This Week in History

HISTORY, 2 Oct 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

Oct 2-8, 2017


”The eternal destiny of human beings will be measured by how much or how little solidarity we have displayed with the hungry, the thirsty, the naked, and the oppressed. In the end we will be judged in terms of love.”  — Leonardo Boff



2007  President Roh Moo-hyun of South Korea walks across the Military Demarcation Line into North Korea on his way to the second Inter-Korean Summit with North Korean leader Kim Jong-il.

2001  NATO backs U.S. military strikes following 9/11.

1997  Amsterdam Treaty on European Union is signed.

1996  The Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments are signed by US President Bill Clinton.

1992  The Carandiru massacre takes place after a riot in the Carandiru Penitentiary in São Paulo, Brazil.

1980  Michael Myers becomes the first member of either chamber of Congress to be expelled since the Civil War.

1979  Pope John Paul II denounces all forms of concentration camps and torture while speaking at the U.N. in New York City.

1969  US performs underground nuclear test at Amchitka Island Aleutians.

Underground Nuclear Weapons Testing:

Nuclear Weapons Testing at Amchitka Island:

1968  A peaceful student demonstration in Mexico City culminates in the Tlatelolco massacre by the order of the president, Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, to the soldiers of killing unarmed students, hiding the event from the public eye. The 1968 Summer Olympics, hosted in Mexico City, started ten days after the massacre.

1967  Thurgood Marshall is sworn in as the first African-American justice of United States Supreme Court.

1961  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

1958  Guinea declares its independence from France.


Independence of Guinea:

Foreign Relations of Guinea:

History of Guinea:

Economy of Guinea:

Human Rights Issues of Guinea:

1958  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

For some more relevant information, see1961    USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR”, mentioned above.

1944  World War II: German troops end the Warsaw Uprising, by killing 250,000 people.

Warsaw Uprising:

1942  World War II: Ocean Liner RMS Queen Mary accidentally rams and sinks her own escort ship, HMS Curacoa, off the coast of Ireland.

1941  World War II: In Operation Typhoon, Germany begins an all-out offensive against Moscow.

1937  Dominican Republic strongman Rafael Trujillo orders the execution of the Haitian population living within the borderlands; approximately 20,000 are killed over the next five days.

1928  The “Prelature of the Holy Cross and the Work of God”, commonly known as Opus Dei, is founded by Saint Josemaría Escrivá.

1925  John Logie Baird performs the first test of a working television system.

1814  Battle of Rancagua: Spanish Royalists troops under Mariano Osorio defeats rebel Chilean forces of Bernardo O’Higgins and José Miguel Carrera.




2013  The Gambia withdraws from the Commonwealth of Nations.

The Gambia:

Foreign Relations of the Gambia:

History of the Gambia:

Economy of the Gambia:

2013  At least 134 migrants are killed when their boat sinks near the Italian island of Lampedusa.

2009  The presidents of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkey sign the Nakhchivan Agreement on the Establishment of Turkic Council.

2008  The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 for the U.S. financial system is signed by President George W. Bush.

1995  O J Simpson is acquitted of the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman.

1993  Battle of Mogadishu: A firefight occurs during a failed attempt to capture key officials of warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid‘s organisation in Mogadishu, Somalia, costing the lives of 18 American soldiers, and over 350 Somalis.

1990  German reunification: The German Democratic Republic ceases to exist and its territory becomes part of the Federal Republic of Germany. East German citizens became part of the European Community, which later became the European Union. Now celebrated as German Unity Day.

German Reunification:


Foreign Relations of Germany:

History of Germany:

Economy of Germany:

1987  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1987:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1986  TASCC, a superconducting cyclotron at the Chalk River Laboratories, is officially opened.

1985  The Space Shuttle Atlantis makes its maiden flight. (Mission STS-51-J).

198The hunger strike by Provisional Irish Republican Army and Irish National Liberation Army prisoners at the Maze Prison in Northern Ireland ends after seven months and ten deaths.

Hunger Strike of the IRA in 1981:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

IRA’s Terrorism:

History of the IRA:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1972  USSR performs nuclear test.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1972:

1968  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1963  A violent coup in Honduras pre-empts the October 13 election, ends a period of reform, and begins two decades of military rule.

1962  Project Mercury: Sigma 7 is launched from Cape Canaveral, with astronaut Wally Schirra aboard, for a six-orbit, nine-hour flight.

1952  The United Kingdom successfully tests a nuclear weapon at the Montebello Islands in Western Australia. The United Kingdom becomes the world’s third nuclear power.

First British Nuclear Test

Nuclear Weapons and the United Kingdom:

1950  Korean War: The First Battle of Maryang San, primarily pitting Australian and British forces against communist China, begins.

First Battle of Maryang San:

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1949  WERD, the first black-owned radio station in the United States, opens in Atlanta.

1942  Spaceflight: The first successful launch of a V-2 /A4-rocket from Test Stand VII at Peenemünde, Germany. It is the first man-made object to reach space.

1935  Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Italy invades Ethiopia under General de Bono.

1932  Iraq gains independence from the United Kingdom.

Independence of Iraq:

Iraq and Its History:

1930  The German Socialist Labour Party in Poland – Left is founded following a split in DSAP in Łódź.

1929  The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes is renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia, “Land of the South Slavs”.

“State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs” – “Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs” – “Kingdom of Yugoslavia”:

History of Yugoslavia:

1912  US forces defeat Nicaraguan rebels under the command of Benjamín Zeledón at the Battle of Coyotepe Hill.

1873  Captain Jack and companions are hanged for their part in the Modoc War.

1849  American author Edgar Allan Poe is found delirious in a gutter in Baltimore under mysterious circumstances; it is the last time he is seen in public before his death.

1835  The Staedtler company is founded in Nuremberg, Germany.

1778  Captain James Cook anchors in Alaska.

1739  The Treaty of Niš is signed by the Ottoman Empire and Russia at the end of the Russian–Turkish War, 1736–39.




2010  The Ajka plant accident in western Hungary releases about a million cubic metres (35 million cubic feet) of liquid alumina sludge. Nine people are killed and 122 injured, and the Marcal and Danube rivers are severely contaminated.

2004  SpaceShipOne wins Ansari X Prize for private spaceflight, by being the first private craft to fly into space.

2003  Maxim restaurant suicide bombing in Haifa, Israel: Twenty-one Israelis, Jews and Arabs, are killed, and 51 others wounded.

2001  Siberia Airlines Flight 1812: a Sibir Airlines Tupolev Tu-154 crashes into the Black Sea after being struck by an errant Ukrainian S-200 missile. Seventy-eight people are killed.

2001  NATO confirms invocation of Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty.

Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty:


History of NATO:

Problems of NATO:

The United States and NATO:

1997  The second largest cash robbery in U.S. history occurs at the Charlotte, North Carolina office of Loomis, Fargo and Company. An investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation eventually results in 24 convictions and the recovery of approximately 95% of the $17.3 million stolen cash.

1993  Russian Constitutional Crisis: In Moscow, tanks bombard the White House, a government building that housed the Russian parliament, while demonstrators against President Boris Yeltsin rally outside.

Russian Constitutional Crisis of 1993:

1992  The Rome General Peace Accords ends a 16-year civil war in Mozambique.

Rome General Peace Accords:

Civil War in Mozambique:

1991  The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty is opened for signature.

Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty of 1991:

1985  The Free Software Foundation is founded in Massachusetts, United States.

1983  Richard Noble sets a new land speed record of 633.468 miles per hour (1,019.468 km/h), driving Thrust2 at the Black Rock Desert in Nevada.

1979  USSR performs nuclear test at Sakha, Russia.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1979:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1976  Official launch of the InterCity 125 high speed train.

1974  Founding of the New Democracy party in Greece.

Modern History of Greece:

1971  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1971:

1967  Omar Ali Saifuddien III of Brunei abdicates in favour of his son, His Majesty Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah.

1966  Basutoland becomes independent from the United Kingdom and is renamed Lesotho.

1965  Pope Paul VI arrives in New York, the first Pope to visit the United States of America and the Western hemisphere.

1963  Hurricane Flora, kills 6,000 in Cuba and Haiti.

1961  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1961:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

1958  Fifth Republic of France is established.

1957  Avro Arrow roll-out ceremony at Avro Canada plant in Malton, Ontario.

1957  Space Race: Launch of Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth.

1949  United Nations’ permanent NYC headquarters is dedicated.

Headquarters of the United Nations:

1943  World War II: US captures the Solomon Islands from the Japanese.

1940  Meeting between Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini at the Brenner Pass.

Hitler and Mussolini:

Adolf Hitler:

History of Nazi Germany:

Benito Mussolini:

Mussolini’s Doctrine:

1936  n the East End of London, marches staged by British fascists and various anti-fascist organizations result in violent clashes between them in what becomes known as the Battle of Cable Street.

1927  Gutzon Borglum begins sculpting Mount Rushmore.

1917  World War I: The Battle of Broodseinde fought between the British and German armies in Flanders.

1883  First run of the Orient Express.

Orient Express:

1853  Crimean War: The Ottoman Empire declares war on Russia.

Crimean War:

Ottoman Empire:

1830  Creation of the Kingdom of Belgium after separation from the Netherlands.

Kingdom of Belgium:

1824  Mexico adopts a new constitution and becomes a federal republic.

1795  Napoleon Bonaparte first rises to national prominence with a “Whiff of Grapeshot”, using cannon to suppress armed counter-revolutionary rioters threatening the French Legislature (National Convention).





2011  In the Mekong River massacre, two Chinese cargo boats are hijacked and 13 crew members murdered in the lawless Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia.

Mekong River massacre:

2000  Mass demonstrations in Belgrade lead to resignation of Serbian strongman Slobodan Milošević. These demonstrations are often called the Bulldozer Revolution.

Serbia’s Bulldozer Revolution:

1991  The first official version of the Linux kernel, version 0.02, is released.

Linux Kernel:

1991  An Indonesian military transport crashes after takeoff from Jakarta killing 137.

1991  USSR reduces nuclear weapons arsenal.

Reduction of Nuclear Weapon Arsenal:

Cold War and Armed Race:

Nuclear Disarmament Timeline:

Russell-Einstein Manifesto, on 9 July 1955:

1990  After one hundred and fifty years The Herald broadsheet newspaper in Melbourne, Australia, is published for the last time as a separate newspaper.

1988  The Brazilian Constitution is ratified by the Constituent Assembly.

1988  The Chilean opposition coalition Concertación (center-left) defeats Augusto Pinochet in his re-election attempt and a general election is called the following year.

1986  Israeli secret nuclear weapons are revealed. The British newspaper The Sunday Times runs Mordechai Vanunu‘s story on its front page under the headline: “Revealed — the secrets of Israel’s nuclear arsenal”.

Israeli Secret Nuclear Weapons:

1984  Marc Garneau becomes the first Canadian in space, aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger.

1982  Chicago Tylenol murders: Johnson & Johnson initiates a nationwide product recall in the United States for all products in its Tylenol brand after several bottles in Chicago are found to have been laced with cyanide, resulting in seven deaths.

1975  Operation Primicia: terrorist attack against a Military Regiment at Formosa, Argentina.

1975  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1975:

USSR’s Nuclear Tests at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1974  Guildford pub bombings: bombs planted by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) kill four British soldiers and one civilian.

Irish Republican Army (IRA):

Irish Republican Army (IRA) and the Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

IRA’s Terrorism:

History of the IRA:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1973  Signature of the European Patent Convention.

Europe Patent Convention:

1970  Montreal: British Trade Commissioner James Cross is kidnapped by members of the FLQ terrorist group, triggering the October Crisis.

1970  The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is founded.

1968  Police baton civil rights demonstrators in Derry, Northern Ireland – considered to mark the beginning of The Troubles.

1966  Near Detroit, Michigan, there is a partial core meltdown at the Enrico Fermi demonstration nuclear breeder reactor.

1962  The Beatles‘ first single, “Love Me Do” backed with “PS I Love You“, is released in the United Kingdom.

The Beatle’s Message in Their Music:

1962  Dr No, the first in the James Bond film series, is released.

James Bond Movies:

British and Other Secret Intelligence Service Agencies:

1958  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1958:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

1958  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

United States Nuclear Tests:

Nevada Test Site:

1953  The first documented recovery meeting of Narcotics Anonymous is held.

Narcotics Anonymous:

1948  The 1948 Ashgabat earthquake kills 110,000.

1947  The first televised White House address is given by U.S. President Harry S Truman.

1945  Hollywood Black Friday: A six-month strike by Hollywood set decorators turns into a bloody riot at the gates of Warner Brothers‘ studios.

1944  Suffrage is extended to women in France.

Suffrage of Woman in France:

Women’s Suffrage and Its History:

Women’s Rights in General:

1943  Ninety-eight American POW’s are executed by Japanese forces on Wake Island.

1938  In Nazi Germany Jews’ passports are invalidated, and those who needed a passport for emigration purposes are given one marked with the letter J (Jude – Jew).

Law on Passports on Jews:

1936  The Jarrow March sets off for London.

1915  Bulgaria enters World War I as one of the Central Powers.

1914  World War I: first aerial combat resulting in an intentional fatality.

1911  The Kowloon–Canton Railway (split into MTR East Rail Line and Guangshen Railway now) commences service between Kowloon and Canton.

1910  In a revolution in Portugal the monarchy is overthrown and a republic is declared.

1905  Wilbur Wright pilots Wright Flyer III in a flight of 24 miles in 39 minutes, a world record that stood until 1908.

1877  Chief Joseph surrenders his Nez Perce band to General Nelson A. Miles.

1864  The Indian city of Calcutta is almost totally destroyed by a cyclone; 60,000 die.

1813  Battle of the Thames in Canada; Americans defeat British and kill Shawnee leader Tecumseh.

1793  French Revolution: Christianity is disestablished in France.

Dechiristianization of France in the French Revolution:       

1798  French Revolution: Women of Paris march to Versailles in the March on Versailles to confront Louis XVI of France about his refusal to promulgate the decrees on the abolition of feudalism, demand bread, and have the King and his court moved to Paris.

1582  Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.




2012  Iran’s Ambassador to the International Atomic Energy Agency, Ali Asghar Soltanieh, says Islam should join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty:

Iran’s Nuclear Development:

2007  Jason Lewis completes the first human-powered circumnavigation of the globe.

2002  The French oil tanker Limburg is bombed off Yemen.

2000  Argentine vice president Carlos Álvarez resigns.

2000  Yugoslav president Slobodan Milošević resigns.

Slobodan Milošević

1995  51 Pegasi is discovered to be the second major star apart from the Sun to have a planet orbiting around it.

1987  Fiji becomes a republic.


Foreign Relations of Fiji:

History of Fiji:

Economy of Fiji:

1985  PC Keith Blakelock is murdered as riots erupt in the Broadwater Farm suburb of London.

1983  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1983:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1979  Pope John Paul II becomes the first pontiff to visit the White House.

1977  The first prototype of the Mikoyan MiG-29, designated 9-01, makes its maiden flight.

1977  In Alicante, Spain, fascists attack a group of MCPV militants and sympathizers, and one MCPV sympathizer is killed.

1976  Massacre of students gathering at Thammasat University in Bangkok, Thailand, to protest the return of ex-dictator Thanom, by a coalition of right-wing paramilitary and government forces, triggering the return of the military to government.

1976  New Premier Hua Guofeng orders the arrest of the Gang of Four and associates and ends the Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China.

1976  Cubana de Aviación Flight 455 crashes into the Atlantic Ocean shortly after taking off from Bridgetown, Barbados, after two bombs, placed on board by terrorists with connections to the CIA, exploded. All 73 people on board are killed.

1973  Egypt launches a coordinated attack with Syria against Israel leading to the Yom Kippur War.

  • See also, OCTOBER 8, 1973 Yom Kippur War: Gabi Amir’s armored brigade attacks Egyptian occupied positions on the Israeli side of the Suez Canal, in hope of driving them away. The attack fails, and over 150 Israeli tanks are destroyed.”

Launch of the Yom Kippur War on October 6, 1973:

Yom Kippur War:

Yom Kippur War and the US Policy:

Yom Kippur War and the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs:

Timeline of the Yom Kippur War:

1967  USSR performs nuclear test.

1962  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Johnston Island.

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Johnston Atoll:

Various Weapons Tests and Storage at Johnston Atoll, and Permanent Contamination:

1961  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1961:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

195USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1957:

1942  World War II: The October Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins as United States Marine Corps forces attack Imperial Japanese Army units along the Matanikau River.

1939  World War II: Germany’s invasion of Poland ends with the surrender of Polesia army after the Battle of Kock

Battle of Kock of 1939:

Nazi’s Invasion and Occupation of Poland 1939-1945:

Holocaust and the Invasion of Poland in 1939:

1923  The great powers of World War I withdraw from Istanbul.

1910  Eleftherios Venizelos is elected Prime Minister of Greece for the first time (seven times in total).

1908  Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia-Herzegovina, sparking a crisis.

1889  American inventor Thomas Edison shows his first motion picture.

1884  The Naval War College of the United States Navy is founded in Newport, Rhode Island.

1876  The American Library Association was founded.

1854  In England the Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead starts shortly after midnight, leading to 53 deaths and hundreds injured.

1849  The execution of the 13 Martyrs of Arad after the Hungarian war of independence.

1789  French Revolution: Louis XVI returns to Paris from Versailles after being confronted by the Parisian women on 5 October

1777  American Revolutionary War: General Sir Henry Clinton leads British forces in the capture of Continental Army Hudson River defenses in the Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery.

1762  Seven Years’ War: conclusion of the Battle of Manila between Britain and Spain, which resulted in the British occupation of Manila for the rest of the war.

1582  Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day is skipped in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.




2001  The Global War on Terrorism begins as a result of the September 11 attacks. The US invasion of Afghanistan initiates with an air assault and covert operations on the ground.

War on Terrorism:

1998  Matthew Shepard, a gay student at the University of Wyoming, is found tied to a fence after being savagely beaten by two young adults in Laramie, Wyoming.

1991  War in Croatia: Bombing of Banski dvori in Zagreb kills one civilian.

1988  An Inupiaq hunter discovers three gray whales trapped under the ice in Barrow, Alaska, US; the situation becomes a multinational effort to free the whales.

1987  Sikh nationalists declares the independence of Khalistan from India; it is not internationally recognized.

1985  The Mameyes landslide kills close to 300 in the worst landslide in North American history.

1985  The Achille Lauro is hijacked by Palestine Liberation Front.

Palestine Liberation Front:

1977  The adoption of the Fourth Soviet Constitution.

1976  Hua Guofeng becomes Mao Zedong‘s successor as chairman of Communist Party of China, following the latter’s death barely a month earlier.

Hua Guofeng:

1971  Oman joins the United Nations.

Oman and the United Nations:


Foreign Relations of Oman:

History of Oman:

Economy of Oman:

1963  John F Kennedy signs the ratification of the Partial Test Ban Treaty.

1960  Nigeria joins the United Nations.


Foreign Relations of Nigeria:

Nigeria and the United Nations:

History of Nigeria:

Economy of Nigeria:

1959  USSR probe Luna 3 transmits the first ever photographs of the far side of the Moon.

1958  President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza, with the support of General Ayub Khan and the army, suspends the 1956 constitution, imposes martial law, and cancels the elections scheduled for January 1959.

1950  Mother Teresa build an order called Missionary of Charity

Missionaries of Charity:

Mother Teresa and Her Biography:


Miracles and Mother Teresa:

1949  The communist German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is formed.

History of German Democratic Republic (East Germany):

1944  World War II: During an uprising at Birkenau concentration camp, Jewish prisoners burn down the crematoria.

The Uprising at Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp:

Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp:

Gas Chambers at the Auschwitz and Birkenau Camps:

The Holocaust and the Auschwitz and Birkenau Camps:

1943  Ninety-eight American POW’s are executed by Japanese forces on Wake Island.

Massacre in Wake Island:

The Laws of War:

1942  World War II: The October Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins as United States Marine Corps forces attack Imperial Japanese Army units along the Matanikau River.

1940  World War II: The McCollum memo proposes bringing the United States into the war in Europe by provoking the Japanese to attack the United States.

1933  Air France is inaugurated, after being formed by a merger of 5 French airlines.

1929  Photios II becomes Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.

1919  KLM, the flag carrier of the Netherlands, is founded. It is the oldest airline still operating under its original name.

1879  Germany and Austria-Hungary sign the “Twofold Covenant” and create the Dual Alliance.

1870  Franco-Prussian War: Siege of Paris: Léon Gambetta flees Paris in a hot-air balloon.

1864  American Civil War: Bahia incident: USS Wachusett illegally captures the CSS Florida Confederate raider while in port in Bahia, Brazil in violation of Brazilian neutrality.

1828  Morea expedition: The city of Patras, Greece, is liberated by the French expeditionary force in the Peloponnese under General Maison.

1800  French corsair Robert Surcouf, commander of the 18-gun ship La Confiance, captures the British 38-gun Kent inspiring the traditional French song Le Trente-et-un du mois d’août.

1763  King George III of the United Kingdom issues the Royal Proclamation of 1763, closing aboriginal lands in North America north and west of Alleghenies to white settlements.




2005  2005 Kashmir earthquake: Thousands of people are killed by a magnitude 7.6 earthquake in parts of Pakistan, India and Afghanistan.

2001  US President George W. Bush announces the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security.

Office of Homeland Security:

2001  A twin engine Cessna and Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) jetliner collide in heavy fog during takeoff from Milan, Italy, killing 118 people.

1991  Croatia votes to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia, rendering the country fully independent.

Croatian Independence Referendum of 1991:

Independence Movement, Croatian Nationalism, and Ethnic Cleansing against Local Ethnic Minorities 1991-1995:

History of Croatia:


Foreign Relations of Croatia:

Economy of Croatia:

1990  Israeli–Palestinian conflict: In Jerusalem, Israeli police kill 17 Palestinians and wound over 100 near the Dome of the Rock mosque on the Temple Mount.

Israeli-Palestine Conflict of 1990:

1982  Poland bans Solidarity and all trade unions.


History of Solidarity:

History of Poland during World War II and the Cold War:

1980  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Astrakhan, Russia.

USSR Nuclear Test in 1980:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1974  Franklin National Bank collapses due to fraud and mismanagement; at the time it is the largest bank failure in the history of the United States.

1973  Greek military junta of 1967–74: Junta strongman George Papadopoulos appoints Spyros Markezinis as Prime Minister of Greece with the task to lead Greece to parliamentary rule.

1973  Yom Kippur War: Gabi Amir’s armored brigade attacks Egyptian occupied positions on the Israeli side of the Suez Canal, in hope of driving them away. The attack fails, and over 150 Israeli tanks are destroyed.

Yom Kippur War:

1971  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1970  Vietnam War: In Paris, a North Vietnam delegation rejects US President Richard Nixon‘s “October 7 peace proposal” as “a manoeuvre to deceive world opinion”.

Ending the Vietnam War:

Vietnam War in 1970:

1968  Vietnam War: Operation Sealords: United States and South Vietnamese forces launch a new operation in the Mekong Delta.

Vietnam War in 1968:

Operation Sealords:

1967  Guerrilla leader Che Guevara and his men are captured in Bolivia.

1965  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1965:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1961  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1961:

Novaya Zemlya Test Site:

1962  Algeria joins the United Nations.


Foreign Relations of Algeria:

Algeria and the United Nations:

History of Algeria:

Economy of Algeria:

1962  Spiegel scandal: Der Spiegel publishes the article “Bedingt abwehrbereit” (“Conditionally prepared for defense”) about a NATO manoeuvre called “Fallex 62“, which uncovered the sorry state of the Bundeswehr (Germany’s army) facing the communist threat from the east at the time. The magazine is soon accused of treason.

Fallex 62:

1958  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

Atmospheric Nuclear Testing at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1944  World War II: The Battle of Crucifix Hill occurs just outside Aachen. Capt. Bobbie Brown receives a Medal of Honor for his heroics in this battle.

1941  World War II: In their invasion of the Soviet Union, Germany reaches the Sea of Azov with the capture of Mariupol.

1939  World War II: Germany annexes Western Poland.

Annexation of Western Poland in 1939:

1932  The Indian Air Force is established.

1928  Joseph Szigeti gives the first performance of Alfredo Casella‘s Violin Concerto.

1918  World War I: In the Argonne Forest in France, United States Corporal Alvin C. York kills 28 German soldiers and captures 132, for which he is awarded the Medal of Honor.

1912  First Balkan War begins: Montenegro declares war against the Ottoman Empire.

1895  Eulmi incident: Queen Min of Joseon, the last empress of Korea, is assassinated and her corpse burnt by Japanese infiltrators inside Gyeongbok Palace.

1879  War of the Pacific: The Chilean Navy defeats the Peruvian Navy in the Battle of Angamos, Peruvian Admiral Miguel Grau is killed in the encounter.

1856  The Second Opium War between several western powers and China begins with the Arrow Incident on the Pearl River.

1821  The government of general José de San Martín establishes the Peruvian Navy.

1813  The Treaty of Ried is signed between Bavaria and Austria.

1806  Napoleonic Wars: Forces of the British Empire lay siege to the port of Boulogne in France by using Congreve rockets, invented by Sir William Congreve.

1645 Jeanne Mance opened the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal, the first lay hospital in North America.

1600  San Marino adopts its written constitution.

1582  Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.


(Sources and references:   to_october_8;   to october/8;   to october_8.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 2 Oct 2017.

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