This Week in History

HISTORY, 18 Jul 2016

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

TWH logo history

Jul 18-24




2013  The Government of Detroit, with up to $20 billion in debt, files for the largest municipal bankruptcy in U.S. history.

2012  At least seven people are killed and 32 others are injured after a bomb explodes on an Israeli tour bus at Burgas Airport, Bulgaria.

1996  Battle of Mullaitivu: the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam capture the Sri Lanka Army‘s base, killing over 1200 soldiers.

Battle of Mullaitivu:

Liberation of Tigers of Tamil Eelam (a.k.a. Tamil Tigers):

Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of the Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of Sri Lanka:

Sri Lanka:

Foreign Relations of Sri Lanka:

Economy of Sri Lanka:

1995  Dreaming of You by Selena, released posthumously, became the best-selling Latin album in the United States. It was noted by Billboard magazine as a “historic event” for Latin music.

1994  Rwandan Genocide: The Rwandan Patriotic Front takes control of Gisenyi and north western Rwanda, forcing the interim government into Zaire and ending the genocide.

Rwandan Genocide (Overview):

Rwandan Genocide:

Discussions on the Rwandan Genocide:

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda:

Genocide Convention of 1948:

1994  The bombing of the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (Argentine Jewish Community Center) in Buenos Aires kills 85 people (mostly Jewish) and injures 300.

AMIA Bombing of 1994:

1992  The ten victims of the La Cantuta massacre disappear from their university in Lima.

1984  McDonald’s massacre in San Ysidro, California: in a fast-food restaurant, James Oliver Huberty opens fire, killing 21 people and injuring 19 others before being shot dead by police.

198Two hundred sixty-eight campesinos (“peasants” or “country people”) are slain in the Plan de Sánchez massacre in Ríos Montt‘s Guatemala.

Plan de Sánchez Massacre:

1968  Intel is founded in Mountain View, California.

1966  Human spaceflight: Gemini 10 is launched from Cape Kennedy on a 70-hour mission that includes docking with an orbiting Agena target vehicle.

1944  World War II: Hideki Tōjō resigns as Prime Minister of Japan because of numerous setbacks in the war effort.

Hideki Tojo and His Policy toward War:

International Military Tribunal for the Far East:

Judgement by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, and Other Pertinent Documents:

Radhabinod Pal and His Judgement:

War Crimes:

History of War Crimes:

Development of the “Crimes of Aggression” or the “Crimes against Peace” in the Modern Times:

Some Pertinent Articles:

1942  World War II: the Germans test fly the Messerschmitt Me 262 using its jet engines for the first time.

1936  An army uprising in Spanish Morocco starts Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War:

1925  Adolf Hitler publishes his personal manifesto Mein Kampf.

Adolf Hitler and Mein Kampf:

Adolf Hitler:

History of Nazi Germany:

History of Germany:


1914  The US Congress forms the Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps, giving official status to aircraft within the U.S. Army for the first time.

1870  The First Vatican Council decrees the dogma of papal infallibility.

First Vatican Council:

1862  First ascent of Dent Blanche, one of the highest summits in the Alps.

1857  Louis Faidherbe, French governor of Senegal, arrives to relieve French forces at Kayes, effectively ending El Hajj Umar Tall‘s war against the French.

1841  Coronation of Emperor Pedro II of Brazil, on 18 July.

1812  The Treaties of Orebro ends both the Anglo-Russian and Anglo-Swedish Wars.




2001  Michael Brunet discovers the skull of Sahelanthropus tchadensis, thought to be the oldest known species in the human family tree, in the Djurab Desert, Chad. It lived 6-7 million years ago, about the same time as the last common ancestor to apes and humans.

Sahelanthropus tchadensis:

1997  The Troubles: The Provisional Irish Republican Army resumes a ceasefire to end their 25-year campaign to end British rule in Northern Ireland.

The Troubles:

IRA’s Terrorism/The Troubles:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA):

History of the IRA:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1992  A car bomb placed by mafia with collaboration of Italian intelligence kills Judge Paolo Borsellino and five members of his escort

1983  The first three-dimensional reconstruction of a human head in a CT is published.

1981  In a private meeting with U.S. President Ronald Reagan, French Prime Minister François Mitterrand reveals the existence of the Farewell Dossier, a collection of documents showing that the Soviets had been stealing American technological research and development.

Farewell Dossier:

1979  The Sandinista rebels overthrow the government of the Somoza family in Nicaragua.

Nicaragua’s Revolution in 1979, Sandinista and the Somoza Family:

Politics of Nicaragua:

Iran-Contra Affair and Nicaragua:

History of Nicaragua:

Economy of Nicaragua:

1976  Sagarmatha National Park in Nepal is created.

1972  Dhofar Rebellion: British SAS units help the Omani government against Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman rebels in the Battle of Mirbat.

Battle of Mirbat and the British SAS:

Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman:

1964  Vietnam War: at a rally in Saigon, South Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyễn Khánh calls for expanding the war into North Vietnam.

Vietnam War in 1964:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1964  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1964:

Nuclear Tests at Semipalitinsk:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1963  Joe Walker flies a North American X-15 to a record altitude of 106,010 meters (347,800 feet) on X-15 Flight 90. Exceeding an altitude of 100 km, this flight qualifies as a human spaceflight under international convention.

Joe Walker:


1961  Tunisia imposes a blockade on the French naval base at Bizerte; the French would capture the entire town four days later.

Bizerte Crisis of July 1961:

1957  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Tests (Overview):

Nevada Test Sites:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1947  Korean politician Lyuh Woon-hyung is assassinated.

1947  The Prime Minister of the shadow Burmese government, Bogyoke Aung San and 6 of his cabinet and 2 non-cabinet members are assassinated by Galon U Saw.

Aung San:


History of Burma/Myanmar:

Burmese Monarchy and the British Rule:

Foreign Relations of Burma/Myanmar:

Burma/Britain Relations:

Human Rights in Burma/Myanmar:

Some Relevant Issues on the Rohingya People and the British Rule:

Pro-Democracy Uprising, Ethnic Cleansing and Other Pertinent Issues:

Economy of Myanmar:

1943  World War II: Rome is heavily bombed by more than 500 Allied aircraft, inflicting thousands of casualties.

1942  World War II: Battle of the AtlanticGerman Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz orders the last U-boats to withdraw from their United States Atlantic coast positions in response to the effective American convoy system.

1940  World War II: Army order 112 forms the Intelligence Corps of the British Army.

1940  Field Marshal Ceremony: First occasion in World War II, that Hitler appointed field marshals due to military achievements.

1940  World War II: Battle of Cape Spada – The Royal Navy and the Regia Marina clash; the Italian light cruiser Bartolomeo Colleoni sinks, with 121 casualties.

1919  Following Peace Day celebrations marking the end of World War I, ex-servicemen riot and burn down Luton Town Hall.

191World War I: Battle of FromellesBritish and Australian troops attack German trenches in a prelude to the Battle of the Somme.

1870  Franco-Prussian War: France declares war on Prussia.

Franco-Prussian War:

Timelines of the Franco-Prussian War:

1864  Taiping Rebellion: Third Battle of Nanking – The Qing dynasty finally defeats the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.

1848  Women’s rights: a two-day Women’s Rights Convention opens in Seneca Falls, New York.

History of Women’s Rights in the United States:

Women’s Rights in General:

Gender Inequality/Equality in Employment in the United States:

Issues relating to Gender Inequality/Equality:

Women’s Suffrage and Its History:

170Great Northern War: A numerically superior Polish-Saxon army of Augustus II the Strong, operating from an advantageous defensive position, is defeated by a Swedish army half its size under the command of King Charles XII in the Battle of Klissow.




2014  The Israeli Defence Forces enter Shuja’iyya, a populous neighborhood of Gaza City, as part of their ground offensive focused on destroying tunnels crossing the Israel border.

2014 Israel-Gaza Conflict:

Secret Tunnels under the Border of Gaza:

1999  The Chinese Communist Party begins a persecution campaign against Falun Gong, arresting thousands nationwide.

History of Falun Gong:

Falun Gong, the Chinese Government and Oppositions:

199Václav Havel resigns as president of Czechoslovakia.

Václav Havel:

1989  Burma‘s ruling junta puts opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest.

Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and Her House Arrest:


History of Burma/Myanmar:

Burmese Monarchy and the British Rule:

Foreign Relations of Burma/Myanmar:

Burma/Britain Relations:

Human Rights in Burma/Myanmar:

Some Relevant Issues on the Rohingya People and the British Rule:

Pro-Democracy Uprising, Ethnic Cleansing and Other Pertinent Issues:

Economy of Myanmar:

1985  The government of Aruba passes legislation to secede from the Netherlands Antilles.

1983  France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island.

France’s Nuclear Weapons and Tests (Overview):


History of France Nuclear Tests in the Pacific:

France’s Nuclear Tests:

198Hyde Park and Regents Park bombings: The Provisional IRA detonates two bombs in Hyde Park and Regent’s Park in central London, killing eight soldiers, wounding forty-seven people, and leading to the deaths of seven horses.

1977  The Central Intelligence Agency releases documents under the Freedom of Information Act revealing it had engaged in mind control experiments.

CIA and Mind Control Experiments:

Project MK-Ultra:

History of the CIA:

1976  The American Viking 1 lander successfully lands on Mars.


1976  Vietnam War: The US military completes its troop withdrawal from Thailand.

Withdrawal of the US Troops from Thailand:

Some Related Issues and Events on Ending the US Involvement in the Vietnam War:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement or Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War:

1974  Turkish occupation of Cyprus: Forces from Turkey invade Cyprus after a coup d’état, organized by the dictator of Greece, against president Makarios.

Turkish Invasion and Occupation of Cyprus on “20 July 1974”:

Greek Coup on “15 July 1974”:

Modern History of Greece:

1972  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Tests Overview:

Nevada Test Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1969  A cease fire is announced between Honduras and El Salvador, six days after the beginning of the “Football War“.

1969  Apollo program: Apollo 11‘s crew successfully makes the first landing on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first humans to walk on the Moon later that day (Eastern Time Zone).

1964  Vietnam War: Viet Cong forces attack the capital of Dinh Tuong Province, Cai Be, killing 11 South Vietnamese military personnel and 40 civilians (30 of which are children).

Vietnam War in 1964:

Viet Cong:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1961  French military forces break the Tunisian siege of Bizerte.

Bizerte Crisis of July 1961:

1960  The Polaris missile is successfully launched from a submarine, the USS George Washington, for the first time.

1960  Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) elects Sirimavo Bandaranaike Prime Minister, the world’s first elected female head of government.

1956  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Bikini Island.

Operation Redwing:

US Atmospheric Nuclear Test at Bikini Atoll (Overview):

Nuclear Tests at Bikini Atoll:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1954  Germany: Otto John, head of West Germany‘s secret service, defects to East Germany.

1951  King Abdullah I of Jordan is assassinated by a Palestinian while attending Friday prayers in Jerusalem.

Assassination of Abdullah I of Jordan:

1950  Cold War: In Philadelphia, Harry Gold pleads guilty to spying for the Soviet Union by passing secrets from atomic scientist Klaus Fuchs.

1949  Israel and Syria sign a truce to end their nineteen-month war.

Israel-Syria Armistice Agreement of 1949:


Foreign Relations of Israel:

History of Israel:

Economy of Israel:

1944  World War II: Adolf Hitler survives an assassination attempt led by German Army Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg.

1941  Soviet leader Joseph Stalin consolidates the Commissariats of Home Affairs and National Security to form the NKVD and names Lavrenti Beria its chief.

Joseph Stalin:

NKVD (People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs):

1940  Denmark leaves the League of Nations.

League of Nations (Overview):

League of Nations and Its History:

1938  The United States Department of Justice files suit in New York, New York against the motion picture industry charging violations of the Sherman Antitrust Act in regards to the studio system. The case would eventually result in a break-up of the industry in 1948.

1936  The Montreux Convention is signed in Switzerland, authorizing Turkey to fortify the Dardanelles and Bosphorus but guaranteeing free passage to ships of all nations in peacetime.

1922  The League of Nations awards mandates of Togoland to France and Tanganyika to the United Kingdom.

  • For some more information on the League of Nations, see1940  Denmark leaves the League of Nations,” mentioned above.

1917  World War I: The Corfu Declaration, which leads to the creation of the post-war Kingdom of Yugoslavia, is signed by the Yugoslav Committee and Kingdom of Serbia.

“State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs” – “Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs” – “Kingdom of Yugoslavia”:

History of Yugoslavia:

1866  Austro-Prussian War: Battle of Lissa – The Austrian Navy , led by Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff, defeats the Italian Navy near the island of Vis in the Adriatic Sea.

Battle of Lissa:

Austro-Prussian War:




2008  Ram Baran Yadav is declared the first president of Nepal.

Ram Baran Yadav:

Nepalese Royal Massacre in 2001:

King Gyanedra’s Coup in 2005:

Democracy Movement of Nepal in 2006:

From the Abolishment of Monarchy to the Democratization of Nepal:

History of Nepal:


Foreign Relations of Nepal:

Nepal-Britain Relations:

Economy of Nepal:

1995  Third Taiwan Strait Crisis: The People’s Liberation Army begins firing missiles into the waters north of Taiwan.

Third Taiwan Strait Crisis (1995-1996):

1984  USSR performs underground nuclear test at Western Kazakhstan.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1984:

USSR Nuclear Tests:

1983  The world’s lowest temperature in an inhabited location is recorded at Vostok Station, Antarctica at −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F).

1977  The start of the four-day-long Libyan–Egyptian War.

Libyan-Egyptian War of 1977:

Tensions after the Libyan-Egyptian War of 1977:

1976  Christopher Ewart-Biggs, the British ambassador to the Republic of Ireland, is assassinated by the Provisional IRA.

Assassination of British Ambassador Christopher Ewart-Biggs:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

IRA’s Terrorism:

History of the IRA:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1973  In the Lillehammer affair in Norway, Israeli Mossad agents kill a waiter whom they mistakenly thought was involved in the 1972 Munich Olympics Massacre.

1972  The Troubles: Bloody Friday – the Provisional IRA detonate 22 bombs in central Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom in the space of 80 minutes, killing nine and injuring 130.

The Troubles:

Bloody Friday, July 21, 1972:

For the Provisional IRA, see1976  Christopher Ewart-Biggs, the British ambassador to the Republic of Ireland is assassinated by the Provisional IRA,” mentioned above.

1971  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

Nuclear Tests at the Nevada Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1970  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

Semipalitinsk Nuclear Test Site:

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1970  After 11 years of construction, the Aswan High Dam in Egypt is completed.

Aswan High Dam:

1966  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

  • For some more information, see1970 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR”, mentioned above.

196Mercury program: Mercury-Redstone 4 Mission – Gus Grissom piloting Liberty Bell 7 becomes the second American to go into space (in a suborbital mission).

Mercury Program:

1959  Elijah Jerry “Pumpsie” Green becomes the first African-American to play for the Boston Red Sox, the last team to integrate. He came in as a pinch runner for Vic Wertz and stayed in as shortstop in a 2–1 loss to the Chicago White Sox.

Baseball and Racism (Overview):

Sports and Racism:

1959  NS Savannah, the first nuclear-powered cargo-passenger ship, is launched as a showcase for Dwight D. Eisenhower‘s “Atoms for Peace” initiative.

NS Savannah:

Atoms for Peace:

1956  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Enewetak.

Enewetak Nuclear Test Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1954  First Indochina War: The Geneva Conference partitions Vietnam into North Vietnam and South Vietnam.

First Indochina War:

1949  The United States Senate ratifies the North Atlantic Treaty.

North Atlantic Treaty and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Overview:


History of NATO:

Problems of NATO:

The United States and NATO:

194World War II: Claus von Stauffenberg and fellow conspirators are executed in Berlin, Germany for the July 20 plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler.

194World War II: Battle of Guam – American troops land on Guam starting the battle. It would end on August 10.

1925  Scopes Trial: In Dayton, Tennessee, high school biology teacher John T. Scopes is found guilty of teaching evolution in class and fined $100.

1914  The Crown council of Romania decides for the country to remain neutral in World War I.

1774  Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774): Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca ending the war.

Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878):

Timeline of Russo-Turkish War:

Treaty of San Stefano:

Congress of Berlin:

History of the Ottoman Empire:

1718  The Treaty of Passarowitz between the Ottoman Empire, Austria and the Republic of Venice is signed.




2011  Norway is the victim of twin terror attacks, the first being a bomb blast which targeted government buildings in central Oslo, the second being a massacre at a youth camp on the island of Utøya.

Twin Terror Attacks in Norway:

2005  Jean Charles de Menezes is killed by police as the hunt begins for the London Bombers responsible for the 7 July 2005 London bombings and the 21 July 2005 London bombings.

200Members of 101st Airborne of the United States, aided by Special Forces, attack a compound in Iraq, killing Saddam Hussein‘s sons Uday and Qusay, along with Mustapha Hussein, Qusay’s 14-year-old son, and a bodyguard.

1992  Near Medellín, Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar escapes from his luxury prison fearing extradition to the United States.

1983  Martial law in Poland is officially revoked.

Martial Law in Poland:

History of Poland:


Foreign Relations of Poland:

Economy of Poland:

1977  Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping is restored to power.

1976  Japan completes its last reparation to the Philippines for war crimes committed during the imperial Japan‘s conquest of the country in the Second World War.

1963  Sarawak was granted self-government on the condition that it would join to form the Federation of Malaysia.

Independence Declaration of Sarawak:

1958  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Bikini Island.

Operation Hardtrack I – 1958 Pacific Proving Grounds:

Nuclear Tests at Bikini Atoll:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

194King David Hotel bombing: A Zionist underground organization, the Irgun, bombs the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, site of the civil administration and military headquarters for Mandate Palestine, resulting in 91 deaths.

1944  The Polish Committee of National Liberation publishes its manifesto, starting the period of Communist rule in Poland

1943  World War II: Allied forces capture the Italian city of Palermo.

1942  Holocaust: The systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto begins.

Warsaw Ghetto:

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising:

Willy Brandt’s Apologetic Gesture at Warsaw:

1942  The United States government begins compulsory civilian gasoline rationing due to the wartime demands.

1937  New Deal: The United States Senate votes down President Franklin D. Roosevelt‘s proposal to add more justices to the Supreme Court of the United States.

New Deal:

181Napoleonic Wars: Peninsular WarBattle of SalamancaBritish forces led by Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington) defeat French troops near Salamanca, Spain.

1805  Napoleonic Wars: War of the Third CoalitionBattle of Cape Finisterre – An inconclusive naval action is fought between a combined French and Spanish fleet under Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve of Spain and a British fleet under Admiral Robert Calder.

1797  Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Battle between Spanish and British naval forces during the French Revolutionary Wars. During the Battle, Rear-Admiral Nelson is wounded in the arm and the arm had to be partially amputated.




1999  Mohammed VI becomes King of Morocco.

Mohammed VI:


Foreign Relations of Morocco:

Morocco and the United Nations:

Human Rights in Morocco:

History of Morocco:

Economy of Morocco:

1997  Digital Equipment Corporation files antitrust charges against chipmaker Intel.

Digital Equipment Corporation vs. Intel:

1995  Comet Hale–Bopp is discovered; it becomes visible to the naked eye on Earth nearly a year later.

Comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1):

1993  Agdam was occupied by Armenian separatists.

Occupation Agdam of 1993:

1992  Abkhazia declares independence from Georgia.

Independence of Abkhazia:

1992  A Vatican commission, led by Joseph Ratzinger, establishes that limiting certain rights of homosexual people and non-married couples is not equivalent to discrimination on grounds of race or gender.

Religion and Homosexuality:

LGBT Rights (Overview):

Case Study (1): Nigeria Prohibits the Same Sex Marriage in 2013:

Case Study (2): Slovenia Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage in March 2015:

Case Study (3) Netherlands Legalizes the Same-Sex Marriage in 2001:

Case Study (4): Sweden Legalizes the Same-Sex Marriage in 2009:

Vatican under Pope Francis and LGBT Rights:

198General Ne Win, effective ruler of Burma since 1962, resigns after pro-democracy protests.

Burma Coup of 1962:

History of Burma/Myanmar:


Foreign Relations of Burma/Myanmar:

Human Rights in Burma/Myanmar:

Some Relevant Issues on the Rohingya People and the British Rule:

Pro-Democracy Uprising, Ethnic Cleansing and Other Pertinent Issues:

Economy of Myanmar:

1983  13 Sri Lanka Army soldiers are killed after a deadly ambush by the militant Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.

Liberation of Tigers of Tamil Eelam (a.k.a. Tamil Tigers):

Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of the Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of Sri Lanka:

Sri Lanka:

Foreign Relations of Sri Lanka:

Economy of Sri Lanka:

1982  The International Whaling Commission decides to end commercial whaling by 1985-86.

International Whaling Commission:

Commercial Whaling:

1976  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1976:

Nuclear Tests at Semipalitinsk:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1976  France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island.


History of France Nuclear Tests in the Pacific:

France’s Nuclear Tests:

1974  The Greek military junta collapses, and former Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis is invited to lead the new government, beginning Greece’s metapolitefsi era.

Greek Military Junta:

Modern History of Greece:

Abolition of the Greek Monarchy:

1973  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1973:

Nuclear Tests at Semipalitinsk:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1970  Qaboos bin Said al Said becomes Sultan of Oman after overthrowing his father, Said bin Taimur initiating massive reforms, modernization programs and end to a decade long civil war.

Qaboos bin Said al Said:

1969  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1969:

Nuclear Tests at Semipalitinsk:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1968  The only successful hijacking of an El Al aircraft takes place when a Boeing 707 carrying ten crew and 38 passengers is taken over by three members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. The aircraft was en route from Rome, Italy, to Lod, Israel.

1967  12th Street Riot: In Detroit, Michigan, one of the worst riots in United States history begins on 12th Street in the predominantly African American inner city. It ultimately kills 43 people, injures 342 and burns about 1,400 buildings.

1962  The International Agreement on the Neutrality of Laos is signed.

International Agreement on the Neutrality of Laos:

1962  Telstar relays the first publicly transmitted, live trans-Atlantic television program, featuring Walter Cronkite.

1961  The Sandinista National Liberation Front is founded in Nicaragua.

Sandinista National Liberation Front:

Sandinista National Liberation Front and Iran-Contra Affairs:    

Iran-Contra Affair:

Timeline of the Iran-Contra Affair:

History of Nicaragua:

1952  General Muhammad Naguib leads the Free Officers Movement (formed by Gamal Abdel Nasser, the real power behind the coup) in overthrowing King Farouk of Egypt.

King Farouk of Egypt and the 1952 Revolution:

Free Officers Movement:

Gamal Abdel Nasser:


History of (Modern) Egypt:

Foreign Relations of Egypt:

Egypt-Israel Relations:

Economy of Egypt:

1952  The European Coal and Steel Community is established.

European Coal and Steel Community:

Schuman Declaration:

European Integration and Its History:

Hague Congress of 1948:

Treaty of London of 1949:

Council of Europe:

1945  The post-war legal processes against Philippe Pétain begin.

1944  US forces invade Japanese-held Tinian in WW II.

194US troops occupy Pisa Italy.

Occupation of Pisa by the US Troops in 1944:

194World War II: The British destroyers HMS Eclipse and HMS Laforey sink the Italian submarine Ascianghi in the Mediterranean after she torpedoes the cruiser HMS Newfoundland.

1942  Bulgarian poet and Communist leader Nikola Vaptsarov is executed by firing squad.

1942  World War II: The German offensives Operation Edelweiss and Operation Braunschweig begin.

Operation Edelweiss:

Operation Braunschweig:

1942  The Holocaust: The Treblinka extermination camp is opened.

Treblinka Extermination Camp:

1940  The United States’ Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles issues a declaration on the US non-recognition policy of the Soviet annexation and incorporation of three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

1936  In Catalonia, Spain, the Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia is founded through the merger of Socialist and Communist parties.

1929  The Fascist government in Italy bans the use of foreign words.

Prohibition of Use of Foreign Words:

191Austria-Hungary issues a series of demands in an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia demanding Serbia to allow the Austrians to determine who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Serbia accepts all but one of those demands and Austria declares war on July 28.

Austria-Hungary’s Ultimatum to Serbia:

Timelines of World War I (Great War):

1908  The Second Constitution accepted by the Ottomans.

1881  The Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina is signed in Buenos Aires.

1833  Cornerstones are laid for the construction of the Kirtland Temple in Kirtland, Ohio.

1829  In the United States, William Austin Burt patents the typographer, a precursor to the typewriter.

1821  While the Mora Rebellion continues, Greeks capture Monemvasia Castle. Turkish troops and citizens are transferred to Minor Asia coasts.

1793  Kingdom of Prussia re-conquers Mainz from France.




2001  Bandaranaike Airport attack is carried out by 14 Tamil Tiger commandos, all died in this attack. They destroyed 11 Aircraft (mostly military) and damaged 15, there are no civilian casualties. This incident slowed down Sri Lankan economy.

Bandaranaike Airport Attack of 2001:

Tamil Tigers:

Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of the Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of Sri Lanka:

Sri Lanka:

Foreign Relations of Sri Lanka:

Economy of Sri Lanka:

2001  Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the last Tsar of Bulgaria when he was a child, is sworn in as Prime Minister of Bulgaria, becoming the first monarch in history to regain political power through democratic election to a different office.

1991  Manmohan Singh presents his budget speech to the Indian Parliament which led to economic liberalisation in India

199Iraqi forces start massing on the KuwaitIraq border.

Iraq Invasion of Kuwait:

Persian Gulf War:

1991 Gulf War and Its Timeline:

1983  The Black July anti-Tamil riots begin in Sri Lanka, killing between 400 and 3,000. Black July is generally regarded as the beginning of the Sri Lankan Civil War.

Black July of 1983:

Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of the Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of Sri Lanka:

Sri Lanka:

Foreign Relations of Sri Lanka:

Economy of Sri Lanka:

1977  End of a four day long Libyan–Egyptian War.

Libyan-Egyptian War of 1977:

Tensions after the Libyan-Egyptian War of 1977:

1974  Watergate scandal: The United States Supreme Court unanimously ruled that President Richard Nixon did not have the authority to withhold subpoenaed White House tapes and they order him to surrender the tapes to the Watergate special prosecutor.

Watergate Scandal:

Watergate Tapes:

1972  Bugojno group is caught by Yugoslav security forces.

Bugojno Group:

Croatian Nationalism and the Croatian Independence Movement from Yugoslavia:

Another Aspect of Independence Movement and Croatian Nationalism: Ethnic Cleansing against Local Ethnic Minorities 1991-1995:

History of Croatia:

Independent State of Croatia (a.k.a. NDH), a Nazi Subject State, during World War II:

NDH and the Jasenovac Concentration Camp:

Vatican and the Ustashe:

Bleiburg Massacre of Croats by the Allied Power (British) in May 1945 Just After WWII in Europe:


Foreign Relations of Croatia:

Economy of Croatia:

1969  Apollo program: Apollo 11 splashes down safely in the Pacific Ocean.

Apollo 11:

Apollo Program:

Timelines of the Apollo Program:

1967  During an official state visit to Canada, French President Charles de Gaulle declares to a crowd of over 100,000 in Montreal: Vive le Québec libre! (“Long live free Quebec!”). The statement, interpreted as support for Quebec independence, delighted many Quebecers but angered the Canadian government and many English Canadians.

1959  At the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow, U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev have a “Kitchen Debate“.

Kitchen Debate between Nixon and Khrushchev:

1950  Cape Canaveral Air Force Station begins operations with the launch of a Bumper rocket.

1943  World War II: Operation Gomorrah begins: British and Canadian aeroplanes bomb Hamburg by night, and American planes by day. By the end of the operation in November, 9,000 tons of explosives will have killed more than 30,000 people and destroyed 280,000 buildings.

1938  First ascent of the Eiger north face.

Eiger North Route of 1938:

1929  The Kellogg–Briand Pact, a.k.a. the Pact of Paris, renouncing war as an instrument of foreign policy, goes into effect (it is first signed in Paris on August 27, 1928 by most leading world powers).

Kellogg-Briand Pact:

192Archeologist Themistoklis Sofoulis becomes Prime Minister of Greece.

1923  The Treaty of Lausanne, settling the boundaries of modern Turkey, is signed in Switzerland by Greece, Bulgaria and other countries that fought in World War I.

Treaty of Lausanne of 1923:

192The draft of the British Mandate of Palestine was formally confirmed by the Council of the League of Nations; it came into effect on 26 September 1923.

British Mandate of Palestine of 1923:

1911  Hiram Bingham III re-discovers Machu Picchu, “the Lost City of the Incas”.

1910  The Ottoman Empire captures the city of Shkodër, putting down the Albanian Revolt of 1910.

Albanian Revolt of 1910:

History of the Ottoman Empire:

1847  After 17 months of travel, Brigham Young leads 148 Mormon pioneers into Salt Lake Valley, resulting in the establishment of Salt Lake City. Celebrations of this event include the Pioneer Day Utah state holiday and the Days of ’47 Parade.

Brigham Young:

Salt Lake City and Its History:

History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church):

1823  In Maracaibo, Venezuela the naval Battle of Lake Maracaibo takes place, where Admiral José Prudencio Padilla, defeats the Spanish Navy, thus culminating the independence for the Gran Colombia.

Battle of Lake Maracaibo:

History of Venezuela:


Foreign Relations of Venezuela:

Venezuela and the United Nations:

Economy of Venezuela:

1823  Slavery is abolished in Chile.

Abolishment of Slavery in Chile:


Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

(Sources and references:   to_july_24;   to july/24;   to july_24.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 18 Jul 2016.

Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week in History, is included. Thank you.

If you enjoyed this article, please donate to TMS to join the growing list of TMS Supporters.

Share this article:

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a CC BY-NC 4.0 License.

Comments are closed.