This Week in History

HISTORY, 2 Jan 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

Jan 2-8


“Your success and happiness lies in you.  Resolve to keep happy, and your joy and you shall form an invincible host against difficulties.” – Helen Keller



2013  Barack Obama signs the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012.

2011  January 2011 Baghdad shootings take place.

2006  An explosion in a coal mine in Sago, West Virginia traps and kills 12 miners, while leaving one miner in critical condition.

2004  Stardust successfully flies past Comet Wild 2, collecting samples that are returned to Earth.

1999  A brutal snowstorm smashes into the Midwestern United States, causing 14 inches (359 mm) of snow in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and 19 inches (487 mm) in Chicago, where temperatures plunge to -13 °F (-25 °C); 68 deaths are reported.

1993  Sri Lankan Civil War: The Sri Lanka Navy kill 35-100 civilians on the Jaffna Lagoon.

Jaffna Lagoon Massacre:

Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of the Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of Sri Lanka:

Sri Lanka:

Foreign Relations of Sri Lanka:

Economy of Sri Lanka:

1992  Leaders of armed opposition declare the President Zviad Gamsakhurdia deposed during a military coup in Georgia.

1975  Bangladeshi Marxist leader Siraj Sikder is arrested and dies while in police custody.

1974  United States President Richard Nixon signs a bill lowering the maximum US speed limit to 55 MPH in order to conserve gasoline during an OPEC embargo.

1967  Ronald Reagan sworn in as Governor of California

Ronald Regan Biography:

1963  Vietnam War: The Viet Cong wins its first major victory in the Battle of Ap Bac.

Vietnam War in 1963:

Viet Cong:

Battle of Ap Bac:

1959  Luna 1, the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and to orbit the Sun, is launched by the Soviet Union.

1955  Panamanian president José Antonio Remón Cantera is assassinated.

1949  Luis Muñoz Marín becomes the first democratically elected Governor of Puerto Rico.

1945  World War II: Nuremberg, Germany (in German, Nürnberg) is severely bombed by Allied forces.

1942  World War II: Manila, Philippines is captured by Japanese forces.

1942  he Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) convicts 33 members of a German spy ring headed by Fritz Joubert Duquesne in the largest espionage case in United States history—the Duquesne Spy Ring.

1941  World War II: German bombing severely damages the Llandaff Cathedral in Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom.

1935  Bruno Hauptmann goes on trial for the murder of Charles Lindbergh, Jr., infant son of aviator Charles Lindbergh.

1927  Angered by the anti-clerical provisions of the Mexican Constitution of 1917, Catholic rebels in Mexico rebelled against the government.

1920  The second Palmer Raid takes place with another 6,000 suspected communists and anarchists arrested and held without trial. These raids take place in several US cities.

1905  Russo-Japanese War: The Russian garrison surrenders at Port Arthur, China.

Russo-Japanese War:

Rosso-Japanese War Timelines:

Battle of Port Arthur:

1900  American statesman and diplomat John Hay announces the Open Door Policy to promote trade with China.

1871  Amadeus I becomes King of Spain.

1865  Uruguayan War: The Siege of Paysandú ends as Brazilian and Coloradans capture Paysandú, Uruguay.

1860  The discovery of the planet Vulcan is announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris, France.

1833  Reassertion of British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.

1819  The British Institution of Civil Engineers is founded.

1791  Big Bottom massacre in the Ohio Country, marking the beginning of the Northwest Indian War.

Big Bottom Massacre:

History of Native People of America:

Wars of Native People of North America:




2015  Boko Haram militants raze the entire town of Baga in north-east Nigeria, with as many as 2,000 people having been killed.

2015 Baga Massacre:

Boko Haram:

Boko Haram Leader Mohammed Zakari:

2004  Flash Airlines Flight 604 crashes into the Red Sea, resulting in 148 deaths, making it the deadliest aviation accident in Egyptian history.

2002  Israeli forces seize the Palestinian freighter Karine A in the Red Sea, finding 50 tons of weapons.

1999  Israel detains, and later expels, 14 members of Concerned Christians.

1999  The Mars Polar Lander is launched.

1997  China announces it will spend US$27.7 billion to fight erosion and pollution in the Yangtze and Yellow River valleys.

1996  The Motorola StarTAC, the first flip phone and one of the first mobile phones to gain widespread consumer adoption, goes on sale.

1994  More than seven million people from the former apartheid Homelands receive South African citizenship.

1993  In Moscow, Russia, George Bush and Boris Yeltsin sign the second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START).

1990  Former leader of Panama Manuel Noriega surrenders to American forces.

Manuel Noriega:

Noriega Indicted on February 05, 1988:

US Invasion of Panama in December 20, 1989:

War on Drugs of the United States:

1977  Apple Computer is incorporated.

History of Apple Computer:

1976  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Tests:

Nevada Test Site:

1976  The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights comes into effect.

1962  Pope John XXIII excommunicates Fidel Castro.

Pope John XXIII and Fidel Castro:

Fidel Castro:

Cuba or the “Republic of Cuba” (Repúlica de Cuba):

Foreign Relations of Cuba:

Vatican and Cuba Resumed Relations in 2015:

1961  A protest by agricultural workers in Baixa de Cassanje, Portuguese Angola, turns into a revolt, opening the Angolan War of Independence, the first of the Portuguese Colonial Wars.

1961  A core explosion and meltdown at the SL-1, a government-run reactor near Idaho Falls, Idaho, kills three workers.

1961  The United States severs diplomatic relations with Cuba over the latter’s nationalization of American assets.

1959  Separatists in the Maldives declare the establishment of the United Suvadive Republic.

United Suvadive Republic:

History of Maldives:


Foreign Relations of Maldives:

Economy of Maldives:

1957  The Hamilton Watch Company introduces the first electric watch.

1949  The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the central bank of the Philippines, is established.

1947  Proceedings of the US Congress are televised for the first time.

1945  World War II: Admiral Chester W Nimitz is placed in command of all US Naval forces in preparation for planned assaults against Iwo Jima and Okinawa in Japan.

1938  The March of Dimes is established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

1932  Martial law is declared in Honduras to stop a revolt by banana workers fired by the United Fruit Company.

1925  Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy.

Benito Mussolini:

Timeline – Mussolini:

Mussolini’s Doctrine:

1919  At the Paris Peace Conference, Emir Faisal I of Iraq signs an agreement with Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann on the development of a Jewish homeland in Palestine and an Arab nation in a large part of the Middle East.

Paris Peace Conference of 1919:

History of Palestine:

Zionism and Zionism Movement:

History of Zionism:

1911  An earthquake of magnitude 7.7 destroys the city of Almaty in Russian Turkestan.

1888  The refracting telescope at the Lick Observatory, measuring 91 cm in diameter, is used for the first time. It was the largest telescope in the world at the time.

1885  Sino-French War: Beginning of the Battle of Núi Bop

Battle of Núi Bop:

Sino-French War:




2013  A gunman kills eight people in a house-to-house rampage in Kawit, the Philippines.

2010  Burj Khalifa, the world’s tallest building, is officially opened.

2007  The 110th United States Congress convenes, electing Nancy Pelosi as the first female Speaker of the House in US history.

2006  Prime Minister Ariel Sharon of Israel suffers a second, apparently more serious stroke. His authority is transferred to acting Prime Minister Ehud Olmert.

Ariel Sharon:

Ehud Olmert:

2004  Mikheil Saakashvili is elected President of Georgia following the November 2003 Rose Revolution.

Rose Revolution:

Rose Revolution and George Soros:

History of Georgia (country):

Democracy and Georgia:


Foreign Relations of Georgia:

Economy of Georgia:

2004  Spirit, a NASA Mars rover, lands successfully on Mars at 04:35 UTC.

1998  Wilaya of Relizane massacres in Algeria: over 170 are killed in three remote villages.

Wilaya of Relizane Massacres and Other Massacres in Algeria:

1990  In Pakistan’s deadliest train accident an overloaded passenger train collides with an empty freight train, resulting in 307 deaths and 700 injuries.

1989  Second Gulf of Sidra incident: a pair of Libyan MiG-23 “Floggers” are shot down by a pair of US Navy F-14 Tomcats during an air-to-air confrontation.

1976  The Troubles: The Ulster Volunteer Force shoots dead six Irish Catholic civilians in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. The next day, gunmen shoot dead ten Protestant civilians nearby in retaliation.

The Troubles of 1976:

The Troubles:

IRA’s Terrorism/The Troubles:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

IRA’s Terrorism:

History of the IRA:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1974  United States President Richard Nixon refuses to hand over materials subpoenaed by the Senate Watergate Committee.

Watergate Scandal:

Watergate Tapes:

1970  An earthquake of magnitude 7.7 strikes Tonghai County, China, killing at least 15,000 people.

1969  France begins arms embargo against Israel.

French Arms Embargo against Israel:

France-Israel Relations:

1966  A military coup takes place in Upper Volta (later Burkina Faso), dissolving the National Parliament and leading to a new national constitution.

Military Coup of 1966 in Upper Volta (Burkina Faso):

History of Burkina Faso:

Burkina Faso:

Foreign Relations of Burkina Faso:

Economy of Burkina Faso:

1965  United States President Lyndon B. Johnson proclaims his “Great Society” during his State of the Union address.

Great Society and Lyndon B. Johnson:

1959  Luna 1 becomes the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon.

1958  Sir Edmund Hillary reaches the South Pole.

Edmund Hillary and the South Pole:

1958  Sputnik 1 falls to Earth from orbit.

1955  The Greek National Radical Union is formed by Konstantinos Karamanlis.

1951  Korean War: Chinese and North Korean forces capture Seoul.

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1948  Burma gains its independence from the United Kingdom.

History of Burma/Myanmar:

Burmese Monarchy and the British Rule:


Foreign Relations of Burma/Myanmar:

Human Rights in Burma/Myanmar:

Some Relevant Issues on the Rohingya People and the British Rule:

Pro-Democracy Uprising, Ethnic Cleansing and Other Pertinent Issues:

Economy of Myanmar:

1944  World War II: Operation Carpetbagger, involving the dropping of arms and supplies to resistance fighters in Europe, begins.

1912  The Scout Association is incorporated throughout the British Empire by royal charter.

1884  The Fabian Society is founded in London, England, United Kingdom.

1878  Sofia is emancipated from Ottoman rule.

Bulgaria and the Ottoman Rule:

History of the Ottoman Empire:

1865  The New York Stock Exchange opens its first permanent headquarters at 10-12 Broad near Wall Street in New York City.

History of the New York Stock Exchange:

1863  The New Apostolic Church, a Christian and chiliastic church, is established in Hamburg, Germany.

1854  The McDonald Islands are discovered by Captain William McDonald aboard the Samarang.

1853  After having been kidnapped and sold into slavery in the American South, Solomon Northrup regains his freedom; his memoir 12 Years a Slave later becomes a national bestseller.

1847  Samuel Colt sells his first revolver pistol to the United States government.

1798  Constantine Hangerli arrives in Bucharest, Wallachia, as its new Prince, invested by the Ottoman Empire.

1762  Great Britain declares war on Spain and Naples.




2015  The tomb of an Egyptian queen, Khentakawess III, is discovered by a team of Czech archaeologists; the queen lived during the Fifth Dynasty and was likely the wife of Pharaoh Neferefre.

Khentakawess III (a.k.a. Khentatkaus III):

Pharaoh Neferefre:

2014  A launch of the communication satellite GSAT-14 aboard the GSLV MK.II D5 marks the first successful flight of an Indian cryogenic engine.

2014  A launch of the communication satellite GSAT-14 aboard the GSLV MK.II D5 marks the first successful flight of an Indian cryogenic engine.

2005  Eris, the largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System, is discovered by the team of Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz using images originally taken on October 21, 2003, at the Palomar Observatory.

1993  The oil tanker MV Braer runs aground on the coast of the Shetland Islands, spilling 84,700 tons of crude oil.

1991  The United States Embassy to Somalia in Mogadishu is evacuated by helicopter airlift days after violence enveloped Mogadishu during the Somali Civil War

Somali Civil War:

United States and the Somali Civil War:

History of Somalia:


Foreign Relations of Somalia:

Economy of Somalia:

1991  Georgian forces enter Tskhinvali, the capital of South Ossetia, Georgia, opening the 1991–1992 South Ossetia War.

South Ossetia and the South Ossetia War:

History of South Ossetia:

1976  The Troubles: In response to the killing of six Catholics the night before, gunmen shoot dead ten Protestant civilians after stopping their minibus at Kingsmill in County Armagh, Northern Ireland, UK.

1976  The Khmer Rouge proclaim the Constitution of Democratic Kampuchea.

Constitution of the Democratic Kampuchea:

Khmer Rouge:

1972  United States President Richard Nixon orders the development of a Space Shuttle program.

History of the Space Shuttle Program:

Space Shuttle Program and Its Military Purposes:

1969  The Troubles: The Royal Ulster Constabulary raid the Bogside area of Derry, damaging property and beating residents. In response, residents erect barricades and establish Free Derry.

Royal Ulster Constabulary:

Free Derry:

The Troubles of 1969:

The Troubles:

IRA’s Terrorism/Troubles:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

IRA’s Terrorism:

History of the IRA:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1968  Alexander Dubček comes to power: “Prague Spring” begins in Czechoslovakia.

1957  In a speech given to the United States Congress, United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower announces the establishment of what will later be called the Eisenhower Doctrine.

1949  United States President Harry S. Truman unveils his Fair Deal program.

1945  The Soviet Union recognizes the new pro-Soviet government of Poland.

History of Poland:

Poland and Russia:


Foreign Relations of Poland:

Economy of Poland:

1925  Nellie Tayloe Ross of Wyoming becomes the first female governor in the United States.

1914  The German Workers’ Party, which would become the Nazi Party, is founded.

1914  The Ford Motor Company announces an eight-hour workday and that it would pay a “living wage” of at least $5 for a day’s labor.

1913  First Balkan War: During the Battle of Lemnos, Greek admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis forces the Turkish fleet to retreat to its base within the Dardanelles, from which it did not venture for the rest of the war.

Balkan Wars:

First Balkan War:

1912  The Prague Party Conference takes place.

1911  Kappa Alpha Psi, the world’s second oldest and largest black fraternity, is founded at Indiana University.

1900  Irish leader John Redmond calls for a revolt against British rule.

History of Ireland:

Irish War of Independence:

1896  Wiener Presse, Austrian newspaper, reports that Wilhelm Röntgen has discovered a type of radiation later known as X-rays.

History of X-Ray:

1477  Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France.




2012  26 people are killed and 63 wounded when a suicide bomber blows himself up at a police station in Damascus.

2009  Israel conducts an assault on the Gaza Strip

Gaza War:

2005  American Civil Rights Movement: Edgar Ray Killen is arrested as a suspect in the 1964 murders of three civil rights workers.

Edgar Ray Killen:

History of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States – Overview:

Civil Rights Movements of Various Ethnic Minorities in the United States:

Nonviolence, Movements against Racism, and More:

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination:

One of the Historical Cases – Nuremberg Laws of Nazi Germany:

One of the Historical Cases – Apartheid of South Africa:

Sports and Racism:

Beauty Contest and Racism:

2000  Celia, the last Pyrenean ibex was found dead after a tree had landed on her.

1995  A chemical fire in an apartment complex in Manila, Philippines, leads to the discovery of plans for Project Bojinka, a mass-terrorist attack.

1993  Indian Border Security Force units kill 55 Kashmiri civilians in Sopore, Jammu and Kashmir, in revenge after militants ambushed a BSF patrol.

1992 President of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia flees the country as a result of the military coup.

1978  The Crown of St Stephen (also known as the Holy Crown of Hungary) is returned to Hungary from the United States, where it was held after World War II.

1974  In response to the 1973 oil crisis, daylight saving time commences nearly four months early in the United States.

1967  Vietnam War: United States Marine Corps and ARVN troops launch “Operation Deckhouse Five” in the Mekong River delta.

Vietnam War in 1967:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement or Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War:

1960  The Associations Law comes into force in Iraq, allowing registration of political parties.

1960  National Airlines Flight 2511 is destroyed in mid-air by a bomb, while en route from New York City to Miami.

1953  The first Asian Socialist Conference opens in Rangoon, Burma.

1951  Korean War: An estimated 200–1,300 South Korean communist sympathizers are slaughtered in what becomes the Ganghwa massacre.

Ganghwa Massacre:

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1950  The United Kingdom recognizes the People’s Republic of China. The Republic of China severs diplomatic relations with the UK in response.

1947  Pan American Airlines becomes the first commercial airline to schedule a flight around the world.

1946  The first general election ever in Vietnam is held.

History of Vietnam:

1941  United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers his Four Freedoms speech in the State of the Union address.

1930  The first diesel-engined automobile trip is completed, from Indianapolis, Indiana, to New York, New York.

1929  Mother Teresa arrives in Calcutta, India, to begin her work among India’s poorest and sick people.

Mother Teresa and Her Biography:


Miracles and Mother Teresa:

1929  King Alexander of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes suspends his country‘s constitution (the January 6th Dictatorship).

History of Yugoslavia:

Kingdom of Serbia:

1921  Formation of the Iraqi Army.

1912  German geophysicist Alfred Wegener first presents his theory of continental drift.

1907  Maria Montessori opens her first school and daycare center for working class children in Rome, Italy.

1900  Second Boer War: Having already sieged the fortress at Ladysmith, Boer forces attack it, but are driven back by British defenders.

Siege of Ladysmith:

Second Boer War:

1870  The inauguration of the Musikverein in Vienna, Austria.

Musikverein, Vienna:

1838  Alfred Vail demonstrates a telegraph system using dots and dashes (this is the forerunner of Morse code).

1809  Combined British, Portuguese and colonial Brazilian forces begin the Invasion of Cayenne during the Napoleonic Wars.

1781  In the Battle of Jersey, the British defeat the last attempt by France to invade Jersey.




2015  A car bomb explodes outside a police college in the Yemeni capital Sana’a with at least 38 people reported dead and more than 63 injured.

2015  Two gunmen commit a mass shooting at the offices of Charlie Hebdo in Paris, killing twelve people and injuring another eleven.

2010  Muslim gunmen in Egypt open fire on a crowd of Coptic Christians, killing eight of them and one Muslim bystander.

1999  The Senate trial in the impeachment of U.S. President Bill Clinton begins.

1993  Bosnian War: The Bosnian Army executes a surprise attack on the village of Kravica in Srebrenica.

War in Bosnia-Herzegovina:

Bosnian War on the Ground:

Timeline of the War in Bosnia-Herzegovina:

1993  The Fourth Republic of Ghana is inaugurated with Jerry Rawlings as President.

1991  Roger Lafontant, former leader of the Tonton Macoute in Haiti under François Duvalier, attempts a coup d’état, which ends in his arrest.

1990  The interior of the Leaning Tower of Pisa is closed to the public for safety reasons.

1985  Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency launches Sakigake, Japan’s first interplanetary spacecraft and the first deep space probe to be launched by any country other than the United States or the Soviet Union.

1984  Brunei becomes the sixth member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).


History of Brunei:

Economy of Brunei:


1980  US President Jimmy Carter authorizes legislation giving $1.5 billion in loans to bail out the Chrysler Corporation.

1979  Third Indochina War: Cambodian–Vietnamese War: Phnom Penh falls to the advancing Vietnamese troops, driving out Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge.

Third Indochina War:

Indochina Wars:

Khmer Rouge and Pol Pot:

History of Cambodia:

Foreign Relations of Cambodia:


Economy of Cambodia:

1970  The Punjab Legislative Council (Abolition) Act, 1969 comes into effect.

1968  Surveyor Program: Surveyor 7, the last spacecraft in the Surveyor series, lifts off from launch complex 36A, Cape Canaveral.

1960  The Polaris missile is test launched.

1959  The United States recognizes the new Cuban government of Fidel Castro.

Cuba and the United States:

Fidel Castro:

Cuba or the “Republic of Cuba” (Repúlica de Cuba):

Foreign Relations of Cuba:

Cuba and USSR/Russia:

Cuban Missile Crisis:

History and Culture of Cuba:

Economy of Cuba:

1954  Georgetown-IBM experiment: The first public demonstration of a machine translation system, is held in New York at the head office of IBM.

1945  World War II: British General Bernard Montgomery holds a press conference in which he claims credit for victory in the Battle of the Bulge.

1942  World War II: The siege of the Bataan Peninsula begins.

Battle of Bataan:

Bataan Death March:

Lt General Masaharu Homma, His War Crimes and His Execution:

1940  Winter War: The Finnish 9th Division stops and completely destroys the overwhelming Soviet forces on the Raate-Suomussalmi road.

Winter War:

Timelines of the Winter War:

1935  Benito Mussolini and French Foreign minister Pierre Laval sign the Franco-Italian Agreement.

Franco-Italian Agreement of 1935:

Benito Mussolini:

Mussolini’s Doctrine:

Timeline – Mussolini:

Pierre Laval:

Vichy Government (a.k.a. Vichy France):

Vichy Government and the Holocaust Collaboration:

1927  The first transatlantic telephone service is established from New York, New York to London, United Kingdom.

1922  Dáil Éireann ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by a 64–57 vote.

1920  The New York State Assembly refuses to seat five duly elected Socialist assemblymen.

1919  Montenegrin guerrilla fighters rebel against the planned annexation of Montenegro by Serbia, but fail.

1904  The distress signalCQD” is established only to be replaced two years later by “SOS“.

1610  Galileo Galilei makes his first observation of the four Galilean moons: Ganymede, Callisto, Io and Europa, although he is not able to distinguish the last two until the following day.




2011  The attempted assassination of Arizona Representative Gabrielle Giffords and subsequent shooting in Casas Adobes, Arizona at a Safeway grocery store, for which Jared Lee Loughner is subsequently arrested, kills six people and wounds 13, including Giffords.

2010  Gunmen from an offshoot the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda attacked the bus carrying the Togo national football team on its way to the 2010 Africa Cup of Nations, killing three.

2005  The nuclear sub USS San Francisco collides at full speed with an undersea mountain south of Guam. One man is killed, but the sub surfaces and is repaired.

2004  The RMS Queen Mary 2, the largest passenger ship ever built, is christened by her namesake’s granddaughter, Queen Elizabeth II.

2002  President George W Bush signs into law the No Child Left Behind Act.

1996  An Antonov An-32 cargo aircraft crashes into a crowded market in Kinshasa, Zaire, killing up to 237 on the ground; the aircraft’s crew of six survive the crash.

1994  Russian cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov on Soyuz TM-18 leaves for Mir. He would stay on the space station until March 22, 1995, for a record 437 days in space.

1989  Beginning of Japanese Heisei period.

Emperor Akihito and the Heisei Period:

Emperor Hirohito and the Showa Period:

Emperor Hirohito and World War II:

Emperor Hirohito and the Status of Okinawa after World War II:

Japanese Emperors:

1989  Kegworth air disaster: British Midland Flight 92, a Boeing 737-400, crashes into the M1 motorway, killing 47 of the 126 people on board.

1981  A local farmer reports a UFO sighting in Trans-en-Provence, France, claimed to be “perhaps the most completely and carefully documented sighting of all time”.

1979  Argentina and Chile sign Beagle Canal accord.

Beagle Conflict:

1977  Three bombs explode in Moscow, Russia, Soviet Union within 37 minutes, killing seven. The bombings are attributed to an Armenian separatist group.

1973  Watergate scandal: The trial of seven men accused of illegal entry into Democratic Party headquarters at Watergate begins.

Watergate Scandal:

Watergate Tapes:

1973  Soviet space mission Luna 21 is launched.

1971  Bowing to international pressure, President of Pakistan Zulfikar Ali Bhutto releases Bengali leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman from prison, who had been arrested after declaring the independence of Bangladesh.

History of Pakistan:

History of Bangladesh:

Bangladesh Liberation War:

1964  President Lyndon B Johnson declares a “War on Poverty” in the United States.

Lyndon B Johnson’s War on Poverty:

1961  In France a referendum supports Charles de Gaulle‘s policies in Algeria.

Charles de Gaulle:

Charles de Gaulle’s Policies on Algeria:

History of Algeria:


Foreign Relations of Algeria:

Algeria and the United Nations:

Economy of Algeria:

1945  World War II: Philippine Commonwealth troops under the Philippine Commonwealth Army units enter the province of Ilocos Sur in Northern Luzon and attack Japanese Imperial forces.

1940  World War II: Britain introduces food rationing.

1918  President Woodrow Wilson announces his “Fourteen Points” for the aftermath of World War I.

Woodrow Wilson:

Wilson’s Fourteen Points:

1912  The African National Congress is founded.

African National Congress (ANC):

History of the African National Congress:

1867  African American men are granted the right to vote in Washington, D.C.

African Americans’ Suffrage:

Women’s Suffrage, including That of African American Women:

African American History:

1835  The United States national debt is zero for the only time.

United States National Debt:

History of the United States National Debt:


Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

(Sources and references:   january_8;     to january/8;   to january_8.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 2 Jan 2017.

Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week in History, is included. Thank you.

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