This Week in History

HISTORY, 10 Aug 2015

Satoshi Ashikaga - TRANSCEND Media Service

August 10-16

“Be happy for this moment. This moment is your life.” – Omar Khayyam


2001  2001 Angola train attack, 252 deaths.

1998  HRH Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah is proclaimed the crown prince of Brunei with a Royal Proclamation.

1995  Oklahoma City bombing: Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols are indicted for the bombing. Michael Fortier pleads guilty in a plea-bargain for his testimony.

1993  An earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter Scale hits the South Island of New Zealand.

1990  More than 127 Muslims are killed in North East Sri Lanka by paramilitary troops.

1990  The Magellan space probe reaches Venus.

1988  Japanese American internment: U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs the Civil Liberties Act of 1988, providing $20,000 payments to Japanese Americans who were either interned in or relocated by the United States during World War II.

1981  Murder of Adam Walsh: the head of John Walsh‘s son is found. This inspires the creation of the television series America’s Most Wanted.

1978  Three members of the Ulrich family are killed in an accident. This leads to the Ford Pinto litigation.

1978  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

1977  USSR performs (underground) nuclear test.

1969  A day after murdering Sharon Tate and four others, members of Charles Manson‘s cult kill Leno and Rosemary LaBianca.

1962  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

1961  First use in Vietnam War of the Agent Orange by the US Army.

Some Pertinent Information on “Agent Orange”:

Chemical Weapons and International Law:

1957  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1953  First Indochina War: The French Union withdraws its forces from Operation Camargue against the Viet Minh in central Vietnam.

1949  US President Harry S. Truman signs the National Security Act Amendment, streamlining the defense agencies of the United States government, and replacing the Department of War with the United States Department of Defense.

1945  Japan accepts Potsdam terms, agrees to unconditional surrender. Japanese Emperor, Hirohito’s announcement to the Japanese public is audio-recorded on 14 August 1945, and is broadcasted all over the country at noon, on 15 August 1945, local time. See also the entries of the dates of AUGUST 14 and 15, 1945.

1944  World War II: The Battle of Narva ends with a combined GermanEstonian force successfully defending Narva, Estonia, from invading Soviet troops.

1944  World War II: American forces defeat the last Japanese troops on Guam.

1932  A 5.1 kilograms (11 lb) chondrite-type meteorite breaks into at least seven pieces and lands near the town of Archie in Cass County, Missouri.

1920  World War I: Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI‘s representatives sign the Treaty of Sèvres that divides up the Ottoman Empire between the Allies.

1914  Austria-Hungary issues ultimate to Serbia.

1913  Second Balkan War: delegates from Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece sign the Treaty of Bucharest, ending the war.

1905  Russo-Japanese War: peace negotiations begin in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

1904  Russo-Japanese War: the Battle of the Yellow Sea between the Russian and Japanese battleship fleets takes place.

1901  The U.S. Steel Recognition Strike by the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers begins.

1864  After Uruguay’s governing Blanco Party refuses Brazil’s demands, José Antônio Saraiva announces that the Brazilian military will begin reprisals, beginning the Uruguayan War.

1846  The Smithsonian Institution is chartered by the United States Congress after James Smithson donates $500,000.

1813  Instituto Nacional, is founded by the Chilean patriot José Miguel Carrera. It is Chile‘s oldest and most prestigious school. Its motto is Labor Omnia Vincit, which means “Work conquers all things”.

1809  Quito, now the capital of Ecuador, declares independence from Spain. This rebellion will be crushed on August 2, 1810.

1793  The Musée du Louvre is officially opened in Paris, France.

1792  French Revolution: Storming of the Tuileries PalaceLouis XVI of France is arrested and taken into custody as his Swiss Guards are massacred by the Parisian mob.

1776  London learns American independence.




2012  At least 306 people are killed and 3,000 others injured in a pair of earthquakes near TabrizIran.

2011  The Israeli interior ministry grants its final approval for building 1,600 settler homes in the disputed East Jerusalem.

2006  The oil tanker M/T Solar 1 sinks off the coast of Guimaras and Negros Islands in the Philippines, causing the country’s worst oil spill.

2003  Jemaah Islamiyah leader Riduan Isamuddin, better known as Hambali, is arrested in Bangkok, Thailand.

2003  NATO takes over command of the peacekeeping force in Afghanistan, marking its first major operation outside Europe in its 54-year-history.

1984  We begin bombing in five minutes” – United States President Ronald Reagan, while running for re-election, jokes while preparing to make his weekly Saturday address on National Public Radio.

1984  USSR performs (underground) nuclear test.

1982  A bomb explodes on Pan Am Flight 830, en route from Tokyo, Japan to Honolulu, Hawaii, killing one teenager and injuring 15 passengers.

1982  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

Some information on Nevada Test Site:

Ecology and the Nevada Test Site:

The Nevada Test Site and Health:

1979  Two Aeroflot Tupolev Tu-134s collide over the Ukrainian city of Dniprodzerzhynsk and crash, killing all 178 aboard both airliners.

1975  US vetoes proposed admission of North & South Vietnam to UN.

1975 East Timor: Governor Mário Lemos Pires of Portuguese Timor abandons the capital Dili, following a coup by the Timorese Democratic Union (UDT) and the outbreak of civil war between UDT and Fretilin.

1973  “American Graffiti” released.

1972  Vietnam War: The last United States ground combat unit leaves South Vietnam.

1968  The last steam hauled train runs on British Rail.

War and Trains:

Since this article, not only presenting historical and historic events in the chronological order in the general sense, is specifically prepared for the TMS addressing “peace”, this section here below provides the readers with some information relating to railways, trains and war (and peace).

1965  Race riots (the Watts Riots) begin in the Watts area of Los Angeles, California.

1962  Vostok 3 launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome and cosmonaut Andrian Nikolayev becomes the first person to float in microgravity.

1961  The former Portuguese territories in India of Dadra and Nagar Haveli are merged to create the Union Territory Dadra and Nagar Haveli.

1960  Chad declares independence.

1959  Sheremetyevo International Airport, the second-largest airport in Russia, opens.

1952  Hussein bin Talal is proclaimed King of Jordan.

1947  Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founding father of Pakistan, gives a speech to the Constituent Assembly, the contents and meaning of which remain contentious today.

1945  Poles in Kraków engage in a pogrom against Jews in the city, killing one and wounding five.

1942  Actress Hedy Lamarr and composer George Antheil receive a patent for a Frequency-hopping spread spectrum communication system that later became the basis for modern technologies in wireless telephones and Wi-Fi.

1934  The first civilian prisoners arrive at the Federal prison on Alcatraz Island.

1920  The Latvian–Soviet Peace Treaty, which relinquished Russia‘s authority and pretenses to Latvia, is signed, ending the Latvian War of Independence.

1919  The constitution of the Weimar Republic is adopted.

1918  World War I: The Battle of Amiens ends.

1898  Spanish–American War: American troops enter the city of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

1858  The Eiger in the Bernese Alps is ascended for the first time by Charles Barrington accompanied by Christian Almer and Peter Bohren.

1813  In Colombia, Juan del Corral declares the independence of Antioquia.

1812  Peninsular War: French troops engage BritishPortuguese forces in the Battle of Majadahonda.

1804  Francis II assumes the title of first Emperor of Austria.

1786  Captain Francis Light establishes the British colony of Penang in Malaysia.




2005  Sri Lanka’s foreign minister, Lakshman Kadirgamar, is fatally shot by an LTTE sniper at his home.

2004  Mr. Lee Hsien Loong is sworn in as Singapore’s third Prime Minister.

1992  Canada, Mexico and the United States announce completion of negotiations for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

1990  Sue, the largest and most complete Tyrannosaurus Rex skeleton found to date, is discovered by Sue Hendrickson in South Dakota.

1985  Japan Airlines Flight 123 crashes into Osutaka ridge in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, killing 520, to become the worst single-plane air disaster.

1982  Mexico announces that it is unable to pay its enormous external debt, marking the beginning of a debt crisis that spreads to all of Latin America and the Third World.

1981  The IBM Personal Computer is released.

1980  The Montevideo Treaty, establishing the Latin American Integration Association, is signed.

1978  The Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Japan and the People’s Republic of China is signed.

“China–Japan Relationship” and the United States:

China’s Foreign Policy:

Japan’s Foreign Policy:

China – Japan Disputes:

Japan’s War Crimes in China: Japan’s Apology and/or Japan’s Refusal of Apology? :

1977  The 1977 riots in Sri Lanka, targeting the minority Sri Lankan Tamil people, begin, less than a month after the United National Party came to power. Over 300 Tamils are killed.

1977  The first free flight of the Space Shuttle Enterprise.

1976  Between 1,000 and 3,500 Palestinians are killed in the Tel al-Zaatar massacre, one of the bloodiest events of the Lebanese Civil War

1969  Violence erupts after the Apprentice Boys of Derry march in Derry, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom resulting in a three-day communal riot known as the Battle of the Bogside.

1964  South Africa is banned from the Olympic Games due to the country’s racist policies.

1960  Echo 1A, NASA’s first successful communications satellite, is launched.

1958  Art Kane photographs 57 notable jazz musicians in the black and white group portrait “A Great Day in Harlem” in front of a Brownstone in New York City.

1953  The islands of Zakynthos and Kefalonia in Greece are severely damaged by an earthquake measuring 7.3 on the Richter scale.

1953  Nuclear weapons testing: The Soviet atomic bomb project continues with the detonation of Joe 4, the first Soviet thermonuclear weapon.

1952  The Night of the Murdered Poets: Thirteen prominent Jewish intellectuals are murdered in Moscow, Russia, Soviet Union.

1950  Korean War: Bloody Gulch massacre—American POWs are massacred by North Korean Army.

1948  USS Nevada is struck from the naval record.

1944  Alençon is liberated by General Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque, the first city in France to be liberated from the Nazis by French forces.

1944  Nazi German troops end the week-long Wola massacre, during which time at least 40,000 people were killed indiscriminately or in mass executions.

1944  Waffen-SS troops massacre 560 people in Sant’Anna di Stazzema.

1914  World War I: The Battle of Haelen a.k.a. (Battle of the Silver Helmets) a clash between large Belgian and German cavalry formations at Halen, Belgium.

1914  World War I: The United Kingdom declares war on Austria-Hungary; the countries of the British Empire follow suit.

1898  The Hawaiian flag is lowered from ʻIolani Palace in an elaborate annexation ceremony and replaced with the flag of the United States to signify the transfer of sovereignty from the Republic of Hawaii to the United States.

History of Hawaii:

The Annexation of Hawaii with the United States:

1898  An Armistice ends the Spanish–American War.

1883  The last quagga dies at the Artis Magistra zoo in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

1877  Asaph Hall discovers the Mars moon Deimos.

1851  Isaac Singer is granted a patent for his sewing machine.

1831  French intervention forces William I of the Netherlands to abandon his attempt to suppress the Belgian Revolution.

1806  Santiago de Liniers, 1st Count of Buenos Aires re-takes the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina after the first British invasion.

1793  The Rhône and Loire départments are created when the former département of Rhône-et-Loire is split into two.

1765  Treaty of Allahabad is signed. The Treaty marks the political and constitutional involvement and the beginning of Company rule in India.

1687  Battle of Mohács: Charles of Lorraine defeats the Ottoman Empire.




2014  US air strikes, in combination with Kurdish forces, pushed back an assault by Islamic State militants upon Yazidi minorities trapped on Mt. Sinjar in Iraq; the action allowed thousands to escape.

2010  The MV Sun Sea docks in CFB Esquimalt, British Columbia, Canada, carrying 492 Sri Lankan Tamils.

2008  South Ossetian War: Russian units occupy the Georgian city of Gori.

2004  One hundred fifty-six Congolese Tutsi refugees are massacred at the Gatumba refugee camp in Burundi.

1978  One hundred fifty Palestinians in Beirut are killed in a terrorist attack during the second phase of the Lebanese Civil War.

1977  Members of the British National Front (NF) clash with anti-NF demonstrators in Lewisham, London, resulting in 214 arrests and at least 111 injuries.

1969  The Apollo 11 astronauts are released from a three-week quarantine to enjoy a ticker tape parade in New York, New York. That evening, at a state dinner in Los Angeles, California, they are awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by US President Richard Nixon.

1968  Alexandros Panagoulis attempts to assassinate the Greek dictator Colonel Georgios Papadopoulos in Varkiza, Athens.

1964  Peter Allen and Gwynne Evans are hanged for the Murder of John Alan West becoming the last people executed in the United Kingdom.

1961  East Germany closes the border between the eastern and western sectors of Berlin to thwart its inhabitants’ attempts to escape to the West.

1960  The Central African Republic declares independence from France.

1954  Radio Pakistan broadcasts the “Qaumī Tarāna“, the national anthem of Pakistan for the first time.

1942  Major General Eugene Reybold of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers authorizes the construction of facilities that would house the “Development of Substitute Materials” project, better known as the Manhattan Project.

1937  The Battle of Shanghai begins.

1920  Polish–Soviet War: the Battle of Warsaw begins and will last till August 25. The Red Army is defeated.

1918  “Bayerische Motoren Werke GmbH” becomes BMW AG The German term Aktiengesellschaft means a corporation, a “public company” equivalent to the US term, which is limited by shares, i.e., owned by shareholders. It may be traded on the stock market. The term is used in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland.

1918  Women enlist in the United States Marine Corps for the first time. Opha Mae Johnson is the first woman to enlist.

History of Women Marines:

Pros and Cons of Women in Combat, and Other Pertinent Issues on Women in Military, including Gender Equality in Military:

Women and Conscientious Objectors:

1913  First production in the UK of stainless steel by Harry Brearley.

1913  Otto Witte, an acrobat, is purportedly crowned King of Albania.

1906  The all black infantrymen of the U.S. Army’s 25th Infantry Regiment are accused of killing a white bartender and wounding a white police officer in Brownsville, Texas, despite exculpatory evidence; all are later dishonorably discharged.

1898  Carl Gustav Witt discovers 433 Eros, the first near-Earth asteroid to be found.

1898  Spanish–American War: Spanish and American forces engaged in a mock battle for Manila, after which the Spanish commander surrendered in order to keep the city out of Filipino rebel hands.

1868  A massive earthquake near Arica, Peru, causes an estimated 25,000 casualties, and the subsequent tsunami causes considerable damage as far away as Hawaii and New Zealand.

1831  Nat Turner sees a solar eclipse, which he believes is a sign from God. Eight days later he and 70 other slaves kill approximately 55 whites in Southampton County, Virginia.

1814  The Convention of London, a treaty between the United Kingdom and the United Provinces, is signed in London, England.

1806  Battle of Mišar during the Serbian Revolution begins. The battle will end two days later, with a decisive Serbian victory over the Ottomans.

1792  King Louis XVI of France is formally arrested by the National Tribunal, and declared an enemy of the people.

1704  War of the Spanish Succession: Battle of BlenheimEnglish and Imperial forces are victorious over French and Bavarian troops.




2014  UN declares Iraq ‘Level 3 Emergency’ to trigger more resources, speed up aid delivery.

2013  Egypt declares a state of emergency as security forces kill hundreds of demonstrators supporting former president Mohamed Morsi.

2010  The first-ever Youth Olympic Games are held in Singapore.

2007  The Kahtaniya bombings kills at least 796 people.

2006  Chencholai bombing: Sixty-one Sri Lankan Tamils are killed in a Sri Lankan Air force bombing.

1996  Greek Cypriot refugee Solomos Solomou is murdered by Turkish forces while trying to climb a flagpole in order to remove a Turkish flag from its mast in the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus.

1994  Ilich Ramírez Sánchez, also known as “Carlos the Jackal“, is captured.

1986  Pakistani opposition leader Benazir Bhutto arrested.

1980  Lech Wałęsa leads strikes at the Gdańsk, Poland shipyards.

1974  The second Turkish invasion of Cyprus begins; 140,000 to 200,000 Greek Cypriots become refugees. Around 6,000 massacred, 1,619 missing.

1974  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1974  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

1973  US ends secret bombing of Cambodia.

1973  The Pakistan Constitution of 1973 comes into effect.

1972  An East German Ilyushin Il-62 crashes during takeoff from East Berlin, killing 156.

1971  Bahrain declares independence as the State of Bahrain.

1969  Operation Banner: British troops are deployed in Northern Ireland.

1967  UK Marine Broadcasting Offences Act declares participation in offshore pirate radio illegal.

1966  1st US lunar orbiter begins orbiting Moon.

1949  Military coup under colonel Sami Hinnawi in Syria.

1947  Pakistan gains Independence from the British Empire and joins the Commonwealth of Nations.

History of Pakistan:

Independence of Pakistan:

1945  The Viet Minh launches August Revolution amid the political confusion and power vacuum engulfing Vietnam.

1945  Japan accepts the Allied terms of surrender in World War II and the Emperor records the Imperial Rescript on Surrender (August 15 in Japan Standard Time). See also the entries of AUGUST 10 and 15, 1945.

1941  World War II: Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt sign the Atlantic Charter of war stating postwar aims.

Visit the section of Atlantic Charter of 1941, in the entry of 1945 United Nations Charter is signed in San Francisco, the date of JUNE 26, This Week in History June 22 – 28.

1937  Chinese Air Force Day: The beginning of air-to-air combat of the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II in general, when six Imperial Japanese Mitsubishi G3M bombers are shot down by the Nationalist Chinese Air Force while raiding Chinese air bases.

1936  Rainey Bethea is hanged in Owensboro, Kentucky in the last public execution in the United States.

Public Execution as a Contemporary Human Rights Issue:

Some Arguments and Information on the Capital Punishment:

1935  Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Social Security Act, creating a government pension system for the retired.

1933  Loggers cause a forest fire in the Coast Range of Oregon, later known as the first forest fire of the Tillamook Burn. It is extinguished on September 5, after destroying 240,000 acres (970 km2).

1921  Tannu Uriankhai, later Tuvan People’s Republic is established as a completely independent country (which is supported by Soviet Russia).

1916  Romania declares war on Austria-Hungary, joining the Entente in World War I.

1914  World War I: Start of the Battle of Lorraine, an unsuccessful French offensive designed to recover the lost province of Moselle from Germany.

1912  US Marines invade Nicaragua to support the U.S.-backed government installed there after José Santos Zelaya had resigned three years earlier.

1901  The first claimed powered flight, by Gustave Whitehead in his Number 21.

1900  The Eight-Nation Alliance occupies Beijing, China, in a campaign to end the bloody Boxer Rebellion in China.

1897  Franco-Hova Wars: The town of Anosimena is captured by French troops from Menabe defenders in Madagascar.

1893  France becomes the first country to introduce motor vehicle registration.

1888  An audio recording of English composer Arthur Sullivan‘s “The Lost Chord“, one of the first recordings of music ever made, is played during a press conference introducing Thomas Edison‘s phonograph in London, England.

1880  Construction of Cologne Cathedral, the most famous landmark in Cologne, Germany, is completed.

1842  Wars of native peoples of North America (aka American Indian Wars): Second Seminole War ends, with the Seminoles forced from Florida to Oklahoma.

1816  The United Kingdom formally annexed the Tristan da Cunha archipelago, administering them from the Cape Colony in South Africa.

1720  The Spanish military Villasur expedition is wiped out by Pawnee and Otoe warriors near present-day Columbus, Nebraska.




2014  The European Union will assist Iraq in fighting Islamic State militants; European nations and the EU are sending arms in addition to humanitarian aid.

For some more information on the Islamic State, visit JUNE 29, 2004 of the This Week in History.

2013  The Smithsonian announces the discovery of the olinguito, the first new carnivoran species found in the Americas in 35 years.

2013  At least 27 people are killed and 226 injured in an explosion in southern Beirut near a complex used by Lebanon’s militant group Hezbollah in Lebanon. A previously unknown Syrian Sunni group claims responsibility in an online video.

2007  An 8.0-magnitude earthquake off the Pacific coast devastates Ica and various regions of Peru killing 514 and injuring 1,090.

2005  The Helsinki Agreement between the Free Aceh Movement and the Government of Indonesia was signed, ending 28 years of fighting.

2005  Israel’s unilateral disengagement plan to evict all Israelis from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the northern West Bank begins.

1999  Beni Ounif massacre in Algeria: Some 29 people are killed at a false roadblock near the Moroccan border, leading to temporary tensions with Morocco.

1998  Omagh bombing in Northern Ireland, the worst terrorist incident of The Troubles.

1995  In South Carolina, Shannon Faulkner becomes the first female cadet matriculated at The Citadel (she drops out less than a week later).

1991  US performs nuclear at Nevada Test Site.

1984  The Kurdistan Workers’ Party in Turkey starts a campaign of armed attacks upon the Turkish military with an attack on police and gendarmerie bases in Şemdinli and Eruh

1977  The Big Ear, a radio telescope operated by Ohio State University as part of the SETI project, receives a radio signal from deep space; the event is named the “Wow! signal” from the notation made by a volunteer on the project.

1975  Takeo Miki makes the first official pilgrimage to Yasukuni Shrine by an incumbent prime minister on the anniversary of the end of World War II.

1975  Bangladesh‘s founder Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is killed along with most members of his family during a military coup.

1974  Yuk Young-soo, First Lady of South Korea, is killed during an apparent assassination attempt upon President, Park Chung-hee.

Park Geun-hey, whose mother was Yuk Young-soo, Becomes the 11th President of the Republic of Korea in February 2013:

1974  France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island.

1973  USSR performs nuclear test.

1973  Vietnam War: The United States bombing of Cambodia ends.

1971  Bahrain gains independence from the United Kingdom.

1971  President Richard Nixon completes the break from the gold standard by ending convertibility of the United States dollar into gold by foreign investors.

The Gold Standard:

The End of the Gold Standard:

1970  Patricia Palinkas becomes the first woman to play professionally in an American football game.

1968  USSR performs nuclear test at Sary Shagan USSR.

1963  President Fulbert Youlou is overthrown in the Republic of the Congo, after a three-day uprising in the capital.

See below1960 Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville) becomes independent from France.”

1963  Execution of Henry John Burnett, the last man to be hanged in Scotland.

1962  James Joseph Dresnok defects to North Korea after running across the Korean Demilitarized Zone. Dresnok still resides in the capital, Pyongyang.

1961  Border guard Conrad Schumann flees from East Germany while on duty guarding the construction of the Berlin Wall.

1960  Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville) becomes independent from France.

1954  Alfredo Stroessner begins his dictatorship in Paraguay.

History of Paraguay:

Alfredo Stroessner and His Regime:

1948  The Republic of Korea is established south of the 38th parallel north.

The Republic of Korea:

The 38th Parallel North:

1947  Founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah is sworn in as first Governor-General of Pakistan in Karachi.

History of Pakistan:

Muhammad Ali Jinnah:

1947  India gains Independence from the British Indian Empire after near 190 years of Crown rule and joins the Commonwealth of Nations.

Independence of India:

History of India:

India’s Independence, Nonviolence Movement, and Gandhi:

1945  Japanese Emperor, Hirohito, broadcasts to the Japanese public, at noon Japan Time, that his government accepted the Potsdam Declaration, which means Japan’s unconditional surrender to the Allied Powers. The Japanese representatives sign the Instrument of Surrender on September 2, 1945.

Japan’s Surrender:

What Made the Japanese Government Decide to Surrender? The Atomic Bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, or Something Else? :

Hirohito (Japanese Emperor), and World War II in the Asia-Pacific Theater:

World War II in the Asia-Pacific Theater:

Impacts and/or After-effects of Japan’s Surrender:

1944  World War II: Operation Dragoon: Allied forces land in southern France.

1942  World War II: Operation Pedestal: The SS Ohio reaches the island of Malta barely afloat carrying vital fuel supplies for the island’s defenses.

1941  Corporal Josef Jakobs is executed by firing squad at the Tower of London at 07:12, making him the last person to be executed at the Tower for espionage.

1940  An Italian submarine torpedoes and sinks the Greek cruiser Elli at Tinos harbor during peacetime, marking the most serious Italian provocation prior to the outbreak of the Greco-Italian War in October.

1935  Will Rogers and Wiley Post are killed after their aircraft develops engine problems during takeoff in Barrow, Alaska.

1920  Polish–Soviet War: Battle of Warsaw, so-called Miracle at the Vistula.

1915  A story in New York World newspaper reveals that the Imperial German government had purchased excess phenol from Thomas Edison that could be used to make explosives for the war effort and diverted it to Bayer for aspirin production.

1914  World War I: Beginning of the Battle of Cer, the first Allied victory of World War I.

1914  World War I: The First Russian Army, led by Paul von Rennenkampf, enters East Prussia.

1914  The Panama Canal opens to traffic with the transit of the cargo ship SS Ancon.

1907  Ordination in Constantinople of Fr. Raphael Morgan, the first African-American Orthodox priest, “Priest-Apostolic” to America and the West Indies.

1893  Ibadan area becomes a British Protectorate after a treaty signed by Fijabi, the Baale of Ibadan with the British acting Governor of Lagos, George C. Denton.

1869  The Meiji government in Japan establishes six new ministries, including one for Shinto.

1863  The Anglo-Satsuma War begins between the Satsuma Domain of Japan and the United Kingdom (Traditional Japanese date: July 2, 1863).

1843  The Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace in Honolulu, Hawaii is dedicated. Now the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu, it is the oldest Roman Catholic cathedral in continuous use in the United States.

1824  The Marquis de Lafayette, the last surviving French general of the American Revolutionary War, arrives in New York and begins a tour of 24 states.

1812  War of 1812: The Battle of Fort Dearborn is fought between United States troops and Potawatomi at what is now Chicago, Illinois.

1760  Seven Years’ War: Battle of LiegnitzFrederick the Great‘s victory over the Austrians under Ernst Gideon von Laudon.

1695  French forces end the bombardment of Brussels, leaving a third of the buildings in the city in ruins.




2013  The ferry St. Thomas Aquinas collides with a cargo ship and sinks at Cebu, Philippines, killing 61 people and 59 others missing.

2012  The US State Department states the UN Secretary-General’s decision to attend the 120-member Non-Aligned Movement summit is ‘strange’ and ‘not a good signal’.

2012  South African police fatally shoot 34 miners and wound 78 more during an industrial dispute near Rustenburg.

1989  A solar flare from the Sun creates a geomagnetic storm that affects micro chips, leading to a halt of all trading on Toronto’s stock market.

Solar Flares and Humans:

1977  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1972  In an unsuccessful coup d’état attempt, the Royal Moroccan Air Force fires upon Hassan II of Morocco‘s plane while he is traveling back to Rabat.

1972  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

1966  Vietnam War: The House Un-American Activities Committee begins investigations of Americans who have aided the Viet Cong. The committee intends to introduce legislation making these activities illegal. Anti-war demonstrators disrupt the meeting and 50 people are arrested.

1964  Vietnam War: A coup d’état replaces Dương Văn Minh with General Nguyễn Khánh as President of South Vietnam. A new constitution is established with aid from the US Embassy.

1962  Eight years after the remaining French India territories were handed to India, the ratifications of the treaty are exchanged to make the transfer official.

1960  Cyprus gains its independence from the United Kingdom.

1946  The All Hyderabad Trade Union Congress is founded in Secunderabad.

1946  Mass riots in Kolkata begin, in which more than 4,000 would be killed in 72 hours.

1945  The National Representatives’ Congress, the precursor of the current National Assembly of Vietnam, convenes in Sơn Dương.

1945  Puyi, the last Chinese emperor and ruler of Manchukuo, is captured by Soviet troops.

1945  An assassination attempt is made on Japan’s prime minister, Kantarō Suzuki.

1942  World War II: The two-person crew of the U.S. naval blimp L-8 disappears without a trace on a routine anti-submarine patrol over the Pacific Ocean. The blimp drifts without her crew and crash-lands in Daly City, California.

1929  The 1929 Palestine riots break out in Mandatory Palestine between Palestinian Arabs and Jews and continue until the end of the month. In total, 133 Jews and 116 Arabs are killed.

1923  The United Kingdom gives the name “Ross Dependency” to part of its claimed Antarctic territory and makes the Governor General of the Dominion of New Zealand its administrator.

1920  Polish–Soviet War: The Battle of Radzymin concludes; the Soviet Red Army is forced to turn away from Warsaw.

1920  The congress of the Communist Party of Bukhara opens. The congress would call for armed revolution.

1920  Ray Chapman of the Cleveland Indians is hit on the head by a fastball thrown by Carl Mays of the New York Yankees, and dies early the next day. Chapman was the second player to die from injuries sustained in a Major League Baseball game, the first being Doc Powers in 1909.

1918  The Battle of Lake Baikal was fought between the Czechoslovak legion and the Red Army.

1913  Tōhoku Imperial University of Japan (modern day Tohoku University) becomes the first university in Japan to admit female students.

1906  An estimated 8.2 MW earthquake hits Valparaíso, Chile, killing 3,886 people.

1900  The Battle of Elands River during the Second Boer War ends after a 13-day siege is lifted by the British. The battle had begun when a force of between 2,000 and 3,000 Boers had surrounded a force of 500 Australians, Rhodesians, Canadians and British soldiers at a supply dump at Brakfontein Drift.

1896  Skookum Jim Mason, George Carmack and Dawson Charlie discover gold in a tributary of the Klondike River in Canada, setting off the Klondike Gold Rush.

1891  The Basilica of San Sebastian in Manila, the first all-steel church in Asia, is officially inaugurated and blessed.

1870  Franco-Prussian War: The Battle of Mars-la-Tour is fought, resulting in a Prussian victory.

1869  Battle of Acosta Ñu: A Paraguayan battalion made up of children is massacred by the Brazilian Army during the Paraguayan War.

1863  The Dominican Restoration War begins when Gregorio Luperón raises the Dominican flag in Santo Domingo after Spain had recolonized the country.

1859  The Tuscan National Assembly formally deposes the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.

1858  US President James Buchanan inaugurates the new transatlantic telegraph cable by exchanging greetings with Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. However, a weak signal forces a shutdown of the service in a few weeks.

1841  US President John Tyler vetoes a bill which called for the re-establishment of the Second Bank of the United States. Enraged Whig Party members riot outside the White House in the most violent demonstration on White House grounds in U.S. history.

1819  Peterloo Massacre: Seventeen people die and over 600 are injured in cavalry charges at a public meeting at St. Peter’s Field, Manchester, England.

1812  War of 1812: American General William Hull surrenders Fort Detroit without a fight to the British Army.

1793  French Revolution: A levée en masse is decreed by the National Convention.

1792  Maximilien de Robespierre presents the petition of the Commune of Paris to the Legislative Assembly, which demanded the formation of a revolutionary tribunal.


Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, audio/visual documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

(Sources and references:   to August_16;   to august/16; to august_16.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace” through peace journalism.

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 10 Aug 2015.

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