This Week in History

HISTORY, 24 Apr 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

Apr 24-30


“The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. Intelligence plus character – that is the goal of true education.” – Martin Luther King, Jr.



2013  Violence in Bachu County, Kashgar Prefecture, of China‘s Xinjiang results in death of 21 people.

2013  A building collapses near Dhaka, Bangladesh, killing 1,129 people and injuring 2,500 others.

2005  Snuppy becomes world’s first cloned dog.

World First Cloned Dog – Snuppy:

2005  Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger is inaugurated as the 265th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church taking the name Pope Benedict XVI.

Pope Benedict XVI:

February 11, 2013: Resignation Announcement of Pope Benedict XVI:

Lightning Strikes the Vatican Hours after Pope’s Resignation Announcement:

Any Real Reason of the Resignation of Pope XVI? :

2004  The United States lifts economic sanctions imposed on Libya 18 years previously, as a reward for its cooperation in eliminating weapons of mass destruction.

1996  In the United States, the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 is passed into law.

Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996:

1993  An IRA bomb devastates the Bishopsgate area of London.


Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

IRA’s Terrorism:

History of the IRA:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1990  Gruinard Island, Scotland, is officially declared free of the anthrax disease after 48 years of quarantine.

1990  STS-31: The Hubble Space Telescope is launched from the Space Shuttle Discovery.

1980  Eight US servicemen die in Operation Eagle Claw as they attempt to end the Iran hostage crisis.

Operation Eagle Claw:

Iran Hostage Crisis:

Timelines of the Iranian Hostage Crisis:

197US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1971  Soyuz 10 docks with Salyut 1.

1970  The Gambia becomes a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, with Dawda Jawara as the first President.

The Gambia:

Foreign Relations of the Gambia:

Gambia-British Relations Today:

Gambia-British Relations in History:

History of the Gambia:

Economy of the Gambia:

1970  The first Chinese satellite, Dong Fang Hong I, is launched.

1968  Mauritius becomes a member state of the United Nations.

History of Mauritius:

Mauritius and the United Nations:

196USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1981:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1967  Vietnam War: American General William Westmoreland says in a news conference that the enemy had “gained support in the United States that gives him hope that he can win politically that which he cannot win militarily.”

Vietnam War in 1967:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

1967  Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov dies in Soyuz 1 when its parachute fails to open. He is the first human to die during a space mission.

1965  Civil war breaks out in the Dominican Republic when Colonel Francisco Caamaño, overthrows the triumvirate that had been in power since the coup d’état against Juan Bosch.

Civil War in Dominican Republic of 1965:

Dominican Republic:

History of Dominican Republic:

Economy of the Dominican Republic:

1963  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

Atmospheric Nuclear Testing at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1957  The BBC first broadcast The Sky at Night presented by Patrick Moore

1957  Suez Crisis: The Suez Canal is reopened following the introduction of UNEF peacekeepers to the region.

Suez Crisis (1956-1957):

Suez Canal:

History of the Suez Canal:

1955  The Bandung Conference ends: Twenty-nine non-aligned nations of Asia and Africa finish a meeting that condemns colonialism, racism, and the Cold War.

1953  Winston Churchill is knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.

1945  Delegates of 46 countries gather in San Francisco to discuss U.N.

History of the United Nations (1) – Overview:

History of the United Nations (2) – Atlantic Charter of 1941:

History of the United Nations (3) – Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta:

History of the United Nations (4) – San Francisco Conference: April 26–June 26, 1945:

1944  World War II: The SBS launches a raid against the garrison of Santorini in Greece.

1933  Nazi Germany begins its persecution of Jehovah’s Witnesses by shutting down the Watch Tower Society office in Magdeburg.

Nazi Germany and Jehovah’s Witnesses:

History of Nazi Germany:

1932  Benny Rothman leads the mass trespass of Kinder Scout, leading to substantial legal reforms in the United Kingdom.

1926  The Treaty of Berlin is signed. Germany and the Soviet Union each pledge neutrality in the event of an attack on the other by a third party for the next five years.

Treaty of Berlin (Germany-Soviet Union) of 1926:

1923  In Vienna, the paper Das Ich und das Es (The Ego and the Id) by Sigmund Freud is published, which outlines Freud’s theories of the id, ego, and super-ego.

Ego and the Id:

Sigmund Freud’s Works:

1922  The first segment of the Imperial Wireless Chain providing wireless telegraphy between Leafield in Oxfordshire, England, and Cairo, Egypt, comes into operation.

1918  First tank-to-tank combat, at Villers-Bretonneux, France, when three British Mark IVs meet three German A7Vs.

1916  Ernest Shackleton and five men of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition launch a lifeboat from uninhabited Elephant Island in the Southern Ocean to organize a rescue for the ice-trapped ship Endurance.

1916  Easter Rising: The Irish Republican Brotherhood led by nationalists Patrick Pearse, James Connolly, and Joseph Plunkett starts a rebellion in Ireland.

Easter Rising of 1916:

Irish War of Independence:

History of Ireland:

1915  The arrest of 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders in Istanbul marks the beginning of the Armenian Genocide.

The Armenian Genocide of 1915:

Why Does Turkey Deny the Armenian Genocide? :

1914  The Franck–Hertz experiment, a pillar of quantum mechanics, is presented to the German Physical Society.

1913  The Woolworth Building skyscraper in New York City is opened.

1907  Hersheypark, founded by Milton S. Hershey for the exclusive use of his employees, is opened.

1904  The Lithuanian press ban is lifted after almost 40 years.

1895  Joshua Slocum, the first person to sail single-handedly around the world, sets sail from Boston, Massachusetts aboard the sloop “Spray”.

1885  American sharpshooter Annie Oakley is hired by Nate Salsbury to be a part of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West.

1877  Russo-Turkish War: Russian Empire declares war on Ottoman Empire.

Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878):

Treaty of San Stefano:

Congress of Berlin:

History of the Ottoman Empire:

1800  The United States Library of Congress is established when President John Adams signs legislation to appropriate $5,000 to purchase “such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress“.




2015  Riots break out in Baltimore, Maryland following the death of Freddie Gray in police custody.

2015  Nearly 9,100 are killed after a massive 7.8 magnitude earthquake strikes Nepal.

2007  Boris Yeltsin‘s funeral: The first to be sanctioned by the Russian Orthodox Church for a head of state since the funeral of Emperor Alexander III in 1894.

Boris Yeltsin:

2005  One hundred seven people die in Amagasaki rail crash in Japan.

2005  Bulgaria and Romania sign accession treaties to join the European Union.

2005  The final piece of the Obelisk of Axum is returned to Ethiopia after being stolen by the invading Italian army in 1937.

2001  Michele Alboreto is killed while testing an Audi R8 at the Lausitzring in Germany.

1990  Violeta Chamorro takes office as the President of Nicaragua, the first woman to hold the position.

Violeta Chamorro:

Politics of Nicaragua:

History of Nicaragua:

Economy of Nicaragua:

1988 In Israel, John Demjanjuk is sentenced to death for war crimes committed in World War II.

John Demjanjuk:

1986  Mswati III is crowned King of Swaziland, succeeding his father Sobhuza II.

Swaziland, Its History, and Culture:

1984  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1984:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1983  Pioneer 10 travels beyond Pluto‘s orbit.

1983  American schoolgirl Samantha Smith is invited to visit the Soviet Union by its leader Yuri Andropov after he read her letter in which she expressed fears about nuclear war.

1982  Israel completes its withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula per the Camp David Accords.

Camp David Accords of 1978:

Israel’s Withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula:

1982  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1981  More than 100 workers are exposed to radiation during repairs of a nuclear power plant in Tsuruga, Japan.

1980  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1977  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1975  As North Vietnamese forces close in on the South Vietnamese capital Saigon, the Australian Embassy is closed and evacuated, almost ten years to the day since the first Australian troop commitment to South Vietnam.

1975  USSR performs underground nuclear test at Atyrau, Kazakhstan.

Nuclear Tests at Atyrau:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1974  Carnation Revolution: A leftist military coup in Portugal overthrows the fascist Estado Novo regime and establishes a democratic government.

197US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1972  Vietnam War: Nguyen Hue Offensive: The North Vietnamese 320th Division forces 5,000 South Vietnamese troops to retreat and traps about 2,500 others northwest of Kontum.

Vietnam War in 1972:

Nguyen Hue Offensive:

Easter Offensive of 1972:

1971  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1966  The city of Tashkent is destroyed by a huge earthquake.

1965  Teenage sniper Michael Andrew Clark kills three and wounds six others shooting from a hilltop along Highway 101 just south of Santa Maria, California.

1962  US performs atmospheric nuclear test, at Christmas Island.

Nuclear Tests at Christmas Islands:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

1961  Robert Noyce is granted a patent for an integrated circuit.

1961 France performs nuclear test at Reggane, Algeria.

French Nuclear Tests in Reggane, Algeria:

Some Pertinent YouTube Videos:

Pertinent Reports:

Radiation Contaminations in Reggane:

France’s Nuclear Tests:

1960  The United States Navy submarine USS Triton completes the first submerged circumnavigation of the globe.

1959  The Saint Lawrence Seaway, linking the North American Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean, officially opens to shipping.

1954  The first practical solar cell is publicly demonstrated by Bell Telephone Laboratories.

1953  Francis Crick and James D. Watson publish “Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid” describing the double helix structure of DNA.

1951  Korean War: Assaulting Chinese forces are forced to withdraw after heavy fighting with UN forces, primarily made up of Australian and Canadian troops, at the Battle of Kapyong.

Battle of Kapyong:

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1946  Naperville train disaster kills 47 in Naperville, Illinois.

1945  The last German troops retreat from Finland’s soil in Lapland, ending the Lapland War. Military acts of Second World War end in Finland.

1945  Fifty nations gather in San Francisco to begin the United Nations Conference on International Organization.

Birth of the United Nations (1) – Overview:

Birth of the United Nations (2) – Atlantic Charter of 1941:

Birth of the United Nations (3) – Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta:

Birth of the United Nations (4) – San Francisco Conference: April 26–June 26, 1945:

1945  Liberation Day (Italy): The Nazi occupation army surrenders and leaves Northern Italy after a general partisan insurrection by the Italian resistance movement; the puppet fascist regime dissolves and Benito Mussolini is captured after trying to escape. This day was set as a public holiday to celebrate the Liberation of Italy.

1945  Elbe Day: United States and Soviet troops meet in Torgau along the River Elbe, cutting the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany in two, a milestone in the approaching end of World War II in Europe.

1944  The United Negro College Fund is incorporated.

1943  The Demyansk Shield for German troops in commemoration of Demyansk Pocket is instituted.

1940  Merkið, the flag of the Faroe Islands is approved by the British occupation government.

1938  US Supreme Court delivers its opinion in Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins and overturns a century of federal common law.

1920  At the San Remo conference, the principal Allied Powers of World War I adopt a resolution to determine the allocation of Class “A” League of Nations mandates for administration of the former Ottoman-ruled lands of the Middle East.

1916  Anzac Day (Anzac = Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) is commemorated for the first time on the first anniversary of the landing at Anzac Cove.


1916  Easter Rising: The United Kingdom declares martial law in Ireland.

Easter Rising of 1916:

Irish War of Independence:

History of Ireland:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

History of the IRA:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1915  World War I: The Battle of Gallipoli begins: The invasion of the Turkish Gallipoli Peninsula by Australian, British, French and New Zealand troops begins with landings at Anzac Cove and Cape Helles.

1901  New York becomes the first US state to require automobile license plates.

1898  Spanish–American War: The United States declares war on Spain.

Spanish-American War:

Timeline of the Spanish-American War:

1882  Tonkin Campaign: French and Vietnamese troops clashed in Tonkin, when Commandant Henri Rivière seized the citadel of Hanoi with a small force of marine infantry.

1859  British and French engineers break ground for the Suez Canal.

Suez Canal:

History of the Suez Canal:




2005  Under international pressure, Syria withdraws the last of its 14,000 troop military garrison in Lebanon, ending its 29-year military domination of that country (Syrian occupation of Lebanon).

2002  Robert Steinhäuser infiltrates and kills 16 at Gutenberg-Gymnasium in Erfurt, Germany before dying of a self-inflicted gunshot.

1994  China Airlines Flight 140 crashes at Nagoya Airport in Japan, killing 264 of the 271 people on board.

1991  Seventy tornadoes break out in the central United States. Before the outbreak’s end, Andover, Kansas, would record the year’s only F5 tornado.

1989  People’s Daily publishes the People’s Daily editorial of April 26 which inflames the nascent Tiananmen Square protests

1989  The deadliest tornado in world history strikes Central Bangladesh, killing upwards of 1,300, injuring 12,000, and leaving as many as 80,000 homeless.

1986  A nuclear reactor accident occurs at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Soviet Union (now Ukraine), creating the world’s worst nuclear disaster.

Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster:

1986  France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island.


History of France Nuclear Tests in the Pacific:

France’s Nuclear Tests:

1982  Fifty-seven people are killed by former police officer Woo Bum-kon in a shooting spree in South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea.

1981  Dr. Michael R. Harrison of the University of California, San Francisco Medical Center performs the world’s first human open fetal surgery.

197US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1970  The Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization enters into force.

1968  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1966  A new government is formed in the Republic of the Congo, led by Ambroise Noumazalaye.

1966  The magnitude 5.1 Tashkent earthquake affects the largest city in Soviet Central Asia with a maximum MSK intensity of VII (Very strong). Tashkent is mostly destroyed and 15–200 are killed.

1965  A Rolling Stones concert in London, Ontario is shut down by police after 15 minutes due to rioting.

1964  Tanganyika and Zanzibar merge to form Tanzania.

Tanzania (Tanganyika):

History of Tanzania:

Economy of Tanzania:

1963  In Libya, amendments to the constitution transform Libya (United Kingdom of Libya) into one national unity (Kingdom of Libya) and allows for female participation in elections.

1962  NASA‘s Ranger 4 spacecraft crashes into the Moon.

1960  Forced out by the April Revolution, President of South Korea Syngman Rhee resigns after twelve years of dictatorial rule.

1958  Final run of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad‘s Royal Blue from Washington, D.C., to New York City after 68 years, the first U.S. passenger train to use electric locomotives.

1956  SS Ideal X, the world’s first successful container ship, leaves Port Newark, New Jersey for Houston, Texas.

1954  The Geneva Conference, an effort to restore peace in Indochina and Korea, begins.

Geneva Conference of 1954:

1945  World War II: Filipino troops of the 66th Infantry Regiment, Philippine Commonwealth Army, USAFIP-NL and the American troops of the 33rd and 37th Infantry Division, United States Army are liberated in Baguio City and they fight against the Japanese forces under General Tomoyuki Yamashita.

1945  World War II: Battle of Bautzen: Last successful German tank-offensive of the war and last noteworthy victory of the Wehrmacht.

1944  Heinrich Kreipe is captured by Allied commandos in occupied Crete.

1944  Georgios Papandreou becomes head of the Greek government-in-exile based in Egypt.

1943  The Easter Riots break out in Uppsala, Sweden.

1942  Benxihu Colliery accident in Manchukuo leaves 1549 Chinese miners dead.

1937  Spanish Civil War: Guernica (or Gernika in Basque), Spain is bombed by German Luftwaffe.

German Involvement of the Spanish Civil War:

Spanish Civil War:

Timeline of the Spanish Civil War:

1933  The Gestapo, the official secret police force of Nazi Germany, is established.


1925  Paul von Hindenburg defeats Wilhelm Marx in the second round of the German presidential election to become the first directly elected head of state of the Weimar Republic.

1923  The Duke of York weds Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon at Westminster Abbey.

1865  Union cavalry troopers corner and shoot dead John Wilkes Booth, assassin of President Lincoln, in Virginia.

1865  American Civil War: Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston surrenders his army to General William Tecumseh Sherman at the Bennett Place near Durham, North Carolina. Also the date of Confederate Memorial Day for two states.

1805  First Barbary War: United States Marines captured Derne under the command of First Lieutenant Presley O’Bannon.

1803  Thousands of meteor fragments fall from the skies of L’Aigle, France; the event convinces European scientists that meteors exist.

1802  Napoleon Bonaparte signs a general amnesty to allow all but about one thousand of the most notorious émigrés of the French Revolution to return to France, as part of a reconciliary gesture with the factions of the Ancien Régime and to eventually consolidate his own rule.




2014  Popes John XXIII and John Paul II are declared saints in the first papal canonization since 1954.


Karol Wojtyla or Pope John Paul II:

2012  At least four explosions hit the Ukrainian city of Dnipropetrovsk with at least 27 people injured.

2011  The April 25–28 tornado outbreak devastates parts of the Southeastern United States, especially the states of Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and Tennessee. Two hundred five tornadoes touched down on April 27 alone, killing more than 300 and injuring hundreds more.

2007 Estonian authorities remove the Bronze Soldier, a Soviet Red Army war memorial in Tallinn, amid political controversy with Russia.

2006  Construction begins on the Freedom Tower (later renamed One World Trade Center) in New York City.

2005  The superjumbo jet aircraft Airbus A380 makes its first flight from Toulouse, France.

Airbus A380:

2002  The last successful telemetry from the NASA space probe Pioneer 10.

1996  The 1996 Lebanon war ends.

1996 Lebanon War:

1994  South African general election: The first democratic general election in South Africa, in which black citizens could vote. The Interim Constitution comes into force.

1993  All members of the Zambia national football team lose their lives in a plane crash off Libreville, Gabon en route to Dakar, Senegal to play a 1994 FIFA World Cup qualifying match against Senegal.

1992  The Russian Federation and 12 other former Soviet republics become members of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

1992  Betty Boothroyd becomes the first woman to be elected Speaker of the British House of Commons in its 700-year history.

1992  The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, comprising Serbia and Montenegro, is proclaimed.

1989  The April 27 demonstrations, student-led protests responding to the April 26 Editorial, during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.

1987  The US Department of Justice bars Austrian President Kurt Waldheim from entering the United States, saying he had aided in the deportation and execution of thousands of Jews and others as a German Army officer during World War II.

1986  The city of Pripyat as well as the surrounding areas are evacuated due to Chernobyl disaster.

1981  Xerox PARC introduces the computer mouse.

1978  Former United States President Nixon aide John D. Ehrlichman is released from an Arizona prison after serving 18 months for Watergate-related crimes.

Watergate Scandal:

1977  Twenty-eight people are killed in the Guatemala City air disaster.

1975  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1975:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1974  Ten thousand march in Washington, D.C., calling for the impeachment of US President Richard Nixon

1967  Expo 67 officially opens in Montreal, Canada with a large opening ceremony broadcast around the world. It opens to the public the next day.

1967  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1962  US performs atmospheric nuclear test, at Christmas Island.

Nuclear Tests at Christmas Islands:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

1961  Sierra Leone is granted its independence from the United Kingdom, with Milton Margai as the first Prime Minister.

Sierra Leone:

History of Sierra Leone:

Economy of Sierra Leone:

1960  Togo gains independence from French-administered UN trusteeship.

History of Togo:


Economy of Togo:

1953  Operation Moolah offers $50,000 to any pilot who defected with a fully mission-capable Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 to South Korea. The first pilot was to receive $100,000.

1950  Apartheid: In South Africa, the Group Areas Act is passed formally segregating races.

History of Apartheid:

1945  World War II: Benito Mussolini is arrested by Italian partisans in Dongo, while attempting escape disguised as a German soldier.

Benito Mussolini:

Mussolini’s Doctrine:

Timeline – Mussolini:

1945  World War II: German troops are finally expelled from Finnish Lapland.

1941  World War II: The Communist Party of Slovenia, the Slovene Christian Socialists, the left-wing Slovene Sokols (also known as “National Democrats”) and a group of progressive intellectuals establish the Liberation Front of the Slovene Nation.

1941  World War II: German troops enter Athens.

German Occupation of Greece during World War II:

Mussolini-led Italy’s Invasion of Greece in October 1940:

Hitler and Mussolini:

Modern History of Greece:

1936 The United Auto Workers (UAW) gains autonomy from the American Federation of Labor.

1927  Carabineros de Chile (Chilean national police force and gendarmerie) are created.

1914  Honduras becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.

1911  Following the resignation and death of William P. Frye, a compromise is reached to rotate the office of President pro tempore of the United States Senate.

1909  Sultan of Ottoman Empire Abdul Hamid II is overthrown, and is succeeded by his brother, Mehmed V.

History of the Ottoman Empire:

1906  The State Duma of the Russian Empire meets for the first time.

1904  The Australian Labor Party becomes the first such party to gain national government, under Chris Watson.

1865  The steamboat Sultana, carrying 2,400 passengers, explodes and sinks in the Mississippi River, killing 1,800, most of whom are Union survivors of the Andersonville and Cahaba Prisons.

1861  American President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus.

1840  Foundation stone for new Palace of Westminster, London, is laid by wife of Sir Charles Barry.




2001  Dennis Tito becomes the world’s first space tourist.

1996  Port Arthur massacre, Tasmania: A gunman, Martin Bryant, opens fire at the Broad Arrow Cafe in Port Arthur, Tasmania, killing 35 people and wounding 23 others.

Port Arthur Massacre:

1996  Whitewater controversy: President Bill Clinton gives a 4½ hour videotaped testimony for the defense.

Whitewater Controversy:

1994  Former Central Intelligence Agency counterintelligence officer and analyst Aldrich Ames pleads guilty to giving U.S. secrets to the Soviet Union and later Russia.

1988  Near Maui, Hawaii, flight attendant Clarabelle “C.B.” Lansing is blown out of Aloha Airlines Flight 243, a Boeing 737, and falls to her death when part of the plane’s fuselage rips open in mid-flight.

1987  American engineer Ben Linder is killed in an ambush by U.S.-funded Contras in northern Nicaragua.

Death of Ben Linder:

1986  High levels of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl disaster are detected at a nuclear power plant in Sweden, leading Soviet authorities to publicly announce the accident.

Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster:

1986  The United States Navy aircraft carrier USS Enterprise becomes the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier to transit the Suez Canal, navigating from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea to relieve the USS Coral Sea.

1978  President of Afghanistan, Mohammed Daoud Khan, is overthrown and assassinated in a coup led by pro-communist rebels.

1977  The Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure is signed.

1977  The Red Army Faction trial ends, with Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe found guilty of four counts of murder and more than 30 counts of attempted murder.

1975  General Cao Văn Viên, chief of the South Vietnamese military, departs for the US as the North Vietnamese Army closed in on victory.

Vietnam War in 1975:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement or Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War:

1970  Vietnam War: US President Richard Nixon formally authorizes American combat troops to fight communist sanctuaries in Cambodia.

1970 in the Vietnam War:

Vietnam War and Communism in Cambodia:

1969  Charles de Gaulle resigns as President of France.

Charles de Gaulle:

1965  United States occupation of the Dominican Republic: American troops land in the Dominican Republic to “forestall establishment of a Communist dictatorship” and to evacuate U.S. Army troops.

US Occupation of the Dominican Republic of 1965:

Civil War in Dominican Republic of 1965:

Dominican Republic:

History of Dominican Republic:

Economy of the Dominican Republic:

1952  The Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty (Treaty of Taipei) is signed in Taipei, Taiwan between Japan and the Republic of China to officially end the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty (Treaty of Taipei):

Second Sino-Japanese War:

Japan’s War Crimes in China: Japan’s Apology and/or Japan’s Refusal of Apology? :

A Case Study: Nanking (Nanjing) Massacre as Japan’s War Crimes in the Second Sino-Japanese War:

Nanking (Nanjing) Massacre:

Nanjing (Nanjing) Massacre Denial:

1952  Occupied Japan by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers: The United States occupation of Japan ends as the Treaty of San Francisco, ratified September 8, 1951, comes into force.

Occupation of Japan:

Peace Treaty with Japan of Sep 8, 1951:

“Peace Treaty with Japan” and the “Security Treaty between the US and Japan”:

Research Guide on the Occupation of Japan:

A Few Selected Books:

1952  Dwight D Eisenhower resigns as Supreme Allied Commander of NATO.

Eisenhower and NATO:

1950  Bhumibol Adulyadej marries Queen Sirikit after their quiet engagement in Lausanne, Switzerland on July 19, 1949.

1949  The Hukbalahap are accused of assassinating former First Lady of the Philippines Aurora Quezon, while she is en route to dedicate a hospital in memory of her late husband; her daughter and ten others are also killed.

1948  Igor Stravinsky conducted the premier of his American ballet, Orpheus, in New York City at New York City Center.

1947  Thor Heyerdahl and five crew mates set out from Peru on the Kon-Tiki to prove that Peruvian natives could have settled Polynesia.

1945  Benito Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci are executed by a firing squad consisting of members of the Italian resistance movement.

Benito Mussolini:

Mussolini’s Death:

Timeline – Mussolini:

Mussolini’s Doctrine:

1944  World War II: Nine German E-boats attacked US and UK units during Exercise Tiger, the rehearsal for the Normandy landings, killing 946.

1932  A vaccine for yellow fever is announced for use on humans.

1930  The Independence Producers hosted the first night game in the history of Organized Baseball in Independence, Kansas.

1920  Azerbaijan is added to the Soviet Union.

1887  A week after being arrested by the Prussian Secret Police, Alsatian police inspector Guillaume Schnaebelé is released on order of William I, German Emperor, defusing a possible war.

1869  Chinese and Irish laborers for the Central Pacific Railroad working on the First Transcontinental Railroad lay ten miles of track in one day, a feat which has never been matched.

1796  The Armistice of Cherasco is signed by Napoleon Bonaparte and Vittorio Amedeo III, the King of Sardinia, expanding French territory along the Mediterranean coast.

1792  France invades the Austrian Netherlands (present day Belgium), beginning the French Revolutionary War.




2013  A powerful explosion occurs in an office building in Prague, believed to have been caused by natural gas, injures 43 people.

2011  The Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton takes place at Westminster Abbey in London.

Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton:

2004  Oldsmobile builds its final car ending 107 years of production.

2004  Dick Cheney and George W. Bush testify before the 9/11 Commission in a closed, unrecorded hearing in the Oval Office.

9/11 Official Story:

“9/11 Truth Movement”:

Counter-“9/11 Truth Movement”:

9/11 Various Aspects:

Bush Family, CIA, and Osama bin Laden:


YouTube Videos on 9/11:

A Few Books, Among Many Others, relating to 9/11:

1999  The Avala Tower near Belgrade is destroyed in the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia.

1997  The Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993 enters into force, outlawing the production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons by its signatories.

International Ban of Chemical Weapons and the Chemical Weapons Convention:

1994  Commodore International declares bankruptcy.

1992  Los Angeles riots: Riots in Los Angeles, following the acquittal of police officers charged with excessive force in the beating of Rodney King. Over the next three days 53 people are killed and hundreds of buildings are destroyed.

1991  The Racha earthquake of 7.0 Mw affects Georgia with a maximum MSK intensity of IX (Destructive), killing 270 people.

1991  A cyclone strikes the Chittagong district of southeastern Bangladesh with winds of around 155 miles per hour (249 km/h), killing at least 138,000 people and leaving as many as ten million homeless.

1986  Chernobyl disaster: American and European Spy Satellites capture the ruins of the 4th Reactor at the Chernobyl Power Plant.

Satellite Images of the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster:

Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster:

1986  A fire at the Central library of the City of Los Angeles Public Library damages or destroys 400,000 books and other items.

1975  Vietnam War: The North Vietnamese Army completes its capture of all parts of South Vietnamese-held Trường Sa Islands.

Vietnam War in 1975:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

1975  Vietnam War: Operation Frequent Wind: The U.S. begins to evacuate U.S. citizens from Saigon before an expected North Vietnamese takeover. U.S. involvement in the war comes to an end.

Operation Frequent Wind:

Vietnam War in 1975:

1974  Watergate scandal: United States President Richard Nixon announces the release of edited transcripts of White House tape recordings relating to the scandal.

Watergate Scandal:

Watergate Tapes:

1971  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1970  Vietnam War: United States and South Vietnamese forces invade Cambodia to hunt Viet Cong.

Vietnam War in 1970:

Viet Cong:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement or Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War:

1968  The controversial musical Hair, a product of the hippie counter-culture and sexual revolution of the 1960s, opens at the Biltmore Theatre on Broadway, with its song becoming anthems of the anti-Vietnam War movement.

1967  After refusing induction into the United States Army the day before (citing religious reasons), Muhammad Ali is stripped of his boxing title.

Muhammad Ali and Conscientious Objection:

Conscientious Objection and Objector:

History of Conscientious Objection:

1965  Pakistan‘s Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) successfully launches its seventh rocket in its Rehber series.

1964  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1953  The first US experimental 3D television broadcast showed an episode of Space Patrol on Los Angeles ABC affiliate KECA-TV.

1951  Tibetan delegates to the Central People’s Government arrive in Beijing and draft a Seventeen Point Agreement for Chinese sovereignty and Tibetan autonomy.

Tibetan Issues:

History of Tibet:

Economy of Tibet:

14th Dalai Lama:

1946  Father Divine, a controversial religious leader who claims to be God, marries Edna Rose Ritchings, a celebrated anniversary in the International Peace Mission movement.

1946  The International Military Tribunal for the Far East convenes and indicts former Prime Minister of Japan Hideki Tojo and 28 former Japanese leaders for war crimes.

International Military Tribunal for the Far East:

Hideki TOJO:

Charter of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East:

Judgement by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, and Other Pertinent Documents:

Radhabinod Pal and His Judgement:

War Crimes:

History of War Crimes:

Development of the “Crimes of Aggression” or the “Crimes against Peace” in the Modern Times:

Some Pertinent Articles:

1945  The Italian commune of Fornovo di Taro is liberated from German forces by Brazilian forces.

1945  The Dachau concentration camp is liberated by United States troops.

1945  World War II: Führerbunker: Adolf Hitler marries his longtime partner Eva Braun in a Berlin bunker and designates Admiral Karl Dönitz as his successor. Both Hitler and Braun commit suicide the following day.

Eva Braun and Adolf Hitler:

1945  World War II: The Captain-class frigate HMS Goodall (K479) is torpedoed by U-286 outside the Kola Inlet becoming the last ship of the Royal Navy sunk in the European theatre of World War II.

1945  World War II: Start of Operation Manna.

1945  World War II: The German army in Italy unconditionally surrenders to the Allies.

1944  World War II: British agent Nancy Wake, a leading figure in the French Resistance and the Gestapo‘s most wanted person, parachutes back into France to become a liaison between London and the local maquis group.

1916  Easter Rising: Martial law in Ireland is lifted and the rebellion is officially over with the surrender of Irish nationalists to British authorities in Dublin.

Easter Rising of 1916:

History of Ireland:

Irish War of Independence:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

History of the IRA:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1916  World War I: The British 6th Indian Division surrenders to Ottoman Forces at the Siege of Kut in one of the largest surrenders of British forces up to that point.

1910  The Parliament of the United Kingdom passes the People’s Budget, the first budget in British history with the expressed intent of redistributing wealth among the British public.

1903  A 30 million cubic-meter landslide kills 70 in Frank, North-West Territories, Canada.

1882  The “Elektromote“, forerunner of the trolleybus, is tested by Ernst Werner von Siemens in Berlin.




2014  A bomb blast in Ürümqi kills three people and injures 79 others.

2013  Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands abdicates and Willem-Alexander becomes King of the Netherlands.

2012  An overloaded ferry capsizes on the Brahmaputra River in India killing at least 103 people.

2009  Azerbaijan State Oil Academy shooting: Twelve people were killed (students and staff members) by an armed attacker.

2009  – Seven people are killed and another ten injured at a Queen’s Day parade in Apeldoorn, Netherlands in an attempted assassination on Queen Beatrix.

2009  Chrysler files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

2008  Two skeletal remains found near Yekaterinburg, Russia, are confirmed by Russian scientists to be the remains of Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia and Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna, one of his sisters.

2004  US media release graphic photos of American soldiers abusing and sexually humiliating Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison.

2000  Canonization of Faustina Kowalska in the presence of 200,000 people and the first Divine Mercy Sunday celebrated worldwide.

1995  US President Bill Clinton becomes the first President to visit Northern Ireland.

1994  Formula One racing driver Roland Ratzenberger is killed in a crash during the qualifying session of the San Marino Grand Prix run at Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari outside Imola, Italy.

1993  CERN announces World Wide Web protocols will be free.

1985  France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island.


History of France Nuclear Tests in the Pacific:

France’s Nuclear Tests:

1982  The Bijon Setu massacre occurs in Calcutta.

1980  The Iranian Embassy siege begins in London.

1980  Beatrix becomes Queen of the Netherlands.

1975  Fall of Saigon: Communist forces gain control of Saigon. The Vietnam War formally ends with the unconditional surrender of South Vietnamese president Dương Văn Minh.

1973  Watergate scandal: US President Richard Nixon announces that White House Counsel John Dean has been fired and that other top aides, most notably H. R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, have resigned.

Watergate Scandal:

Watergate Tapes:

1966  The Church of Satan is established at the Black House in San Francisco.

1963  The Bristol Bus Boycott is held in Bristol to protest the Bristol Omnibus Company‘s refusal to employ Black or Asian bus crews, drawing national attention to racial discrimination in the United Kingdom.

Bristol Bus Boycott of 1963:

1961  K-19, the first Soviet nuclear submarine equipped with nuclear missiles, is commissioned.

1957  Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery entered into force.

1948  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Enewetak.

Enewetak Nuclear Test Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1948  In Bogotá, Colombia, the Organization of American States is established.

1947  In Nevada, the Boulder Dam is renamed the Hoover Dam a second time.

1945  World War II: Führerbunker: Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide after being married for less than 40 hours. Soviet soldiers raise the Victory Banner over the Reichstag building.

1943  World War II: Operation Mincemeat: The submarine HMS Seraph surfaces in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Spain to deposit a dead man planted with false invasion plans and dressed as a British military intelligence officer.

1939  NBC inaugurates its regularly scheduled television service in New York City, broadcasting President Franklin D. Roosevelt‘s N.Y. World’s Fair opening day ceremonial address.

1939  The 1939-40 New York World’s Fair opens.

1938  The animated cartoon short Porky’s Hare Hunt debuts in movie theaters, introducing Happy Rabbit (a prototype of Bugs Bunny).

1937  The Commonwealth of the Philippines holds a plebiscite for Filipino women on whether they should be extended the right to suffrage; over 90% would vote in the affirmative.

1927  The Federal Industrial Institute for Women opens in Alderson, West Virginia, as the first women’s federal prison in the United States.

1925  Automaker Dodge Brothers, Inc is sold to Dillon, Read & Co. for US$146 million plus $50 million for charity.

1920  Peru becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.

1907  Honolulu, Hawaii becomes an independent city.

1900  Hawaii becomes a territory of the United States, with Sanford B. Dole as governor.

Stanford Ballard Dole:

History of Hawaii:

1894  Coxey’s Army reaches Washington, D.C. to protest the unemployment caused by the Panic of 1893.

1885  Governor of New York David B. Hill signs legislation creating the Niagara Reservation, New York’s first state park, ensuring that Niagara Falls will not be devoted solely to industrial and commercial use.

1871  The Camp Grant massacre takes place in Arizona Territory.

1863  A 65-man French Foreign Legion infantry patrol fights a force of nearly 2,000 Mexican soldiers to nearly the last man in Hacienda Camarón, Mexico.

1838  Nicaragua declares independence from the Central American Federation.

History of Nicaragua:


(Sources and references:   to april_30;   to april/30;   to april_30.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 24 Apr 2017.

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