent government in Spanish America, led by Pedro Domingo Murillo.




2014  Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, a Boeing 777, crashes near the border of Ukraine and Russia after being shot down. All 298 people on board are killed.

1998  A diplomatic conference adopts the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, establishing a permanent international court to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression.

1998  Papua New Guinea earthquake: A tsunami triggered by an undersea earthquake destroys 10 villages in Papua New Guinea killing an estimated 3,183, leaving 2,000 more unaccounted for and thousands more homeless.

1996  TWA Flight 800: Off the coast of Long Island, New York, a Paris-bound TWA Boeing 747 explodes, killing all 230 on board.

1989  Holy See–Poland relations are restored.

Holy See – Poland Relations:

1989  First flight of the B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber.

1985  Founding of the EUREKA Network by former head of states François Mitterrand (France) and Helmut Kohl (Germany).

1981  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1979  Nicaraguan dictator General Anastasio Somoza Debayle resigns and flees to Miami, Florida.

Anastasio Somoza Debayle:

History of Nicaragua:

1976  The opening of the Summer Olympics in Montreal is marred by 25 African teams boycotting the New Zealand team.Most sovereign African, and a few other, nations boycotted the Montreal Games when the International Olympic Committee (IOC) would not support, as had other international sporting organizations, the banning from competition of those countries whose athletes had participated in sporting events in South Africa as long as apartheid continued. The New Zealand rugby team had been touring South Africa during apartheid and were excluded from international sporting events due to implementation of the anti-apartheid policy.”

Sports and Racism:

History of Apartheid (South Africa):

1976  East Timor is annexed, and becomes the 27th province of Indonesia.

Annex of East Timor of 1976 and Its Background (Overview):

Indonesian Invasion of East Timor on December 07, 1975:

US Approval of Indonesia’s Invasion of East Timor in 1975:

Behind the Invasion: Australia’s Tacit Approval and the UK’s Support:

History of East Timor:

East Timor:

Human Rights of East Timor:

1975  Apollo–Soyuz Test Project: An American Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft dock with each other in orbit marking the first such link-up between spacecraft from the two nations.

1973  King Mohammed Zahir Shah of Afghanistan is deposed by his cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan while in Italy undergoing eye surgery.

1968  A revolution occurs in Iraq when Abdul Rahman Arif is overthrown and the Ba’ath Party is installed as the governing power in Iraq with Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr as the new Iraqi President.

1962  Nuclear weapons testing: The “Small Boy” test shot Little Feller I becomes the last atmospheric test detonation at the Nevada National Security Site.

Little Feller I, David Crockett and the Operation Sunbeam:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Test Sites (including the Nevada Test Site):

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nuclear Tests by the United States during the Cold War:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States – History and the Future:

1958  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Enwetak.

US Nuclear Tests at Enewetak (Overview):

Enewetak Nuclear Test Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1948  The South Korean constitution is proclaimed.

1945  World War II: The main three leaders of the Allied nations, Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin, meet in the German city of Potsdam to decide the future of a defeated Germany.

1944  World War II: Napalm incendiary bombs are dropped for the first time by American P-38 pilots on a fuel depot at Coutances, near Saint-Lô, France.

1936  Spanish Civil War: An Armed Forces rebellion against the recently elected leftist Popular Front government of Spain starts the civil war.

Spanish Civil War:

Timelines of the Spanish Civil War:

1932  Altona Bloody Sunday: A riot between the Nazi Party paramilitary forces, the SS and SA, and the German Communist Party ensues.

Altona Bloody Sunday of 1932:

1918  Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his immediate family and retainers are murdered by Bolshevik Chekists at the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg, Russia.

Execution of the Romanov Family (July 4, 1918 in Julian calendar; July 17 in Gregorian calendar):

1899  NEC Corporation is organized as the first Japanese joint venture with foreign capital.

1896  Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi, the Indian sage, at age 16, spontaneously initiates a process of self-enquiry that culminates within a few minutes in his own permanent awakening.

1867  Harvard School of Dental Medicine is established in Boston, Massachusetts. It is the first dental school in the U.S. that is affiliated with a university.

1791  Members of the French National Guard under the command of General Lafayette open fire on a crowd of radical Jacobins at the Champ de Mars, Paris, during the French Revolution, killing as many as 50 people.

1771  Bloody Falls Massacre: Chipewyan chief Matonabbee, traveling as the guide to Samuel Hearne on his Arctic overland journey, massacres a group of unsuspecting Inuit.

1794  The sixteen Carmelite Martyrs of Compiègne are executed 10 days prior to the end of the French Revolution’s Reign of Terror.


Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

(Sources and references:   to_july_17;   to july/17;   to july_17.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.


This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 11 Jul 2016.

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