This Week In History

HISTORY, 26 Jun 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

Jun 26-Jul 2


“Life isn’t about finding yourself.  Life is about creating yourself.“ — George Bernard Shaw


2015  The US Supreme Court ruled, 5–4, that same-sex couples have a constitutional right to marriage under the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution.

2013  Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa Al Thani became Prime Minister of Qatar.

2013  Riots in China‘s Xinjiang region kill at least 36 people and injuring 21 others.

2013  The US Supreme Court rules that Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act is unconstitutional and in violation of the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

2007  Benedict XVI reinstates the traditional laws of papal election in which a successful candidate must receive 2/3 of the votes.

2006  Mari Alkatiri, the first Prime Minister of East Timor, resigns after weeks of political unrest.

History of East Timor:

East Timor:

Human Rights of East Timor:

2000  John Paul II reveals the third secret of Fátima.

Third Secret of Fátima:

Miracle of the Sun in Fátima:

2000  President Clinton announces the completion of the first survey of the entire human genome.

Human Genome:

1995  Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani deposes his father Khalifa bin Hamad al-Thani, the Emir of Qatar, in a bloodless coup.

Bloodless Coup in Qatar of 1995:

1991  Ten-Day War: The Yugoslav people’s army begins the Ten-Day War in Slovenia.

Ten-Day War of Slovenia:

History of Slovenia:


Foreign Relations of Slovenia:

Economy of Slovenia:

1987  Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (aka UN Convention Against Torture or CAT) enters into force. See also the Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture (adopted on December 18, 2002; in force on June 22, 2006).

Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (aka UN Convention Against Torture or CAT):

1967  Karol Wojtyła (later John Paul II) made a cardinal by Pope Paul VI.

Karol Wojtyla or Pope John Paul II:

1963  Levi Eshkol becomes the Israeli Prime Minister.

1963  US President John F. Kennedy gave his “Ich bin ein Berliner” speech, underlining the support of the United States for democratic West Germany shortly after Soviet-supported East Germany erected the Berlin Wall.

1960  Madagascar gains its independence from France.


History of Madagascar:

Economy of Madagascar:

1960  The former British Protectorate of British Somaliland gains its independence as Somaliland.

Somalia (Somaliland):

History of Somalia (Somaliland):

Economy of Somalia:

1955  The South African Congress Alliance adopts the Freedom Charter at the Congress of the People in Kliptown.

1952  The Pan-Malayan Labor Party is founded in Malaya, as a union of statewide labor parties.

1948  The Western allies begin an airlift to Berlin after the Soviet Union blockades West Berlin.

Berlin Blockade by the Soviet Union:

Berlin Blockade and Airlift (Overview):

Berlin Blockade and the Airlift:

1945  The United Nations Charter is signed in San Francisco.

Comparison: Charter of the United Nations and the Covenant of the League of Nations:

History of the United Nations:

Atlantic Charter of 1941:

Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta:

San Francisco Conference: April 26 – June 26, 1945:

1944  World War II: The Battle of Osuchy in Osuchy, Poland, one of the largest battles between Nazi Germany and Polish resistance forces, ends with the defeat of the latter.

1942  The first flight of the Grumman F6F Hellcat.

1941  World War II: Soviet planes bomb Kassa, Hungary (now Košice, Slovakia), giving Hungary the impetus to declare war the next day.

1940  World War II: Under the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, the Soviet Union presents an ultimatum to Romania requiring it to cede Bessarabia and the northern part of Bukovina.

1934  President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Federal Credit Union Act, which establishes credit unions.

1924  American occupying forces leave the Dominican Republic.

US Occupation of the Dominican Republic 1916-1924:

Dominican Republic:

History of Dominican Republic:

Economy of the Dominican Republic:

1918  World War I, Western Front: Battle for Belleau Wood – Allied Forces under John J. Pershing and James Harbord defeat Imperial German Forces under Wilhelm, German Crown Prince.

1917  The first US troops arrive in France to fight alongside Britain and France against Germany in World War I.

1889  Bangui is founded by Albert Dolisie and Alfred Uzac in what was then the upper reaches of the French Congo.

French Congo:

1886  Henri Moissan isolated elemental Fluorine for the first time.

1848  End of the June Days Uprising in Paris.

1843  Treaty of Nanking comes into effect, Hong Kong Island is ceded to the British “in perpetuity”.




2015  A midair explosion from flammable powder at a recreational water park in Taiwan injures at least 510 people with about 183 in serious condition in intensive care.

2014  At least fourteen people are killed when a Gas Authority of India Limited pipeline explodes in the East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India.

2013  NASA launches the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, a space probe to observe the Sun.

2008  In a highly scrutizined election President of Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe is re-elected in a landslide after his opponent Morgan Tsvangirai had withdrawn a week earlier, citing violence against his party‘s supporters.

2008 Zimbabwe Presidential Election:


History of Zimbabwe:

Economy of Zimbabwe:

2007  The Brazilian Military Police invades the favelas of Complexo do Alemão in an episode which is remembered as the Complexo do Alemão massacre.

2007  Tony Blair resigns as British Prime Minister, a position he had held since 1997.

Tony Blair:

Timelines of Tony Blair’s Government:

1991  Slovenia, after declaring independence two days before is invaded by Yugoslav troops, tanks, and aircraft starting the Ten-Day War.

Slovenia’s Ten-Day War of 1991:

1981  African Charter on Human and People’s Rights (in force on 21 October 1986) is adopted.

African Charter on Human and People’s Rights:        

1981  The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China issues its “Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People’s Republic of China”, laying the blame for the Cultural Revolution on Mao Zedong.

1977  France grants independence to Djibouti.


Djibouti-France Relations:

History of Djibouti:

Economy of Djibouti:

1974  US president Richard Nixon visits the Soviet Union.

Nixon’s Visit to the Soviet Union in 1974:

1973  The President of Uruguay Juan María Bordaberry dissolves Parliament and establishes a dictatorship.

1954  The Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant, the Soviet Union‘s first nuclear power station, opens in Obninsk, near Moscow.

1952  Guatemala passes Decree 900, ordering the redistribution of uncultivated land.

1950  The United States decides to send troops to fight in the Korean War.

Truman’s Decision:

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1946  In the Canadian Citizenship Act, the Parliament of Canada establishes the definition of Canadian citizenship.

1941  German troops capture the city of Białystok during Operation Barbarossa.

Operation Barbarossa:

1941  Romanian governmental forces, allies of Nazi Germany, launch one of the most violent pogroms in Jewish history in the city of Iaşi, (Romania), resulting in the murder of at least 13,266 Jews.

1927  Prime Minister of Japan Tanaka Giichi leads a conference to discuss Japan‘s plans for China; later, a document detailing these plans, the “Tanaka Memorial” is leaked, although it is now considered a forgery.

1905  Battleship Potemkin uprising: sailors start a mutiny aboard the battleship Potemkin, denouncing the crimes of autocracy, demanding liberty and an end to war.

1898  The first solo circumnavigation of the globe is completed by Joshua Slocum from Briar Island, Nova Scotia.

1844 Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, and his brother Hyrum Smith, are murdered by a mob at the Carthage, Illinois jail.

1806  British forces take Buenos Aires during the first British invasions of the Río de la Plata.

1760  Cherokee warriors defeat British forces at the Battle of Echoee near present-day Otto, North Carolina during the Anglo-Cherokee War.

1759  General James Wolfe begins the siege of Quebec.

1743  War of the Austrian Succession: Battle of Dettingen: On the battlefield in Bavaria, George II personally leads troops into battle. The last time that a British monarch would command troops in the field.

1556  The thirteen Stratford Martyrs are burned at the stake near London for their Protestant beliefs.



2016  A terrorist attack in Turkey’s Istanbul Atatürk Airport kills 42 people and injures more than 230 others.

2009  Honduran president Manuel Zelaya is ousted by a local military coup following a failed request to hold a referendum to rewrite the Honduran Constitution. This was the start of the 2009 Honduran political crisis.

2008  The inaugural meeting of the Community Assembly of Kosovo and Metohija.

2006  Montenegro is announced as the 192nd member state of the United Nations.

Montenegro and the United Nations:

History of Montenegro:

2001  Slobodan Milošević is deported to the ICTY to stand trial.

Slobodan Milošević at ICTY:

1990  An amendment is brought to the Constitution of Croatia changing the status of Serbs from constituent people (konstitutivni narod) of the Croatian nation to national minority.

Constitution of Croatia:

1989  On the 600th anniversary of the battle of Kosovo, Serbian leader Slobodan Milošević delivers the Gazimestan speech on the site of the historic battle.

Milošević’s Gazimestan speech:

Why Is Kosovo Important to Serbs?

History of Kosovo and Kosovo Serbs:

1987  For the first time in military history, a civilian population is targeted for chemical attack when Iraqi warplanes bombed the Iranian town of Sardasht.

First Use of Chemical Weapons against Civilians:

Chemical Weapon Convention:

1981  A powerful bomb explodes in Tehran, killing 73 officials of Islamic Republic Party.

1976  The Angolan court sentences US and UK mercenaries to death sentences and prison terms in the Luanda Trial.

1969  Stonewall Riots begin in New York City, marking the start of the Gay Rights Movement.

1967  Israel annexes East Jerusalem.

East Jerusalem:

1964  Malcolm X forms the Organization of Afro-American Unity.

1956  In Poznań, workers from HCP factory went to the streets, sparking one of the first major protests against communist government both in Poland and Europe.

1950  Korean War: North Korean Army conducted Seoul National University Hospital Massacre.

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1950  Korean War: Packed with its own refugees fleeing Seoul and leaving their 5th Division stranded, South Korean forces blow up the Hangang Bridge to in attempt to slow North Korea’s offensive.

Hangang Bridge Bombing:

1950  Korean War: Suspected communist sympathizers, argued to be between 100,000 and 200,000 are executed in the Bodo League massacre.

Bodo League Massacre:

1950  Korean War: Seoul is captured by North Korean troops.

For more information on the Korean War and its timelines, see1950  Korean War: North Korean Army conducted Seoul National University Hospital Massacre

Capture of Seoul by North Korea:

1948  The Cominform circulates the “Resolution on the situation in the Communist Party of Yugoslavia”; Yugoslavia is expelled from the Communist bloc.

Yugoslavia’s Expulsion from COMINFORM:

1945  Poland‘s Soviet-allied Provisional Government of National Unity is formed over a month after V-E Day.

1942  World War II: Nazi Germany started its strategic summer offensive against the Soviet Union, codenamed Case Blue

Case Blue:

1940  Romania cedes Bessarabia (current-day Moldova) to the Soviet Union after facing an ultimatum.

1936  The Japanese puppet state of Mengjiang is formed in northern China.

1926  Mercedes-Benz is formed by Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz merging their two companies.

1922  The Irish Civil War begins with the shelling of the Four Courts in Dublin by Free State forces.

From Irish Civil War to the Irish War of Independence:

Irish War of Independence:

History of Ireland:

1921  The Serbian King Alexander I proclaims the new Constitution of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, known thereafter as the Vidovdan Constitution (Vidovdanski ustav).


King Alexander I:

1919  The Treaty of Versailles is signed ending World War I.

World War I:

Timelines of the World War I:

The End of the World War I:

Aftermath of World War I:

Treaty of Versailles:

Treaty of Versailles and the Origins of the “Crimes of Aggression” or the “Crimes against Peace”:

“Crimes against Peace” a.k.a. “Crimes of Aggression”:

Prohibition of War and the Kellogg and Briand Pact of 1928:

UN Charter and the UNGA Resolution 3314 (XXIX) on “Aggression”

1914  Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his wife Sophie are assassinated in Sarajevo by Bosnia Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip, the casus belli of World War I.

Franz Ferdinand’s Assassination in Sarajevo:

World War I:

Causes of World War I:

Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) Empire:

History of the Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) Empire:

1895  El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua form the Greater Republic of Central America.

1882  The Anglo-French Convention of 1882 marks the territorial boundaries between Guinea and Sierra Leone.

1881  Secret treaty between Austria and Serbia. “June 28, 1881, a secret treaty between Austria-Hungary and Serbia is signed with Serbia earning the right to be recognized as a monarchy in exchange of surrendering its independence to the Habsburg Empire.

Roots of Sarajevo: Austro-Hungary Empire and Serbia:

Serbia and World War I:

Causes of World War I:

Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) Empire:

History of the Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) Empire:

1865  1865 – The Army of the Potomac is disbanded.

1807  Second British invasion of the Río de la Plata; John Whitelock lands at Ensenada on an attempt to recapture Buenos Aires and is defeated by the locals.

1745  War of the Austrian Succession: A New England colonial army captures Louisbourg, New France, after a forty-seven-day siege (New Style).

1389  The Ottoman Empire defeated the Serbian army in the Battle of Kosovo on the Kosovo field. Both Sultan Murad and Prince Lazar were slain in battle. The Kosovo Myth became important in forming Serbian identity.

Kosovo Myth:

Milošević’s 1989 Speech in Gazimestan, Kosovo:

History of Kosovo:

Kosovo Conflict:




2014  The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (= ISIL, aka ISIS) self-declared its caliphate in Syria and northern Iraq.

ISIS and the United States:

Training, Support and Funding:

ISIS and Israel:

Supply of Weapons to ISIS:

How ISIS Uses Oil to Finance Its Terror Operations

Buyers of ISIS Oil:

2006  Hamdan v. Rumsfeld: The U.S. Supreme Court rules that President George W. Bush‘s plan to try Guantanamo Bay detainees in military tribunals violates U.S. and international law.

Guantánamo Bay Prison:

Human Rights at Guantánamo:

Hamdan vs. Rumsfeld

1994  US reopens Guantanamo Naval Base to process refugees.

Guantanamo Naval Base:

History of the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base:

Human Rights in the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base:

1984  USSR offers to start talking about banning SDI.


1976  The Conference of Communist and Workers Parties of Europe convenes in East Berlin

1976  The Seychelles become independent from the United Kingdom.


Foreign Relations of Seychelles:

History of Seychelles:

Economy of Seychelles:

1975  Steve Wozniak tested his first prototype of Apple I computer.

1974  Mikhail Baryshnikov defects from the Soviet Union to Canada while on tour with the Kirov Ballet.

Mikhail Baryshnikov’s Defection:

1974  Isabel Perón is sworn in as the first female President of Argentina. Her husband, President Juan Perón, had delegated responsibility due to weak health and died two days later.

1956  The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 is signed, officially creating the United States Interstate Highway System.

1949  South Africa begins implementing apartheid, its racial segregation rules.

History of Apartheid (1) – Overview – :

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination:

One of the Historical Cases – Nuremberg Laws of Nazi Germany:

History of Apartheid (2):

Anti-Apartheid Movement:

Racism Case Studies (1): Sports and Racism:

Racism Case Studies (2): Beauty Contest and Racism:

1949  US troops withdraw from Korea after WW II.

Withdrawal of the US Troops from Korea:

1945  Carpathian Ruthenia is annexed by the Soviet Union.

1943  FDR writes to Manhattan Project physicist Dr. Robert Oppenheimer.

Manhattan Project:

1916  The Irish Nationalist and British diplomat Roger Casement is sentenced to death for his part in the Easter Rising.

History of Ireland:

Path toward the Irish War of Independence:

Easter Rising of 1916:

1915  The North Saskatchewan River flood of 1915 is the worst flood in Edmonton history.

1914  Jina Guseva attempts to assassinate Grigori Rasputin at his home town in Siberia.

1913  The attack by Bulgarian General Michael Savov on Greek and Serbian positions leads to beginning of the second Balkan War

1895  Doukhobors burn their weapons as a protest against conscription by the Tsarist Russian government.

1888  George Edward Gouraud records Handel‘s Israel in Egypt onto a phonograph cylinder, thought for many years to be the oldest known recording of music.

1881  In Sudan, Muhammad Ahmad declares himself to be the Mahdi, the messianic redeemer of Islam.

1880  France annexes Tahiti.


History of Tahiti:

1874  Greek politician Charilaos Trikoupis publishes a manifesto in the Athens daily Kairoi entitled “Who’s to Blame?” in which he lays out his complaints against King George. He is elected Prime Minister of Greece the next year.

1807  Russo-Turkish War: Admiral Dmitry Senyavin destroys the Ottoman fleet in the Battle of Athos.

Russo-Turkish War:




2015  A Hercules C-130 military aircraft with 113 people on board crashes in a residential area in Medan, Indonesia, resulting in at least 116 deaths.

2013  Nineteen firefighters die controlling a wildfire in Yarnell, Arizona.

1997  The United Kingdom transfers sovereignty over Hong Kong to the People’s Republic of China.

Transfer of Sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997:

History of Hong Kong:

1990  East Germany and West Germany merge their economies.

Unification of German Economy:

Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany:

German Unification and the Unification Treaty:

German Reunification:


Foreign Relations of Germany:

History of Germany:

Economy of Germany:

1989  Sudan suspends interim constitution following coup.


Foreign Relations of Sudan:

Sudan and the United Nations:

Human Rights in Sudan:

History of Sudan:

Sudan People’s Liberation Army/Movement:

Economy of Sudan:

1985  Thirty-nine American hostages from the hijacked TWA Flight 847 are freed in Beirut after being held for 17 days.

1977  The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization disbands.

1972  The first leap second is added to the UTC time system.

1966  The National Organization for Women, the United States’ largest feminist organization, is founded.

1963  Ciaculli massacre: a car bomb, intended for Mafia boss Salvatore Greco, kills seven police officers and military personnel near Palermo.

1960  Congo gains independence from Belgium.

Belgian Congo:

History of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:

Democratic Republic of the Congo:

Foreign Relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:

Economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:

1944  World War II: The Battle of Cherbourg ends with the fall of the strategically valuable port to American forces.

1937  The world’s first emergency telephone number, 999, is introduced in London

1936  Emperor Haile Selassie of Abyssinia appeals for aid to the League of Nations against Italy‘s invasion of his country.

1934  – The Night of the Long Knives, Adolf Hitler‘s violent purge of his political rivals in Germany, takes place.

1922  In Washington D.C., U.S. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes and Dominican Ambassador Francisco J. Peynado sign the Hughes-Peynado agreement, which ends the United States occupation of the Dominican Republic.

1921  US President Warren G. Harding appoints former President William Howard Taft Chief Justice of the United States.

1917  World War I: Greece declares war on the Central Powers.

1908  The Tunguska event occurs in remote Siberia.

Tunguska Event of 1908:

1905  Albert Einstein publishes the article On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, in which he introduces special relativity.

Einstein’s Papers:

Einstein’s Special Relativity:

On Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity:

1886  The first transcontinental train trip across Canada departs from Montreal. It arrives in Port Moody, British Columbia on July 4.

1864  U.S. President Abraham Lincoln grants Yosemite Valley to California for “public use, resort and recreation”.

1860  The 1860 Oxford evolution debate at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History takes place.

Oxford Evolution Debate of 1860:

1794  Native American forces under Blue Jacket attack Fort Recovery.

1758  Seven Years’ War: The Battle of Domstadtl takes place.

Battle of Domstaldtl:

Seven Years’ War:




2013  Neptune‘s moon S/2004 N 1 is discovered.

S/2004 N1:

2013  The United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) begins its operative peacekeeping mandate in Mali.


2013  Croatia becomes the 28th member of the European Union.


History of Croatia:

Economy of Croatia:

Foreign Relations of Croatia:

Croatia and the EU:

2008  Rioting erupts in Mongolia in response to allegations of fraud surrounding the 2008 legislative elections.

Mongolia Election of 2008 and the Riot on July 1, 2008:


History of Mongolia:

Foreign Relations of Mongolia:

Mongolia and the United Nations:

Economy of Mongolia:

2007  Smoking in England is banned in all public indoor spaces.

2007  The Concert for Diana is held at the new Wembley Stadium in London and broadcast in 140 countries.

2006  The first operation of Qinghai–Tibet Railway in China.

2004  Saturn orbit insertion of Cassini–Huygens begins at 01:12 UTC and ends at 02:48 UTC.

2003  Over 500,000 people protest against efforts to pass anti-sedition legislation in Hong Kong.

2002  The International Criminal Court is established to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. (= The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court comes into force.)

International Criminal Court (ICC):

Compare the International Criminal Court with other international judicial institutions in international criminal law:

International Military Tribunals in Nüremberg and in Tokyo:

International Criminal Courts for former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda:

Hybrid Courts and Internationalized Domestic Courts and Tribunals:

Pertinent Documents and Lectures on International Criminal Law:

Jurisdiction of the ICC:

United States and the International Criminal Court (ICC):

Arguments on the American Exceptionalism and on the Myth of the American Exceptionalism:

1997  China resumes sovereignty over the city-state of Hong Kong, ending 156 years of British colonial rule.

For democracy of Hong Kong, visit the following websites, among many others:

1991  The Warsaw Pact is officially dissolved at a meeting in Prague.

Warsaw Pact (1955-1991):

1990  German reunification: East Germany accepts the Deutsche Mark as its currency, thus uniting the economies of East and West Germany.

Introduction of Deutsch Mark to (former) East Germany:

Unification of German Economy:

Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany:

German Unification and the Unification Treaty:

German Reunification:


Foreign Relations of Germany:

History of Germany:

Economy of Germany:

1984  The PG-13 rating is introduced by the MPAA.

1979  Sony introduces the Walkman.

1978  The Northern Territory in Australia is granted Self-Government.

1976  Portugal grants autonomy to Madeira.

1970  President General Yahya Khan abolishes One-Unit of West Pakistan restoring the provinces.

1968  The Nuclear non-proliferation treaty is signed in Washington, D.C., London and Moscow by sixty-two countries.

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty:

1968 The United States Central Intelligence Agency‘s Phoenix Program is officially established.

1967 The European Community is formally created out of a merger with the Common Market, the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Commission.

European Community:

1963  The British Government admits that former diplomat Kim Philby had worked as a Soviet agent.

1962  Rwanda and Burundi become independent.

Rwanda and Burundi:

History of Rwanda:

1960  Ghana becomes a Republic and Kwame Nkrumah becomes its first President as Queen Elizabeth II ceases to be its Head of state.

History of Ghana:


Foreign Relations of Ghana:

History of Ghana:

Economy of Ghana:

1960  The independent Somali Democratic Republic, commonly known as Somalia, is formed out of former British and Italian territories.


1959 Specific values for the international yard, avoirdupois pound and derived units (e.g. inch, mile and ounce) are adopted after agreement between the U.S.A., the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries.

1959  The Party of the African Federation holds its constitutive conference.

1957  The International Geophysical Year begins.

1949  The merger of two princely states of India, Cochin and Travancore, into the state of Thiru-Kochi (later re-organized as Kerala) in the Indian Union ends more than 1,000 years of princely rule by the Cochin Royal Family.

1947  – The Philippine Air Force is established

1942  World War II: First Battle of El Alamein.

1921  The Communist Party of China is founded.

1916  World War I: First day on the Somme: On the first day of the Battle of the Somme 19,000 soldiers of the British Army are killed and 40,000 wounded.

1908  SOS is adopted as the international distress signal.


1898  Spanish–American War: The Battle of San Juan Hill is fought in Santiago de Cuba.

Battle of San Juan Hill:

Spanish-American War:

Timeline of the Spanish-American War:

1879 Charles Taze Russell publishes the first edition of the religious magazine The Watchtower.

1874  The Sholes and Glidden typewriter, the first commercially successful typewriter, goes on sale.

1870  The United States Department of Justice formally comes into existence.




2016   An Australian federal election results in a one-seat majority for the incumbent government led by Malcolm Turnbull. Turnbull claimed victory on July 9, a week after the election.

2013  The International Astronomical Union names Pluto’s fourth and fifth moons, Kerberos and Styx.

2013  Reports that Pope John Paul II will be canonized are confirmed as his case awaits approval from Pope Francis, and confirmation of an alleged second miracle from the Vatican Congregation for the Causes of Saints.

Pope John Paul II:

John Paul II – Road to Sainthood:

2005  The Live 8 benefit concerts takes place in the G8 states and in South Africa, More than 1,000 musicians performed and are broadcast on 182 television networks and 2,000 radio networks.

1986  Rodrigo Rojas and Carmen Gloria Quintana were burnt alive during a street demonstration against the dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet in Chile.

1976  Fall of the Republic of Vietnam; Communist North Vietnam declares their union to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Socialist Republic of Vietnam:

1971  USSR performs underground nuclear test at Komi, Russia.

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

List of Nuclear Weapons Test Sites:

1966  The French military explodes a nuclear test bomb codenamed Aldébaran in Mururoa, their first nuclear test in the Pacific.

France’s Nuclear Test at Mururoa (Overview):


History of France Nuclear Tests in the Pacific:

France’s Nuclear Tests:

1964  US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 meant to prohibit segregation in public places.

Civil Rights Act of 1964:

History of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States – Overview:

Civil Rights Movements of Various Ethnic Minorities in the United States:

Nonviolence, Movements against Racism, and More:

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination:

1962  The first Wal-Mart store opens for business in Rogers, Arkansas.


1958  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Bikini Atoll.

US Atmospheric Nuclear Test at Bikini Atoll (Overview):

Operation Hardtack I:

Nuclear Tests at Bikini Atoll:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1956  US performs nuclear test at Enwetak (atmospheric tests).

Enwetak Nuclear Test Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1950  The Golden Pavilion at Kinkaku-ji in Kyoto, Japan burns down.


1940  Hitler gave his first tentative orders regarding a possible invasion of Britain.

Operation Sea Lion:

1940  Indian independence leader Subhas Chandra Bose is arrested and detained in Calcutta.

Indian Independence Movement:

1937  Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan are last heard from over the Pacific Ocean while attempting to make the first equatorial round-the-world flight.

Amelia Earhart:

What Happened to Amelia Earhart? :

Achievements of Amelia Earhart:

1934  The Night of the Long Knives ends with the death of Ernst Röhm.

1921  World War I: U.S. President Warren G. Harding signs the Knox–Porter Resolution formally ending the war between the United States and Imperial Germany.

1917  The East St. Louis Riots end.

1900  The first Zeppelin flight takes place on Lake Constance near Friedrichshafen, Germany.

1897  Italian scientist Guglielmo Marconi obtains a patent for radio in London.

1890  The US Congress passes the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

1881  Charles J. Guiteau shoots and fatally wounds U.S. President James Garfield, who eventually dies from an infection on September 19.

1871 Victor Emmanuel II of Italy enters Rome after having conquered it from the Papal States.

1853  The Russian Army crossed the Pruth river into the Danubian Principalities, Moldavia and Wallachia—providing the spark that set off the Crimean War.

1839  Abdülmecid I became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam.

1839  Twenty miles off the coast of Cuba, 53 rebelling African slaves led by Joseph Cinqué take over the slave ship Amistad.

1823  Bahia Independence Day: The end of Portuguese rule in Brazil, with the final defeat of the Portuguese crown loyalists in the province of Bahia.

1822  Thirty-five slaves are hanged in South Carolina, including Denmark Vesey, after being accused of organizing a slave rebellion.


(Sources and references:    to july_4;    to july/2;   to july_2.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 26 Jun 2017.

Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week In History, is included. Thank you.

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