This Week in History

HISTORY, 6 Nov 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

Nov 6-12, 2017


“Just know, when you truly want success, you’ll never give up on it. No matter how bad the situation may get.”  – Unknown



2012  Tammy Baldwin becomes the first openly gay politician to be elected to the United States Senate.

1999  Australians vote to keep the Head of the Commonwealth as their head of state in the Australian republic referendum.

1995  Cleveland Browns relocation controversy: Art Modell announces that he signed a deal that would relocate the Cleveland Browns to Baltimore to become the Baltimore Ravens, the first time the city had a football team since 1983 when they were the Baltimore Colts.

1995  The Rova of Antananarivo, home of the sovereigns of Madagascar from the 16th to 19th centuries, is destroyed by fire.

1991  The last Kuwaiti oil field fire is extinguished.

1986  Sumburgh disaster: A British International Helicopters Boeing 234LR Chinook crashes 212 miles east of Sumburgh Airport killing 45 people. It is the deadliest civilian helicopter crash on record.

1985  In Colombia, leftist guerrillas of the 19th of April Movement seize control of the Palace of Justice in Bogotá, eventually killing 115 people, 11 of them Supreme Court justices.

1977  The Kelly Barnes Dam, located above Toccoa Falls Bible College near Toccoa, Georgia, fails, killing 39.

1975  Green March begins: Three hundred thousand unarmed Moroccans converge on the southern city of Tarfaya and wait for a signal from King Hassan II of Morocco to cross into Western Sahara.

1971  The United States Atomic Energy Commission tests the largest US underground hydrogen bomb, code-named Cannikin, on Amchitka Island in the Aleutians. (= The United States performs underground nuclear test at Amchitka Island.)

United States Atomic Energy Commission:

Underground Nuclear Weapons Testing:

Nuclear weapons testing at Amchitka Island:

1965  Cuba and the United States formally agree to begin an airlift for Cubans who want to go to the United States. By 1971, 250,000 Cubans had made use of this program.

1963  Vietnam War: Following the November 1 coup and execution of President Ngo Dinh Diem, coup leader General Dương Văn Minh takes over leadership of South Vietnam.

November 1 (and 2), 1963 Coup:

1962  Apartheid: The United Nations General Assembly passes a resolution condemning South Africa’s apartheid policies and calls for all UN member states to cease military and economic relations with the nation.

UNGA Resolution 1761 of 6 November 1962:

1955  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1955:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1948  Deputy commander-in-chief of the Eastern China Field Army General Su Yu launches a massive offensive toward Xuzhou, defended by seven different armies under the Suppression General Headquarter of Xuzhou Garrison, the Huaihai Campaign. The largest operational campaign of the Chinese Civil War begins.

1944  Plutonium is first produced at the Hanford Atomic Facility and subsequently used in the Fat Man atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.

First Production of Plutonium:

1943  World War II: The Soviet Red Army recaptures Kiev. Before withdrawing, the Germans destroy most of the city’s ancient buildings.

Battle of Kiev of 1943:

1942  World War II: Carlson’s patrol during the Guadalcanal Campaign begins.

1941  World War II: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin addresses the Soviet Union for only the second time during his 27-year rule. He falsely states that even though 350,000 troops were killed in German attacks so far, the Germans had lost 4.5 million soldiers and that Soviet victory was near.

Joseph Stalin:

1939  World War II: Sonderaktion Krakau takes place.

1936  Edwin Armstrong presents his paper “A Method of Reducing Disturbances in Radio Signaling by a System of Frequency Modulation” to the New York section of the Institute of Radio Engineers.

1928  Arnold Rothstein, the head of the Jewish mob in New York, was shot and mortally wounded on November 4, and died on November 6. He was assassinated by George “Hump” McManus, for failing to pay a large gambling debt.

1918  The Second Polish Republic is proclaimed.

Second Poland Republic:

History of Poland:

1917  World War I: Third Battle of Ypres ends: After three months of fierce fighting, Canadian forces take Passchendaele in Belgium.

Third Battle of Ypres:

1913  Mohandas Gandhi is arrested while leading a march of Indian miners in South Africa.


India’s Independence, Nonviolence Movement, and Gandhi:

Quit India Movement:

Independence of India:

History of India:



2004  Iraq War: The interim government of Iraq calls for a 60-day “state of emergency” as U.S. forces storm the insurgent stronghold of Fallujah.

Timelines of the Iraq War:

2002  Iran bans advertising of United States products.

2001  SABENA, the national airline of Belgium, goes bankrupt.

2000  The US Drug Enforcement Administration discovers one of the country’s largest LSD labs inside a converted military missile silo in Wamego, Kansas.

200Controversial US presidential election that is later resolved in the Bush v. Gore Supreme Court Case.

2000  Hillary Rodham Clinton is elected to the United States Senate, becoming the first former First Lady to win public office in the United States, although she was actually still the First Lady.

1996  NASA launches the Mars Global Surveyor.

1994  WXYC, the student radio station of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, provides the world’s first internet radio broadcast.

1991  Magic Johnson announces that he is infected with HIV and retires from the NBA.

1990  Mary Robinson becomes the first woman to be elected President of the Republic of Ireland.

Mary Robinson:

1989  East German Prime Minister Willi Stoph, along with his entire cabinet, is forced to resign after huge anti-government protests.

1989  David Dinkins becomes the first African American to be elected Mayor of New York City.

1987  Singapore’s first Mass Rapid Transit line was opened, starting with train services between Yio Chu Kang and Toa Payoh stations.

1987  In Tunisia, president Habib Bourguiba is overthrown and replaced by Prime Minister Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.

1983  United States Senate bombing: A bomb explodes inside the United States Capitol. No one is injured, but an estimated $250,000 in damage is caused.

1975  In Bangladesh, a joint force of people and soldiers takes part in an uprising led by Colonel Abu Taher that ousts and kills Brigadier Khaled Mosharraf, freeing the then house-arrested army chief and future president Maj-Gen. Ziaur Rahman. The day is occasionally observed as the National Revolution and Solidarity Day.

1973  The United States Congress overrides President Richard M. Nixon‘s veto of the War Powers Resolution, which limits presidential power to wage war without congressional approval.

1973  US and Egypt announce restoration of full diplomatic links.

US-Egypt Relations:

196USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1968:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

1967  US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, establishing the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.

1967  Carl B Stokes is elected as Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio, becoming the first African American mayor of a major American city.

1963  Wunder von Lengede: In Germany, eleven miners are rescued from a collapsed mine after 14 days.

1957  Cold War: The Gaither Report calls for more American missiles and fallout shelters.

1956  Suez Crisis: The United Nations General Assembly adopts a resolution calling for the United Kingdom, France and Israel to immediately withdraw their troops from Egypt.

UN Documentation Guide and UNGA Res 1002 of Nov 7, 1956:

Suez Crisis (1956-1957):

1954  US spy plane shot down North of Japan.

1951  Constitution of Jordan passes.

Constitution of Jordan of January 1, 1952 (passed on November 7, 1951):


History of Jordan:

1949  The first oil was taken in Oil Rocks (Neft Daşları), oldest offshore oil platform.

1944  Franklin D. Roosevelt elected for a record fourth term as President of the United States of America.

1944  Soviet spy Richard Sorge, a half-Russian, half-German World War I veteran, is hanged by his Japanese captors along with 34 of his ring.

1941  World War II: Soviet hospital ship Armenia is sunk by German planes while evacuating refugees and wounded military and staff of several Crimean hospitals. It is estimated that over 5,000 people died in the sinking.

1931 The Chinese Soviet Republic is proclaimed on the anniversary of the October Revolution.

1929  In New York City, the Museum of Modern Art opens to the public.

1920  Patriarch Tikhon of Moscow issues a decree that leads to the formation of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia.

1919  The first Palmer Raid is conducted on the second anniversary of the Russian Revolution. Over 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists are arrested in twenty-three different US cities.

1918  Kurt Eisner overthrows the Wittelsbach dynasty in the Kingdom of Bavaria.

1918  The 1918 influenza epidemic spreads to Western Samoa, killing 7,542 (about 20% of the population) by the end of the year.

1917  World War I: Third Battle of Gaza ends: British forces capture Gaza from the Ottoman Empire.

1917  The Gregorian calendar date of the October Revolution, which gets its name from the Julian calendar date of 25 October. On this date in 1917, the Bolsheviks storm the Winter Palace.

1916  Jeannette Rankin is the first woman elected to the United States Congress.

1914  The German colony of Kiaochow Bay and its centre at Tsingtao are captured by Japanese forces.

1912  The Deutsche Opernhaus (now Deutsche Oper Berlin) opens in the Berlin neighborhood of Charlottenburg, with a production of Beethoven‘s Fidelio.

1910  The first air freight shipment (from Dayton, Ohio, to Columbus, Ohio) is undertaken by the Wright brothers and department store owner Max Moorehouse.

1908  Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid are reportedly killed in San Vicente, Bolivia.

1907  Jesús García saves the entire town of Nacozari de García by driving a burning train full of dynamite six kilometers (3.7 miles) away before it can explode.

1900  The People’s Party is founded in Cuba.

1900  Battle of Leliefontein, a battle during which the Royal Canadian Dragoons win three Victoria Crosses.

1893  Women’s suffrage: Women in the US state of Colorado are granted the right to vote, the second state to do so.

Women’s Suffrage and Colorado:

Women’s Suffrage in the United States:

History of Women’s Suffrage (Movement) in the United States:

The Nineteenth Amendment and Women’s Suffrage:

League of Women Voters:

Women’s Suffrage and Its History:

Women’s Rights in General:




2013  Typhoon Haiyan, one of the strongest tropical cyclones ever recorded, strikes the Visayas region of the Philippines. The storm left at least 6,340 people dead with over 1,000 still missing, and caused S$2.86 billion (USD) in damage.

2011  The potentially hazardous asteroid 2005 YU55 passes 0.85 lunar distances from Earth (about 324,600 kilometres or 201,700 miles), the closest known approach by an asteroid of its brightness since 2010 XC15 in 1976.

2004  War in Iraq: More than 10,000 US troops and a small number of Iraqi army units participate in a siege on the insurgent stronghold of Fallujah.

Timelines of the Iraq War:

2002  Iraq disarmament crisis: UN Security Council Resolution 1441 – The United Nations Security Council unanimously approves a resolution on Iraq, forcing Saddam Hussein to disarm or face “serious consequences”.

1987  Remembrance Day bombing: A Provisional IRA bomb explodes in Enniskillen, Northern Ireland during a ceremony honoring those who had died in wars involving British forces. Twelve people are killed and sixty-three wounded.

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

IRA’s Terrorism:

History of the IRA:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1985  Lloyd J Old discovery of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a key immune signaling molecule (cytokine) that, in addition to its promise for the treatment of cancer and other diseases.

1977  Manolis Andronikos, a Greek archaeologist and professor at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, discovers the tomb of Philip II of Macedon at Vergina.

1968  The Vienna Convention on Road Traffic is signed to facilitate international road traffic and to increase road safety by standardizing the uniform traffic rules among the signatories.

196US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1966  US President Lyndon B Johnson signs into law an antitrust exemption allowing the National Football League to merge with the upstart American Football League.

1966  Former Massachusetts Attorney General Edward Brooke becomes the first African American elected to the United States Senate since Reconstruction.

1965  The 173rd Airborne is ambushed by over 1,200 Viet Cong in Operation Hump during the Vietnam War, while the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment fight one of the first set-piece engagements of the war between Australian forces and the Viet Cong at the Battle of Gang Toi.

1965  The Murder (Abolition of Death Penalty) Act 1965 is given Royal Assent, formally abolishing the death penalty in the United Kingdom.

1965  The British Indian Ocean Territory is created, consisting of Chagos Archipelago, Aldabra, Farquhar and Des Roches islands.

1960  John F Kennedy defeats Richard Nixon in one of the closest presidential elections of the twentieth century to become the 35th president of the United States.

1957  Operation Grapple X, Round C1: the United Kingdom conducts its first successful hydrogen bomb test over Kiritimati in the Pacific.

United Kingdom and its Nuclear Weapon Programme:

1956  UN General Assembly demands, in its resolution 1005 (ES II) of 9 November 1956, USSR leave Hungary.

UN Resolutions on the Hungarian Situation of 1956:

Hungarian Revolution of 1956:

History of Hungary:

1950  Korean War: United States Air Force Lt. Russell J. Brown, while piloting an F-80 Shooting Star, shoots down two North Korean MiG-15s in the first jet aircraft-to-jet aircraft dogfight in history.

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1942  – World War II: French resistance coup in Algiers, in which 400 civilian French patriots neutralize Vichyist XIXth Army Corps after 15 hours of fighting, and arrest several Vichyst generals, allowing the immediate success of Operation Torch in Algiers.

1942  World War II: Operation Torch – United States and United Kingdom forces land in French North Africa.

1940  Greco-Italian War: The Italian invasion of Greece fails as outnumbered Greek units repulse the Italians in the Battle of Elaia–Kalamas.

1939  In Munich, Adolf Hitler narrowly escapes the assassination attempt of Georg Elser while celebrating the 16th anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch.

1939  Venlo Incident: Two British agents of SIS are captured by the Germans.

1937  The Nazi exhibition Der ewige Jude (“The Eternal Jew”) opens in Munich.

1936  Spanish Civil War: Francoist troops fail in their effort to capture Madrid, but begin the 3-year Siege of Madrid afterwards.

Siege of Madrid:

Spanish Civil War:

Timelines of the Spanish Civil War:

1933  Great Depression: New Deal – US President Franklin D. Roosevelt unveils the Civil Works Administration, an organization designed to create jobs for more than 4 million unemployed.

1923  Beer Hall Putsch: In Munich, Adolf Hitler leads the Nazis in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the German government.

1917  The People’s Commissars give authority to Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, and Joseph Stalin.

1901  Bloody clashes take place in Athens following the translation of the Gospels into demotic Greek.

1898  The Wilmington Insurrection of 1898, the only instance of an attempted coup d’état in American history.

1895  While experimenting with electricity, Wilhelm Röntgen discovers the X-ray.

1745  Charles Edward Stuart invades England with an army of ~5000 that would later participate in the Battle of Culloden.

1644  The Shunzhi Emperor, the third emperor of the Qing dynasty, is enthroned in Beijing after the collapse of the Ming dynasty as the first Qing emperor to rule over China.




2012  At least 27 people are killed and dozens are wounded in conflicts between inmates and guards at Welikada prison in Colombo.

Welikada Prison Riot of 2012:

2007  The German Bundestag passes the controversial data retention bill mandating storage of citizens’ telecommunications traffic data for six months without probable cause.

2005  The Venus Express mission of the European Space Agency is launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.

2005  Suicide bombers attacked three hotels in Amman, Jordan, killing at least 60 people.

1998  A US federal judge orders 37 US brokerage houses to pay 1.03 billion United States dollars to cheated NASDAQ investors to compensate for price fixing. This is the largest civil settlement in United States history.

1998  Capital punishment in the United Kingdom, already abolished for murder, is completely abolished for all remaining capital offences.

1994  The chemical element darmstadtium is discovered.

1993  Stari Most, the “old bridge” in Bosnian Mostar built in 1566, collapses after several days of bombing.

1989  Cold War: Fall of the Berlin Wall. Communist-controlled East Germany opens checkpoints in the Berlin Wall allowing its citizens to travel to West Germany. This key event led to the eventual reunification of East and West Germany, and fall of communism in eastern Europe including Russia.

1985  Garry Kasparov, 22, of the Soviet Union becomes the youngest World Chess Champion by beating Anatoly Karpov, also of the Soviet Union.

1979  Nuclear false alarm: the NORAD computers and the Alternate National Military Command Center in Fort Ritchie, Maryland detected purported massive Soviet nuclear strike. After reviewing the raw data from satellites and checking the early-warning radars, the alert is cancelled.

197US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1970  OPEC meeting in Caracas establishes 55 percent as minimum tax rate and demands that posted prices be changed to reflect changes in foreign exchange rates.

OPEC Meeting of 1970 and the World Oil Market:

1970  Vietnam War: The Supreme Court of the United States votes 6 to 3 against hearing a case to allow Massachusetts to enforce its law granting residents the right to refuse military service in an undeclared war.

Vietnam War in 1970:

1968  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1968:

USSR’s Nuclear Tests at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1967  Apollo program: NASA launches the unmanned Apollo 4 test spacecraft atop the first Saturn V rocket from Cape Kennedy, Florida.

1965  The Catholic Worker Movement member Roger Allen LaPorte, protesting against the Vietnam War, sets himself on fire in front of the United Nations building.

1963  At Miike coal mine, Miike, Japan, an explosion kills 458, and hospitalises 839 with carbon monoxide poisoning.

Mitsui Miike Coal Mine disaster of 1963:

196US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

Atmospheric Nuclear Testing at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1960  Robert McNamara is named president of Ford Motor Co., the first non-Ford to serve in that post. A month later, he resigned to join the administration of newly elected John F. Kennedy.

1957  1st Japanese ambassador to Israel.

Israel-Japan Relations:

Jews and Japan:

Chiuné Sugihara:

Jews and Ancient Japan:

1953  Cambodia gains independence from France.

History of Cambodia:

Foreign Relations of Cambodia:


Economy of Cambodia:

1940  Warsaw is awarded the Virtuti Militari.

1938  The Nazi German diplomat Ernst vom Rath dies from the fatal gunshot wounds of Jewish resistance fighter Herschel Grynszpan, an act which the Nazis used as an excuse to instigate the 1938 national pogrom, also known as Kristallnacht (Crystal Night).


1937  Japanese troops take control of Shanghai, China.

Japan’s Shanghai Attack and Occupation:

History of Shanghai:

1923  In Munich, Germany, police and government troops crush the Beer Hall Putsch in Bavaria. The failed coup is the work of the Nazis.

1921  The Italian National Fascist Party comes into existence.

1918  Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates after the German Revolution, and Germany is proclaimed a Republic.

1917  Joseph Stalin enters the provisional government of Bolshevik Russia.

1906  Theodore Roosevelt is the first sitting President of the United States to make an official trip outside the country. He did so to inspect progress on the Panama Canal.

1867  Tokugawa shogunate hands power back to the Emperor of Japan, starting the Meiji Restoration.

1851  Kentucky marshals abduct abolitionist minister Calvin Fairbank from Jeffersonville, Indiana, and take him to Kentucky to stand trial for helping a slave escape.

1848  Robert Blum, a German revolutionary, is executed in Vienna.

1822  The Action of 9 November 1822 between USS Alligator and a squadron of pirate schooners off the coast of Cuba.

1799  Napoleon Bonaparte leads the Coup of 18 Brumaire ending the Directory government, and becoming one of its three Consuls (Consulate Government).

1791  Foundation of the Dublin Society of United Irishmen.

1764  Mary Campbell, a captive of the Lenape during the French and Indian War, is turned over to forces commanded by Colonel Henry Bouquet.

1729  Spain, France and Great Britain sign the Treaty of Seville.

1720  The synagogue of Judah HeHasid is burned down by Arab creditors, leading to the expulsion of the Ashkenazim from Jerusalem.





2009  Ships of the South and North Korean navies skirmish off Daecheong Island in the Yellow Sea.

2008  Over five months after landing on Mars, NASA declares the Phoenix mission concluded after communications with the lander were lost.

2007  Ten to forty thousand people march toward the royal palace of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur to hand over a memorandum to the King demanding electoral reform.

2006  Sri Lankan Tamil Parliamentarian Nadarajah Raviraj is assassinated in Colombo.

1997  WorldCom and MCI Communications announce a $37 billion merger (the largest merger in US history at the time).

1995  In Nigeria, playwright and environmental activist Ken Saro-Wiwa, along with eight others from the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (Mosop), are hanged by government forces.

Human Rights in Nigeria:


Foreign Relations of Nigeria:

Nigeria and the United Nations:

History of Nigeria:

Economy of Nigeria:

1989  German citizens begin to bring the Berlin Wall down.

The Fall of the Belin Wall:

German Reunification:


Foreign Relations of Germany:

History of Germany:

Economy of Germany:

1989  The longtime leader of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria Todor Zhivkov is removed from office and replaced by Petar Mladenov.

1983  Bill Gates introduces Windows 1.0.

1979  A 106-car Canadian Pacific freight train carrying explosive and poisonous chemicals from Windsor, Ontario, Canada derails in Mississauga, Ontario, just west of Toronto, causing a massive explosion and the largest peacetime evacuation in Canadian history and one of the largest in North American history.

1975  United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379, is adopted on November 10, 1975 by a vote of 72 to 35 (with 32 abstentions), “determine[d] that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination”.

UN General Assembly Resolution 3379 – Zionism as a Form of Racism:

1975  PLO leader Yasser Arafat addresses UN in NYC.

Yasser Arafat and the PLO:

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO):

History of the PLO:

1972  Southern Airways Flight 49 from Birmingham, Alabama is hijacked and, at one point, is threatened with crashing into the nuclear installation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. After two days, the plane lands in Havana, Cuba, where the hijackers are jailed by Fidel Castro.

1971  In Cambodia, Khmer Rouge forces attack the city of Phnom Penh and its airport, killing 44, wounding at least 30 and damaging nine aircraft.

Khumer Rouge’s Attack on Phnom Penh:

Khmer Rouge:

Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) or a.k.a. Khmer Rouge Tribunal:

For some more pertinent information on international criminal justice and pertinent international and/or hybrid judicial institutions, seeJULY 1, 2002  The International Criminal Court is established to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. (= The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court comes into force.)”.


Foreign Relations of Cambodia:

History of Cambodia:

Economy of Cambodia:

1970  The Soviet lunar probe Lunokhod 1 is launched.

1970  Vietnam War: Vietnamization: For the first time in five years, an entire week ends with no reports of American combat fatalities in Southeast Asia.

Vietnam War in 1970:


Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1969  National Educational Television (the predecessor to the Public Broadcasting Service) in the United States debuts the children’s television program Sesame Street.

1954  US President Dwight D. Eisenhower dedicates the USMC War Memorial (Iwo Jima memorial) in Arlington National Cemetery.

1951  With the rollout of the North American Numbering Plan, direct-dial coast-to-coast telephone service begins in the United States.

1945  Heavy fighting in Surabaya between Indonesian nationalists and returning colonialists after World War II, today celebrated as Heroes’ Day (Hari Pahlawan).

History of Indonesia:

1944  The ammunition ship USS Mount Hood explodes at Seeadler Harbour, Manus, Admiralty Islands, killing at least 432 and wounding 371.

1942  World War II: Germany invades Vichy France following French Admiral François Darlan‘s agreement to an armistice with the Allies in North Africa.

Vichy Regime and the Holocaust in France:

1940  The 1940 Vrancea earthquake strikes Romania killing an estimated 1,000 and injuring approximately 4,000 more.

1918  The Western Union Cable Office in North Sydney, Nova Scotia, receives a top-secret coded message from Europe (that would be sent to Ottawa and Washington, D.C.) that said on November 11, 1918, all fighting would cease on land, sea and in the air.

1821  Cry of Independence by Rufina Alfaro at La Villa de Los Santos, Panama setting into motion a revolt which lead to Panama’s independence from Spain and to it immediately becoming part of Colombia

1793  A Goddess of Reason is proclaimed by the French Convention at the suggestion of Pierre Gaspard Chaumette.

1702  English colonists under the command of James Moore besiege Spanish St. Augustine during Queen Anne’s War.

1674  Anglo-Dutch War: As provided in the Treaty of Westminster, Netherlands cedes New Netherland to England.




2004  The Palestine Liberation Organization confirms the death of Yasser Arafat from unidentified causes. Mahmoud Abbas is elected chairman of the PLO minutes later.

2004  New Zealand Tomb of the Unknown Warrior is dedicated at the National War Memorial, Wellington.

1993  A sculpture honoring women who served in the Vietnam War is dedicated at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C.

1992  The General Synod of the Church of England votes to allow women to become priests.

1981  Antigua and Barbuda joins the United Nations.

Antigua and Barbuda:

Foreign Relations of Antigua and Barbuda:

Antigua and Barbuda and the United Nations:

History of Antigua and Barbuda:

Economy of Antigua and Barbuda:

1975  Independence of Angola.

Independence of Angola:


Foreign Relations of Angola:

History of Angola:

Economy of Angola:

1975  Australian constitutional crisis of 1975: Australian Governor-General Sir John Kerr dismisses the government of Gough Whitlam, appoints Malcolm Fraser as caretaker Prime Minister and announces a general election to be held in early December.

1972  Vietnam War: Vietnamization – The United States Army turns over the massive Long Binh military base to South Vietnam.

Vietnam War in 1972:


Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1968  A second republic is declared in the Maldives.

Second Republic of Maldives:

History of Maldives:


Foreign Relations of Maldives:

Economy of Maldives:

1968  Vietnam War: Operation Commando Hunt initiated. The goal is to interdict men and supplies on the Ho Chi Minh trail, through Laos into South Vietnam.

Operation Commando Hunt:

Vietnam War in 1968:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1967  Vietnam War: In a propaganda ceremony in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, three American prisoners of war are released by the Viet Cong and turned over to “new left” antiwar activist Tom Hayden.

Vietnam War in 1967:

1966  NASA launches Gemini 12.

1965  In Rhodesia (modern-day Zimbabwe), the white-minority government of Ian Smith unilaterally declares independence.

History of Rhodesia/Zimbabwe:

Economy of Zimbabwe:

1962  Kuwait‘s National Assembly ratifies the Constitution of Kuwait.

Constitution of Kuwait:

1961  Thirteen Italian Air Force servicemen, deployed to the Congo as a part of the UN peacekeeping force are massacred by a mob in the course of the Kindu atrocity.

1960  A military coup against President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam is crushed.

Failure of Military Coup against Ngo Dinh Diem of 1960:

1942  World War II: Nazi Germany completes its occupation of France.

Completion of Nazi Germany’s Occupation of Paris:

History of Nazi Germany:

1940  The German cruiser Atlantis captures top secret British mail, and sends it to Japan.

1940  World War II: Battle of Taranto – The Royal Navy launches the first aircraft carrier strike in history, on the Italian fleet at Taranto.

1934  The Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne, Australia is opened.

1930  Patent number US1781541 is awarded to Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd for their invention, the Einstein refrigerator.

1926  The United States Numbered Highway System, including US Route 66, is established.

1921  The Tomb of the Unknowns is dedicated by US President Warren G. Harding at Arlington National Cemetery.

1919  Lāčplēša day – Latvian forces defeat the Freikorps at Riga in the Latvian War of Independence.

History of Latvia:


Foreign Relations of Latvia:

Economy of Latvia:

1919  The Centralia Massacre in Centralia, Washington results the deaths of four members of the American Legion and the lynching of a local leader of the Industrial Workers of the World.

1918  Emperor Charles I of Austria relinquishes power.

1918  Józef Piłsudski assumes supreme military power in Poland – symbolic first day of Polish independence.

1918  World War I: Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies in a railroad car in the forest of Compiègne, France. The fighting officially ends at 11:00 a.m., (the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month) and this is commemorated annually with a two minute silence. The war officially ends on the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919.

The End of the World War I:

Kaiser Wilhelm II:

Aftermath of World War I:

Treaty of Versailles:

Treaty of Versailles and the Origins of the “Crimes of Aggression” or the “Crimes against Peace”:

“Crimes against Peace” a.k.a. “Crimes of Aggression”:

1887  Construction of the Manchester Ship Canal begins at Eastham.

1887  Anarchist Haymarket Martyrs August Spies, Albert Parsons, Adolph Fischer and George Engel are executed.

1880  Australian bushranger Ned Kelly is hanged at Melbourne Gaol.

1869  The Victorian Aboriginal Protection Act is enacted in Australia, giving the government control of indigenous people’s wages, their terms of employment, where they could live, and of their children, effectively leading to the Stolen Generations.

1865  Treaty of Sinchula is signed by which Bhutan cedes the areas east of the Teesta River to the British East India Company.

Treaty of Sinchula:

History of Bhutan:





2014  The Philae lander, deployed from the European Space Agency‘s Rosetta probe, reaches the surface of Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.

2011 Silvio Berlusconi tenders his resignation as Prime Minister of Italy, effective November 16, due in large part to the European sovereign debt crisis.

2003  Shanghai Transrapid sets a new world speed record (501 kilometres per hour (311 mph)) for commercial railway systems, which remains the fastest for unmodified commercial rail vehicles.

2003  Iraq War: In Nasiriyah, Iraq, at least 23 people, among them the first Italian casualties of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, are killed in a suicide bomb attack on an Italian police base.

Timelines of the Iraq War:

2001  War in Afghanistan: Taliban forces abandon Kabul, ahead of advancing Afghan Northern Alliance troops.


History of Taliban:

Is the Taliban a Terrorist Organization? :

US Invasion of Afghanistan – US War in Afghanistan:

Classified Documents on the US War in Afghanistan:

Why Did the US Invade Afghanistan? :

Behind the Official Reasons for the Invasion of Afghanistan:


US-Afghanistan Relations:

Foreign Relations of Afghanistan:

Afghanistan and the United Nations:

History of Afghanistan:

Economy of Afghanistan:

2001  In New York City, American Airlines Flight 587, an Airbus A300 en route to the Dominican Republic, crashes minutes after takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport, killing all 260 on board and five on the ground.

1999  The Düzce earthquake strikes Turkey with a magnitude of 7.2 on the Richter scale.

1997  Ramzi Yousef is found guilty of masterminding the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.

1996  A Saudi Arabian Airlines Boeing 747 and a Kazakh Ilyushin Il-76 cargo plane collide in mid-air near New Delhi, killing 349. The deadliest mid-air collision to date.

1991  Santa Cruz massacre: Indonesian forces open fire on a crowd of student protesters in Dili, East Timor.

1990  Tim Berners-Lee publishes a formal proposal for the World Wide Web.

1990  Crown Prince Akihito is formally installed as Emperor Akihito of Japan, becoming the 125th Japanese monarch.

198USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1988:

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1982  In the Soviet Union, Yuri Andropov becomes the General Secretary of the Communist Party’s Central Committee, succeeding Leonid I. Brezhnev.

1982  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1981  Space Shuttle program: Mission STS-2, utilizing the Space Shuttle Columbia, marks the first time a manned spacecraft is launched into space twice.

1980  The NASA space probe Voyager I makes its closest approach to Saturn and takes the first images of its rings.

Voyager 1:

1979  Iran hostage crisis: In response to the hostage situation in Tehran, US President Jimmy Carter orders a halt to all petroleum imports into the United States from Iran.

Iran Hostage Crisis:

Timelines of the Iranian Hostage Crisis:

1978  Pope John Paul II takes possession of his Cathedral Church, the Basilica of St. John Lateran, as the Bishop of Rome.

1975  The Comoros joins the United Nations.

1971  Vietnam War: As part of Vietnamization, US President Richard Nixon sets February 1, 1972 as the deadline for the removal of another 45,000 American troops from Vietnam.

Vietnam War in 1971:


Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1970  The 1970 Bhola cyclone makes landfall on the coast of East Pakistan becoming the deadliest tropical cyclone in history.

1970  The Oregon Highway Division attempts to destroy a rotting beached Sperm whale with explosives, leading to the now infamous “exploding whale” incident.

1969  Vietnam War: My Lai Massacre – Independent investigative journalist Seymour Hersh breaks the My Lai story.

1968  Equatorial Guinea joins the United Nations.

Equatorial Guinea:

Foreign Relations of Equatorial Guinea:

Equatorial Guinea and the United Nations:

History of Equatorial Guinea:

Economy of Equatorial Guinea:

1958  A team of rock climbers led by Warren Harding completes the first ascent of The Nose on El Capitan in Yosemite Valley.

1956  In the midst of the Suez Crisis, Palestinian refugees are shot dead in the village of Rafah by Israeli soldiers following the invasion of the Gaza Strip.

Suez Crisis (1956-1957):

1956  Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia join the United Nations.


Foreign Relations of Morocco:

Morocco and the United Nations:

Human Rights in Morocco:

History of Morocco:

Economy of Morocco:


Foreign Relations of Sudan:              

Sudan and the United Nations:

Human Rights in Sudan:

History of Sudan:

Economy of Sudan:


Foreign Relations of Tunisia:

Tunisia and the United Nations:

Human Rights in Tunisia:

History of Tunisia:

Economy of Tunisia:

1948  In Tokyo, an international war crimes tribunal sentences seven Japanese military and government officials, including General Hideki TOJO, to death for their roles in World War II.

International Military Tribunal for the Far East:

Hideki TOJO:

Charter of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East:

Judgement by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, and Other Pertinent Documents:

Radhabinod Pal and His Judgement:

War Crimes:

History of War Crimes:

Development of the “Crimes of Aggression” or the “Crimes against Peace” in Modern Times:

Some Pertinent Articles:

1945 Sudirman is elected the first commander-in-chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces.

1944 World War II: The Royal Air Force launches 29 Avro Lancaster bombers, which sink the German battleship Tirpitz, with 12,000 lb Tallboy bombs off Tromsø, Norway.

1942 World War II: Naval Battle of Guadalcanal between Japanese and American forces begins near Guadalcanal. The battle lasts for three days and ends with an American victory.

Guadalcanal Naval Battle:

1941 World War II: The Soviet cruiser Chervona Ukraina is destroyed during the Battle of Sevastopol.

1941  World War II: Temperatures around Moscow drop to -12 °C as the Soviet Union launches ski troops for the first time against the freezing German forces near the city.

1940  World War II: Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov arrives in Berlin to discuss the possibility of the Soviet Union joining the Axis Powers.

1940  World War II: The Battle of Gabon ends as Free French Forces take Libreville, Gabon, and all of French Equatorial Africa from Vichy French forces.

1936  In California, the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge opens to traffic.

1933  Hugh Gray takes the first known photos alleged to be of the Loch Ness Monster.

1928  SS Vestris sinks approximately 200 miles (320 km) off Hampton Roads, Virginia, killing at least 110 passengers, mostly women and children who die after the vessel is abandoned.

1927  Leon Trotsky is expelled from the Soviet Communist Party, leaving Joseph Stalin in undisputed control of the Soviet Union.

Expulsion of Leon Trotsky:

1920  Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes sign the Treaty of Rapallo.

Treaty of Rapallo of 1920:

 “State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs” – “Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs” – “Kingdom of Yugoslavia”:

History of Yugoslavia:

1918  Austria becomes a republic.

Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) Empire:

History of the Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) Empire:

1912  The frozen bodies of Robert Scott and his men are found on the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica.

1912  King George I of Greece makes a triumphal entry into Thessaloniki after its liberation from 482 years of Ottoman rule.

1905  Norway holds a referendum in favor of monarchy over republic.

1893  The treaty of the Durand Line delineating the border between present day Pakistan and Afghanistan is signed by Sir Mortimer Durand, a British diplomat in British India, and the Afghan Amir Abdur Rahman Khan; the Durand Line has gained international recognition as an international border between the two nations.


(Sources and references:    novermber_12;    to november/12;   to november_12.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 6 Nov 2017.

Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week in History, is included. Thank you.

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