This Week in History

HISTORY, 19 June 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

Jun 19-25

QUOTE OF THE WEEK:

“I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” – Evelyn Beatrice Hall

 

JUNE 19

2013  48 people are killed by armed bandits in Zamfara State, Nigeria.

Zamfara Attack in 2013:

Nigeria:

History of Nigeria:

Foreign Relations of Nigeria:

Nigeria and the United Nations:

Economy of Nigeria:

2012  WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange requested asylum in Ecuadorian Embassy in London for fear of extradition to the US after publication of previously classified documents including footage of civilian killings by the US army.

2010  Rival clashes between nomadic groups in the Darfur region of Sudan kills at least 48 people.

Darfur Conflict:

2009  War in North-West Pakistan: The Pakistani Armed Forces open Operation Rah-e-Nijat against the Taliban and other Islamist rebels in the South Waziristan area of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas.

War in North-West Pakistan:

Taliban:

History of Taliban:

Is the Taliban a Terrorist Organization? :

Pakistan:

History of Pakistan:

Foreign Relations of Pakistan:

Economy of Pakistan:

2009  Mass riots involving over 10,000 people and 10,000 police officers break out in Shishou, China, over the dubious circumstances surrounding the death of a local chef.

2007  The al-Khilani Mosque bombing in Baghdad leaves 78 people dead and another 218 injured.

1991  The Soviet occupation of Hungary ends.

History of Hungary:

Hungary:

Foreign Relations of Hungary:

Economy of Hungary:

1990  The Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic is founded in Moscow.

1990  The current international law defending indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989, is ratified for the first time by Norway.

Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention of 1989:

Case Study (1) Australia:

Indigenous Australians:

Stolen Generations:

Tasmanian Aboriginal People:

Tasmanian Genocide

Case Study (2) United States:

History of Native People of America:

Wars of Native People of North America:

1985  Members of the Revolutionary Party of Central American Workers, dressed as Salvadoran soldiers, attack the Zona Rosa area of San Salvador.

1982  The body of “God’s Banker”, Roberto Calvi, is found hanging beneath Blackfriars Bridge in London.

Roberto Calvi:

1982  In one of the first militant attacks by Hezbollah, David S. Dodge, president of the American University of Beirut, is kidnapped.

1970  The Patent Cooperation Treaty is signed.

1966  Shiv Sena a political party in India is founded in Mumbai.

1965  Nguyễn Cao Kỳ becomes Prime Minister of South Vietnam at the head of a military junta; General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu becomes the figurehead chief of state.

Nguyễn Cao Kỳ:

Nguyễn Văn Thiệu:

Vietnam War in 1965:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

1964  The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is approved after surviving an 83-day filibuster in the United States Senate.

Civil Rights Act of 1964:

History of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States – Overview:

Civil Rights Movements of Various Ethnic Minorities in the United States:

1961  Kuwait declares independence from the United Kingdom.

History of Kuwait:

Kuwait:

Foreign Relations of Kuwait:

Kuwait’s Relations with United Kingdom:

Economy of Kuwait:

1953  Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed at Sing Sing, in New York.

1944  World War II: First day of the Battle of the Philippine Sea.

Battle of the Philippine Sea of June 1944:

1934  The Communications Act of 1934 establishes the United States’ Federal Communications Commission (FCC).

1913  Natives Land Act, 1913 in South Africa implemented.

1910  The first Father’s Day is celebrated in Spokane, Washington.

Father’s Day:

1875  The Herzegovinian rebellion against the Ottoman Empire begins.

History of Herzegovina:

History of the Ottoman Empire:

1867  Maximilian I of the Second Mexican Empire is executed by a firing squad in Querétaro, Querétaro.

Second Mexican Empire:

History of Mexico:

1865  Over two years after the Emancipation Proclamation, slaves in Galveston, Texas, United States, are finally informed of their freedom. The anniversary is still officially celebrated in Texas and 41 other contiguous states as Juneteenth.

1862  The US Congress prohibits slavery in United States territories, nullifying Dred Scott v. Sandford.

Slavery in the United States:

1857  19 June 1857 law (Loi relative à l’assainissement et de mise en culture des Landes de Gascogne): a turning point in the history of the Landes forest.

 

 

JUNE 20

2001  Andrea Yates, in an attempt to save her young children from Satan, drowns all five of them in a bathtub in Houston, Texas.

1991  The German Bundestag votes to move the capital from Bonn back to Berlin.

1990  Asteroid Eureka is discovered.

1982  The Argentine base Corbeta Uruguay on Southern Thule surrenders to Royal Marine commandos in the final action of the Falklands War.

1979  ABC News correspondent Bill Stewart is shot dead by a Nicaraguan soldier under the regime of Anastasio Somoza Debayle. The murder is caught on tape and sparks an international outcry against the regime.

1973  Ezeiza massacre in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Snipers fire upon left-wing Peronists. At least 13 are killed and more than 300 are injured.

1972  Watergate scandal: An 18½-minute gap appears in the tape recording of the conversations between U.S. President Richard Nixon and his advisers regarding the recent arrests of his operatives while breaking into the Watergate complex.

“Mystery” of Watergate Tape Gap:

1963  The so-called “red telephone” link is established between the Soviet Union and the United States following the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Hot Line (a.k.a. Red Telephone):

1960  The Mali Federation gains independence from France (it later splits into Mali and Senegal).

Mali Federation:

French Sudan:

French Sudan, Independent as “Mali”:

History of Mali:

Mali:

Foreign Relations of Mali:

Mali and the United Nations:

US – Mali Military Relations/Cooperation:

Economy of Mali:

History of Senegal:

Senegal:

Foreign Relations of Senegal:

Senegal and the United Nations:

Economy of Senegal:

1945  The United States Secretary of State approves the transfer of Wernher von Braun and his team of Nazi rocket scientists to America.

Hunting Nazi Scientist Wernher von Braun for the US National Interest:

1944  Continuation war: the Soviet Union demands an unconditional surrender from Finland during the beginning of partially successful Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive. The Finnish government refuses.

Continuation War:

From Winter War to the Continuation War:

Timelines of the Winter War:

1944  World War II: The Battle of the Philippine Sea concludes with a decisive U.S. naval victory. The lopsided naval air battle is also known as the “Great Marianas Turkey Shoot”.

Battle of the Philippines Sea:

1943  German round up Jews in Amsterdam.

1942  The Holocaust: Kazimierz Piechowski and three others, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, steal an SS staff car and escape from the Auschwitz concentration camp.

1940  World War II: Italy begins an unsuccessful invasion of France.

1933  Siamese Coup d’état of June 1933.

1900  Baron Eduard Toll, leader of the Russian Polar Expedition of 1900, departs Saint Petersburg in Russia on the explorer ship Zarya, never to return.

1895  The Kiel Canal, crossing the base of the Jutland peninsula and the busiest artificial waterway in the world, is officially opened.

1887  Victoria Terminus, the busiest railway station in India, opens in Bombay.

1877  Alexander Graham Bell installs the world’s first commercial telephone service in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

1862  Barbu Catargiu, the Prime Minister of Romania, is assassinated.

1837  Queen Victoria succeeds to the British throne.

 

 

JUNE 21

2009  Greenland assumes self-rule.

Greenland Self-Rule:

2006  Pluto‘s newly discovered moons are officially named Nix & Hydra.

Nix and Hydra – Newly Discovered Moons of Pluto:

Nix (moon):

Hydra (moon):

2000  Section 28 (of the Local Government Act 1988), outlawing the ‘promotion’ of homosexuality in the United Kingdom, is repealed in Scotland with a 99 to 17 vote.

1990  An earthquake near the Caspian Sea in Iran kills more than 50,000 and injures another 135,000 people.

1990 Manjil-Rudbar Earthquake:

1970  Penn Central declares Section 77 bankruptcy, largest ever US corporate bankruptcy up to this date.

1964  Three civil rights workers, Andrew Goodman, James Chaney and Mickey Schwerner, are murdered in Neshoba County, Mississippi, United States, by members of the Ku Klux Klan.

Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and Its History:

History of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States – Overview:

Civil Rights Movements of Various Ethnic Minorities in the United States:

Nonviolence, Movements against Racism, and More:

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination:

One of the Historical Cases – Nuremberg Laws of Nazi Germany:

One of the Historical Cases – Apartheid of South Africa:

Sports and Racism:

Beauty Contest and Racism:

1957  Ellen Fairclough is sworn in as Canada’s first female Cabinet Minister.

1942  World War II: A Japanese submarine surfaces near the Columbia River in Oregon, firing 17 shells at nearby Fort Stevens in one of only a handful of attacks by Japan against the United States mainland.

1942  World War II: Tobruk falls to Italian and German forces.

1940  The first successful west-to-east navigation of Northwest Passage begins at Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

1930  One-year conscription comes into force in France.

Conscription in France and/or Europe:

Conscription in General:

Conscientious Objection:

1929  An agreement brokered by U.S. Ambassador Dwight Whitney Morrow ends the Cristero War in Mexico.

1919  Admiral Ludwig von Reuter scuttles the German fleet in Scapa Flow, Orkney. The nine sailors killed are the last casualties of World War I.

1898  The United States captures Guam from Spain.

Guam:

History of Guam:

1864  New Zealand Land Wars: The Tauranga Campaign ends.

Tauranga Campaign:

Background and the Timelines of the New Zealand Land Wars:

1854  The first Victoria Cross is awarded during the bombardment of Bomarsund in the Åland Islands.

1848  In the Wallachian Revolution, Ion Heliade Rădulescu and Christian Tell issue the Proclamation of Islaz and create a new republican government.

1826  Maniots defeat Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha in the Battle of Vergas.

 

 

JUNE 22

2012  Paraguayan President Fernando Lugo is removed from office by impeachment and succeeded by Federico Franco.

2006  Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture (a.k.a. OPCAT) enters into force. See also the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, (signed on December 10, 1984; in force on June 26, 1987).

Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture (OPCAT):

1990  Checkpoint Charlie is dismantled in Berlin.

Checkpoint Charlie:

1990  Nelson Mandela addresses the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid in New York.

Nelson Mandela:

Mandela’s Speech:

History of Apartheid:

1969  The Cuyahoga River catches fire in Cleveland, Ohio, drawing national attention to water pollution, and spurring the passing of the Clean Water Act and the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency.

1957  The Soviet Union launches an R-12 missile for the first time (in the Kapustin Yar).

1945  The Battle of Okinawa comes to an end.

Battle of Okinawa:

US Occupation of Okinawa:

The Origin or One of the Main Origins of the Presence of the United States Military in Okinawa:

The Presence of the United States Military in Okinawa:

Okinawa and Nuclear Weapons:

Okinawa and Agent Orange:

US Biological Weapon Experiments in Okinawa

Okinawa Travel Guide:

History of Okinawa:

Okinawa and World War II:

1944  US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs into law the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944, commonly known as the G.I. Bill.

1944  Opening day of the Soviet Union’s Operation Bagration against the Army Group Centre.

Operation Bargration:

1942  Pledge of Allegiance formally adopted by Congress

Pledge of Allegiance;

1942  Erwin Rommel is promoted to Field Marshal after the capture of Tobruk.

1941  The June Uprising in Lithuania begins.

June Uprising in Lithuania of 1941:

History of Lithuania:

Independence of Lithuania:

Russia and the Baltic States:

1941  Germany invades the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa.

1940  France is forced to sign the Second Compiègne armistice with Germany.

1911  George V and Mary of Teck are crowned King and Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

1898  Spanish–American War: United States Marines land in Cuba.

History of Cuba:

Spanish-American War:

Timeline of the Spanish-American War:

1839  Cherokee leaders Major Ridge, John Ridge, and Elias Boudinot are assassinated for signing the Treaty of New Echota, which had resulted in the Trail of Tears.

1825  The British Parliament abolishes feudalism and the seigneurial system in British North America.

 

 

JUNE 23

2014  The last of Syria’s declared chemical weapons are shipped out for destruction.

1985  A terrorist bomb aboard Air India Flight 182 brings the Boeing 747 down off the coast of Ireland killing all 329 aboard.

1972  Title IX of the United States Civil Rights Act of 1964 is amended to prohibit sexual discrimination to any educational program receiving federal funds.

Civil Rights Act of 1964:

History of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States – Overview:

Civil Rights Movements of Various Ethnic Minorities in the United States:

Gender Inequality/Equality in Employment in the United States:

Issues relating to Gender Inequality/Equality:

1972  Watergate Scandal: U.S. President Richard M. Nixon and White House Chief of Staff H. R. Haldeman are taped talking about using the Central Intelligence Agency to obstruct the Federal Bureau of Investigation‘s investigation into the Watergate break-ins.

Watergate Scandal:

Watergate Tapes:

1969  Software Industry IBM announced that effective January 1970 it would price its software and services separately from hardware thus creating the modern software industry.

1967  Cold War: U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson meets with Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin in Glassboro, New Jersey for the three-day Glassboro Summit Conference.

1967  Cold War: U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson meets with Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin in Glassboro, New Jersey for the three-day Glassboro Summit Conference.

1961  Cold War: the Antarctic Treaty, which sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve and bans military activity on the continent, comes into force after the opening date for signature set for the December 1, 1959.

Antarctic Treaty:

1960  SOFA (Status of Force Agreement between the United States and Japan) comes into effect.

SOFA (Overview):

Security Treaty between the United States and Japan of 1960, and the Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) of 1960:

Security Treaty between the United States and Japan of 1951:

1958  The Dutch Reformed Church accepts women ministers.

1956  The French National Assembly takes the first step in creating the French Community by passing the Loi Cadre, transferring a number of powers from Paris to elected territorial governments in French West Africa.

1947  The United States Senate follows the United States House of Representatives in overriding U.S. President Harry Truman‘s veto of the Taft-Hartley Act.

1943  World War II: The British destroyers HMS Eclipse and HMS Laforey sink the Italian submarine Ascianghi in the Mediterranean after she torpedoes the cruiser HMS Newfoundland.

1942  World War II: Germany’s latest fighter, a Focke-Wulf Fw 190, is captured intact when it mistakenly lands at RAF Pembrey in Wales.

1942  World War II: The first selections for the gas chamber at Auschwitz take place on a train full of Jews from Paris.

Gas Chamber at Auschwitz:

The Holocaust and the Auschwitz:

Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp:

1941  The Lithuanian Activist Front declares independence from the Soviet Union and forms the Provisional Government of Lithuania; it lasts only briefly as the Nazis will occupy Lithuania a few weeks later.

Lithuanian Independence Movement 1940-1991:

History of Lithuania:

Historical Background of the Baltic States and the Soviet Union:

1940  World War II: German leader Adolf Hitler surveys newly defeated Paris in now occupied France.

1919  Estonian War of Independence: the decisive defeat of the Baltische Landeswehr in the Battle of Cesis. This day is celebrated as Victory Day in Estonia.

Estonian War of Independence:

Estonia:

History of Estonia:

Foreign Relations of Estonia:

1914  Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa takes Zacatecas from Victoriano Huerta.

1913  Second Balkan War: The Greeks defeat the Bulgarians in the Battle of Doiran.

Second Balkan War:

First Balkan War:

Balkan Wars:

1887  The Rocky Mountains Park Act becomes law in Canada creating the nation’s first national park, Banff National Park.

1868  Typewriter: Christopher Latham Sholes received a patent for an invention he called the “Type-Writer.”

History of the Typewriter:

1848  Beginning of the June Days Uprising in Paris, France.

 

 

JUNE 24

2013  Former Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi is found guilty of abusing his power and having sex with an underage prostitute, and is sentenced to seven years in prison.

2012  Lonesome George, the last known individual of Chelonoidis nigra abingdonii, a subspecies of the Galápagos tortoise, dies.

Rare Species:

2004  In New York, capital punishment is declared unconstitutional.

Capital Punishment:

Capital Punishment in the United States:

Case Study: Capital Punishment (abolished in 1976) in Canada:

1989  Jiang Zemin succeeds Zhao Ziyang to become the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China after 1989 Tiananmen Square Protests.

Tiananmen Square, Beijing:

Tiananmen Square Protest and Massacre of 1989:

1973  The UpStairs Lounge arson attack takes place at a gay bar located on the second floor of the three-story building at 141 Chartres Street in the French Quarter of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Thirty-two people die as a result of fire or smoke inhalation.

1963  The United Kingdom grants Zanzibar internal self-government.

Zanzibar (Tanzania):

History of Zanzibar:

Economy of Zanzibar (Tanzania):

1954  First Indochina War: Battle of Mang Yang PassVietminh troops belonging to the 803rd Regiment ambush G.M. 100 of France in An Khê.

Battle of Mang Yang Pass:

First Indochina War:

1948  Start of the Berlin Blockade: the Soviet Union makes overland travel between West Germany and West Berlin impossible.

Berlin Blockade by the Soviet Union:

Berlin Blockade and the Airlift:

1947  Kenneth Arnold makes the first widely reported UFO sighting near Mount Rainier, Washington.

1947  American Anthropological Association issues a statement on human rights: “The problem faced by the Commission of Human Rights of the United Nations in preparing its Declaration of the Rights of Man must be approached from two points of view…”

1940  World War II: Operation Collar, the first British Commando raid on occupied France, by No 11 Independent Company.

1939  Siam is renamed Thailand by Plaek Pibulsonggram, the country’s third prime minister.

1938  Pieces of a meteor, estimated to have weighed 450 metric tons when it hit the Earth’s atmosphere and exploded, land near Chicora, Pennsylvania.

Meter:

1932  A bloodless Revolution instigated by the People’s Party ends the absolute power of King Prajadhipok of Siam (now Thailand).

1931  USSR & Afghanistan sign neutrality treaty.

Afghanistan:

History of Afghanistan:

Foreign Relations of Afghanistan:

Economy of Afghanistan:

1931  USSR and Germany renewed the Treaty of Berlin (German-Soviet Neutrality and Nonaggression Pact of April 1926).

Treaty of Berlin of 1931:

1916  World War I: the Battle of the Somme begins with a week-long artillery bombardment on the German Line.

1916  Mary Pickford becomes the first female film star to sign a million dollar contract.

1913  Greece and Serbia annul their alliance with Bulgaria.

1894  Marie Francois Sadi Carnot is assassinated by Sante Geronimo Caserio.

1866  Battle of Custoza: an Austrian army defeats the Italian army during the Austro-Prussian War.

1859  Battle of Solferino (Battle of the Three Sovereigns): Sardinia and France defeat Austria in Solferino, northern Italy.

1821  The Battle of Carabobo takes place. It is the decisive battle in the war of independence of Venezuela from Spain.

1813  Battle of Beaver Dams: a British and Indian combined force defeats the United States Army.

1812  Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon’s Grande Armée crosses the Neman River beginning the invasion of Russia.

1793  The first Republican constitution in France is adopted.

1762  Battle of Wilhelmsthal: The British-Hanoverian army of Ferdinand of Brunswick defeats French forces in Westphalia.

1717  The Premier Grand Lodge of England, the first Masonic Grand Lodge in the world (now the United Grand Lodge of England), is founded in London.

1622  Battle of Macau: The Dutch attempt but fail to capture Macau.

1597  The first Dutch voyage to the East Indies reaches Bantam (on Java).

1571  Miguel Lopez de Legazpi founds Manila, the capital of the Republic of the Philippines.

1531  The city of San Juan del Río, Mexico, is founded.

 

 

JUNE 25

2013  Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani becomes the 8th Emir of Qatar.

1993  Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action is adopted by World Conference on Human Rights.

1991  Croatia and Slovenia declare their independence from Yugoslavia.

The Beginning of the Breakup of Yugoslavia:

Independence of Slovenia and the Ten-Day War:

Independence of Croatia:

Ethnic Minority Issues of Croatia and Slovenia:

1982  Greece abolishes the head shaving of recruits in the military.

1981  Microsoft is restructured to become an incorporated business in its home state of Washington.

1978  The rainbow flag representing gay pride is flown for the first time in the San Francisco Gay Freedom Day Parade.

1976  Missouri Governor Kit Bond issues an executive order rescinding the Extermination Order, formally apologizing on behalf of the state of Missouri for the suffering it had caused to the members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.

1975  Prime Minister Indira Gandhi has a state of internal Emergency declared in India.

1975  Mozambique achieves independence.

Mozambique:

History of Mozambique:

Economy of Mozambique:

1967  Broadcasting of the first live global satellite television program: Our World

1960  Two cryptographers working for the United States National Security Agency left for vacation to Mexico, and from there defected to the Soviet Union.

1950  The Korean War begins with the invasion of South Korea by North Korea.

Korean War (Overview):

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1947  The Diary of a Young Girl (better known as The Diary of Anne Frank) is published.

The Diary of a Young Girl:

Anne Frank:

Final Days of Anne Frank:

Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp:

1945  President Harry S Truman arrived for the signing of the U.N. Charter at the ninth and closing plenary sessions of the United Nations.

President Harry S. Truman at the San Francisco Conference for the United Nations:

Birth of the United Nations (1) – Overview:

Birth of the United Nations (2) – Atlantic Charter of 1941:

Birth of the United Nations (3) – Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta:

Birth of the United Nations (4) – San Francisco Conference: April 26–June 26, 1945:

League of Nations and Its History:

1944  World War II: United States Navy and Royal Navy ships bombard Cherbourg to support United States Army units engaged in the Battle of Cherbourg.

1944  World War II: The Battle of Tali-Ihantala, the largest battle ever fought in the Nordic Countries, begins.

1943  The Holocaust: Jews in the Częstochowa Ghetto in Poland stage an uprising against the Nazis.

Częstochowa Ghetto:

Uprising at Częstochowa Ghetto:

1940  World War II: France officially surrenders to Germany at 01:35.

1938  Dr. Douglas Hyde is inaugurated as the first President of Ireland.

Douglas Hyde:

Irish War of Independence:

History of Ireland:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA):

History of the IRA:

IRA’s Terrorism:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1935  Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Colombia are established.

1910  Igor Stravinsky‘s ballet The Firebird is premiered in Paris, bringing him to prominence as a composer.

1910  The United States Congress passes the Mann Act, which prohibits interstate transport of females for “immoral purposes”; the ambiguous language would be used to selectively prosecute people for years to come.

1900  The Taoist monk Wang Yuanlu discovers the Dunhuang manuscripts, a cache of ancient texts that are of great historical and religious significance, in the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang, China.

1876  Battle of the Little Bighorn and the death of Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer.

1741  Maria Theresa of Austria is crowned Queen of Hungary.

1678  Venetian Elena Cornaro Piscopia is the first woman awarded a doctorate of philosophy when she graduates from the University of Padua.

1658  Spanish forces fail to retake Jamaica at the Battle of Rio Nuevo during the Anglo-Spanish War.

1530  At the Diet of Augsburg the Augsburg Confession is presented to the Holy Roman Emperor by the Lutheran princes and Electors of Germany.

________________________________________

 (Sources and references: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/june_19   to june_25; http://www.onthisday.com/events/june/19   to june/25;   http://www.brainyhistory.com/days/june_19.html.   to june_25.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.) 

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History

 

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 19 June 2017.

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