This Week in History

HISTORY, 27 Nov 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

Nov 27 – Dec 3, 2017


“It would be impossible to estimate how much time and energy we invest in trying to fix, change and deny our emotions – especially the ones that shake us at our very core, like hurt, jealousy, loneliness, shame, rage and grief.”  – Debbie Ford



2009  Nevsky Express bombing: A bomb explodes on the Nevsky Express train between Moscow and Saint Petersburg, derailing it and causing 28 deaths and 96 injuries.

2006  The Canadian House of Commons approves a motion tabled by Prime Minister Stephen Harper recognizing the Québécois as a nation within Canada.

2005  The first partial human face transplant is completed in Amiens, France.

2004  Pope John Paul II returns the relics of Saint John Chrysostom to the Eastern Orthodox Church.

2001  A hydrogen atmosphere is discovered on the extrasolar planet Osiris by the Hubble Space Telescope, the first atmosphere detected on an extrasolar planet.

1999  The left-wing Labour Party takes control of the New Zealand government with leader Helen Clark becoming the first elected female Prime Minister in New Zealand’s history.

1997  Twenty-five are killed in the second Souhane massacre in Algeria.

1992  For the second time in a year, military forces try to overthrow president Carlos Andrés Pérez in Venezuela.

1991  The United Nations Security Council adopts Security Council Resolution 721, leading the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.

1989  Avianca Flight 203: A Boeing 727 explodes in mid-air over Colombia, killing all 107 people on board and three people on the ground. The Medellín Cartel will claim responsibility for the attack.

1984  Under the Brussels Agreement signed between the governments of the United Kingdom and Spain, the former agreed to enter into discussions with Spain over Gibraltar, including sovereignty.

1978  The Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) is founded in the city of Riha (Urfa) in Turkey.

1978  In San Francisco, city mayor George Moscone and openly gay city supervisor Harvey Milk are assassinated by former supervisor Dan White.

1975  The Provisional IRA assassinates Ross McWhirter, after a press conference in which McWhirter had announced a reward for the capture of those responsible for multiple bombings and shootings across England.

1973  Twenty-fifth Amendment: The United States Senate votes 92 to 3 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President of the United States. (On December 6, the House will confirm him 387 to 35).

1971  The Soviet space program‘s Mars 2 orbiter releases a descent module. It malfunctions and crashes, but it is the first man-made object to reach the surface of Mars.

1968  Penny Ann Early became the first woman to play major professional basketball, for the Kentucky Colonels in an ABA game against the Los Angeles Stars.

1965  Vietnam War: The Pentagon tells US President Lyndon B. Johnson that if planned operations are to succeed, the number of American troops in Vietnam has to be increased from 120,000 to 400,000.

Vietnam War in 1965:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1963  The Convention on the Unification of Certain Points of Substantive Law on Patents for Invention is signed at Strasbourg.

1962  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

Atmospheric Nuclear Testing at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1954  Alger Hiss is released from prison after serving 44 months for perjury.

1945  CARE (then the Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe) was founded to a send CARE Packages of food relief to Europe after World War II.

1942  World War II: At Toulon, the French navy scuttles its ships and submarines to keep them out of Nazi hands.

1940  World War II: At the Battle of Cape Spartivento, the Royal Navy engages the Regia Marina in the Mediterranean Sea.

1940  In Romania, the ruling Iron Guard fascist party assassinates over 60 of arrested King Carol II of Romania‘s aides and other political dissidents, including former Prime Minister Nicolae Iorga.

1912  Spain declares a protectorate over the north shore of Morocco.

1901  The US Army War College is established.

1895  At the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris, Alfred Nobel signs his last will and testament, setting aside his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after he dies.

1886  German judge Emil Hartwich sustains fatal injuries in a duel, which would become the background for Theodor Fontane‘s Effi Briest.

1868  American Indian Wars: Battle of Washita River: United States Army Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer leads an attack on Cheyenne living on reservation land.

1856  The Coup of 1856 leads to Luxembourg‘s unilateral adoption of a new, reactionary constitution.

1839  In Boston, Massachusetts, the American Statistical Association is founded.

1830  Saint Catherine Labouré experiences a vision of the Blessed Virgin standing on a globe, crushing a serpent with her feet, and emanating rays of light from her hands.

1815  Adoption of Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland.

History of Poland:

1095  Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.



2014  Gunmen set off three bombs at the central mosque in the northern city of Kano killing at least 120 people.

2002  Suicide bombers blow up an Israeli-owned hotel in Mombasa, Kenya; their colleagues fail in their attempt to bring down Arkia Israel Airlines Flight 582 with surface-to-air missiles.

1991  South Ossetia declares independence from Georgia.

History of South Ossetia:

South Ossetia and the South Ossetia War:

History of Georgia (country):

1989  Cold War: Velvet Revolution – In the face of protests, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia announces it will give up its monopoly on political power.

Velvet Revolution:

1986  OPEC reaches oil production accord.


1986  US Reagan administration exceeds SALT II arms limitations for 1st time.


1981  Our Lady of Kibeho: Schoolchildren in Kibeho, Rwanda, experience the first of a series of Marian apparitions.

1980  Iran–Iraq War: Operation Morvarid – The bulk of the Iraqi Navy is destroyed by the Iranian Navy in the Persian Gulf. (Commemorated in Iran as Navy Day.)

1979  Air New Zealand Flight 901, a DC-10 sightseeing flight over Antarctica, crashes into Mount Erebus, killing all 257 people on board.

1975  East Timor declares its independence from Portugal.

East Timor:

History of East Timor:

Annex of East Timor of 1976 and Its Background (Overview):

Indonesian Invasion of East Timor on December 07, 1975:

US Approval of Indonesia’s Invasion of East Timor in 1975:

Behind the Invasion: Australia’s Tacit Approval and the UK’s Support:

1972  Last executions in Paris: Claude Buffet and Roger Bontems are guillotined at La Santé Prison. The chief executioner is André Obrecht. (Bontems had been found innocent of murder, but as Buffet’s accomplice was condemned to death anyway)

1971  Wasfi al-Tal, Prime Minister of Jordan, is assassinated by the Black September unit of the Palestine Liberation Organization.

1971  Fred Quilt, a leader of the Tsilhqot’in First Nation suffers severe abdominal injuries allegedly caused by Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers; he dies two days later.

1966  Michel Micombero overthrows the monarchy of Burundi and makes himself the first president.

1966  Dominican Republic adopts constitution.

Constitution of the Dominican Republic:

Dominican Republic:

History of Dominican Republic:

Economy of the Dominican Republic:

1965  Vietnam War: In response to US President Lyndon B. Johnson’s call for “more flags” in Vietnam, Philippine President-elect Ferdinand Marcos announces he will send troops to help fight in South Vietnam.

1965 in the Vietnam War:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

History of Vietnam:

1964  Vietnam War: National Security Council members agree to recommend that US President Lyndon B. Johnson adopt a plan for a two-stage escalation of bombing in North Vietnam.

Vietnam War in 1964:

1964  Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 4 probe toward Mars.

1960  Mauritania becomes independent of France.

1958  US reports 1st full-range firing of an ICBM.


1958  Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon become autonomous republics within the French Community.

French Colonial Empire in Africa:

History of Chad:


Foreign Relations of Chad:

Economy of Chad:

History of the Republic of the Congo:

Republic of the Congo:

Foreign Relations of the Republic of the Congo

Economy of the Republic of the Congo:

History of Gabon:


Foreign Relations of Gabon:

Economy of Gabon:

1943  World War II: Tehran Conference – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran, Iran, to discuss war strategy.

1942  In Boston, Massachusetts, a fire in the Cocoanut Grove nightclub kills 492 people.

1920  Irish War of Independence: Kilmichael Ambush – The Irish Republican Army ambush a convoy of British Auxiliaries and kill seventeen.

From Irish Civil War to the Irish War of Independence:

Irish War of Independence:

History of Ireland:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

IRA’s Terrorism:

History of the IRA:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1919  Lady Astor is elected as a Member of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. She is the first woman to sit in the House of Commons. (Countess Markievicz, the first to be elected, refused to sit.)

1918  Bukovina votes for union with the Kingdom of Romania.

1917  The Estonian Provincial Assembly declares itself the sovereign power of Estonia.

1914  World War I: Following a war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opens for bond trading.

1912  Albania declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire.

1909  Sergei Rachmaninoff makes the debut performance of his Piano Concerto No. 3, considered to be one of the most technically challenging piano concertos in the standard classical repertoire.

1905  Irish nationalist Arthur Griffith founds Sinn Féin as a political party with the main aim of establishing a dual monarchy in Ireland.

1899  The Second Boer War: a British column is engaged by Boer forces at the Battle of Modder River; although the Boers withdraw, the British suffer heavy casualties.

1893  New Zealand becomes the first country in which women vote in a national election.

1885  Bulgarian victory in the Serbo-Bulgarian War preserves the Unification of Bulgaria.

1843  Ka Lā Hui (Hawaiian Independence Day): The Kingdom of Hawaii is officially recognized by the United Kingdom and France as an independent nation.

1821  Greek War of Independence: The French Morea expedition to recapture Morea (now the Peloponnese) ends when the last Ottoman forces depart the peninsula.

Greek War of Independence:

1821  Panama Independence Day: Panama separates from Spain and joins Gran Colombia.

1814  The Times in London is for the first time printed by automatic, steam-powered presses built by the German inventors Friedrich Koenig and Andreas Friedrich Bauer, signaling the beginning of the availability of newspapers to a mass audience.

1811  Beethoven‘s Piano Concerto No. 5 in E-flat major, Op. 73, premieres at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig.

1785  The Treaty of Hopewell is signed.




2014  Taiwan local elections, the Democratic Progressive Party won a landslide victory.

2013  LAM Mozambique Airlines Flight 470 crashes in Namibia, killing 33 people.

2009  Maurice Clemmons shoots and kills four police officers inside a coffee shop in Lakewood, Washington.

2007  An earthquake of magnitude 7.4 occurs off the northern coast of Martinique. This affects the Eastern Caribbean as far north as Puerto Rico and as far south as Trinidad.

2007  The Armed Forces of the Philippines lay siege to the Peninsula Manila after soldiers led by Senator Antonio Trillanes stage a mutiny.

1990  Gulf War: The United Nations Security Council passes two resolutions to restore international peace and security if Iraq does not withdraw its forces from Kuwait and free all foreign hostages by January 15, 1991.

1987  Korean Air Flight 858 explodes over the Thai–Burmese border, killing 115.

1986 The Surinamese military attacks the village of Moiwana during the Suriname Guerrilla War, killing at least 39 civilians, mostly women and children.

1983  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1983:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1982  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

1979  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1978  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1972  Atari announces the release of Pong, the first commercially successful video game.

1971  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1967  Vietnam War: US Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara announces his resignation.

McNamara’s Resignation:

Vietnam War in 1967:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

Vietnam War Peace Talks/Negotiations:

For and Anti-Vietnam War Movements:

1965  The Canadian Space Agency launches the satellite Alouette 2.

1963  Trans-Canada Air Lines Flight 831 crashes shortly after takeoff from Montreal-Dorval International Airport, killing all 118 people on board.

1963  US President Lyndon B. Johnson establishes the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

Warren Commission:

Warren Commission Report:

Assassination of John F Kennedy:

Why JFK Killed? Who Killed JFK? :

1961  Project Mercury: Mercury-Atlas 5 Mission – Enos, a chimpanzee, is launched into space. The spacecraft orbits the Earth twice and splashes down off the coast of Puerto Rico.

1952  Korean War: US President-elect Dwight D. Eisenhower fulfills a campaign promise by traveling to Korea to find out what can be done to end the conflict.

1950  Korean War: North Korean and Chinese troops force United Nations forces to retreat from North Korea.

Korean War in 1950:

Korean War and the Chinese Intervention:

1947  First Indochina War: French forces carry out a massacre at Mỹ Trạch, Vietnam.

Indochina Wars:

First Indochina War:

My Trach Massacre:

1947  Partition Plan: The United Nations General Assembly approves a plan for the partition of Palestine.

UN Plan for the Partition of Palestine:

1946  The All Indonesia Centre of Labour Organizations (SOBSI) is founded in Jakarta.

1945  The Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia is declared.

History of Yugoslavia:

Constitutions of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia:

1944  World War II: Albania is liberated by partisan forces.

World War II and Albanian Partisans:

History of Albania:

1944  The first surgery (on a human) to correct blue baby syndrome is performed by Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas.

1943  World War II: The second session of the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ), held to determine the post-war ordering of the country, concludes in Jajce in what is now Bosnia and Herzegovina.

AVNOJ, Yugoslavia and World War II:

1929  US Admiral Richard E. Byrd leads the first expedition to fly over the South Pole.

1893  The Ziqiang Institute, today known as Wuhan University, is founded by Zhang Zhidong, governor of Hubei and Hunan Provinces in late Qing dynasty China, after his memorial to the throne is approved by the Qing Government.

1890  The Meiji Constitution (i.e. the Constitution of the Empire of Japan) goes into effect in Japan, and the first Diet convenes.

1885  End of Third Anglo-Burmese War, and end of Burmese monarchy.

Burmese Monarchy:

History of Burma/Myanmar:

1877  Thomas Edison demonstrates his phonograph for the first time.

1872  American Indian Wars: The Modoc War begins with the Battle of Lost River.

1864  American Indian Wars: Sand Creek massacreColorado volunteers led by Colonel John Chivington massacre at least 150 Cheyenne and Arapaho noncombatants inside Colorado Territory.

1850  The treaty, Punctation of Olmütz, is signed in Olomouc. Prussia capitulates to Austria, which will take over the leadership of the German Confederation.

1847  Whitman massacre: Missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman, his wife Narcissa, and 15 others are killed by Cayuse and Umatilla Indians, causing the Cayuse War.

1847  The Sonderbund is defeated by the joint forces of other Swiss cantons under General Guillaume-Henri Dufour.

1830  November Uprising: An armed rebellion against Russia’s rule in Poland begins.

November Uprising in Poland (1830-1831):

History of Poland:

Poland and Russia:


Foreign Relations of Poland:

Economy of Poland:

1807  Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil: John VI of Portugal flees Lisbon from advancing Napoleonic forces during the Peninsular War, transferring the Portuguese court to Brazil.

1781  The crew of the British slave ship Zong murders 133 Africans by dumping them into the sea to claim insurance.

1777  San Jose, California, is founded as Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe by José Joaquín Moraga. It is the first civilian settlement, or pueblo, in Alta California.

1729  Natchez Indians massacre 138 Frenchmen, 35 French women, and 56 children at Fort Rosalie, near the site of modern-day Natchez, Mississippi.




2012  An Ilyushin Il-76 cargo plane belonging to Aéro-Service, crashes into houses near Maya-Maya Airport during a thunderstorm, killing at least 32 people.

2005  John Sentamu becomes the first black archbishop in the Church of England with his enthronement as the 97th Archbishop of York.

2004  Lion Air Flight 538 crash lands in Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia, killing 26.

1999  British Aerospace and Marconi Electronic Systems merge to form BAE Systems, Europe’s largest defense contractor and the fourth largest aerospace firm in the world.

BAE Systems:

Defense Industry:

Military-Industrial Complex or Military -Congressional Complex:

Eisenhower’s Farewell Address on the Military-Industrial Complex:

1999  In Seattle, United States, demonstrations against a World Trade Organization meeting by anti-globalization protesters catch police unprepared and force the cancellation of opening ceremonies.

World Trade Organization:


History of Globalization:

The End of Globalization? :

1998  US President Bill Clinton visits Northern Ireland and speaks in favor of the “Northern Ireland peace process” to a huge rally at Belfast City Hall. He calls terrorists “yesterday’s men”.

1995  US President Bill Clinton visits Northern Ireland and speaks in favor of the “Northern Ireland peace process” to a huge rally at Belfast City Hall. He calls terrorists “yesterday’s men”.

1993  US President Bill Clinton signs the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (the Brady Bill) into law.

1989  Deutsche Bank board member Alfred Herrhausen is killed by a Red Army Faction terrorist bomb.

1988  UN General Assembly (151-2) censures US for refusing PLO’s Arafat visa.

Refusal of Arafat’s Visa by the US Department of State:

Arguments on the Refusal of Arafat’s Visa:

Yasser Arafat:

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO):

History of the PLO:

1982  Michael Jackson‘s second solo album, Thriller is released worldwide. It will become the best-selling record album in history.

Thriller – Michael Jackson:

1982  USSR performs nuclear test.

1981  Cold War: In Geneva, representatives from the United States and the Soviet Union begin to negotiate intermediate-range nuclear weapon reductions in Europe. (The meetings end inconclusively on December 17.)

US-USSR Nuclear Weapon Reduction Talks:

1979  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1979:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1972  Vietnam War: White House Press Secretary Ron Ziegler tells the press that there will be no more public announcements concerning American troop withdrawals from Vietnam because troop levels are now down to 27,000.

1972 in the Vietnam War:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

Ending the US Involvement in the Vietnam War:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement or Opposition to United States Involvement in the Vietnam War:

1971  Iran seizes the Greater and Lesser Tunbs from the United Arab Emirates.

1969  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1967  Pro-Soviet communists in the Philippines establish Malayang Pagkakaisa ng Kabataan Pilipino as its new youth wing.

1967  The Pakistan Peoples Party is founded by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who becomes its first chairman.

1967  The People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen becomes independent from the United Kingdom.


Foreign Relations of Yemen:

History of Yemen:

Economy of Yemen:

1966  Barbados becomes independent from the United Kingdom.

1954  In Sylacauga, Alabama, United States, the Hodges meteorite crashes through a roof and hits a woman taking an afternoon nap. This is the only documented case in the Western Hemisphere of a human being hit by a rock from space.

1953  Edward Mutesa II, the kabaka (king) of Buganda is deposed and exiled to London by Sir Andrew Cohen, Governor of Uganda.

1947  1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine begins, leading up to the creation of the state of Israel.

1947-48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine:

History of Israel:


Israel’s Nuclear Capability:

Foreign Relations of Israel:

Economy of Israel:

1942  World War II: Battle of Tassafaronga; A smaller squadron of Japanese destroyers led by Raizō Tanaka defeats a US cruiser force under Carleton H. Wright.

1936  Winter War: Soviet forces cross the Finnish border in several places and bomb Helsinki and several other Finnish cities, starting the war.

1916  Costa Rica signs the Buenos Aires Convention, a copyright treaty.

1853  Crimean War: Battle of Sinop – The Imperial Russian Navy under Pavel Nakhimov destroys the Ottoman fleet under Osman Pasha at Sinop, a sea port in northern Turkey.

Battle of Sinop:

Crimean War:

Timeline of Crimean War:

History of Crimea:

1803  In New Orleans, Spanish representatives officially transfer the Louisiana Territory to a French representative. Just 20 days later, France transfers the same land to the United States as the Louisiana Purchase.

1786  The Grand Duchy of Tuscany, under Pietro Leopoldo I, becomes the first modern state to abolish the death penalty (later commemorated as Cities for Life Day).




Today is the WORLD AIDS DAY:

2013  China launches Yutu or Jade Rabbit, its first lunar rover, as part of the Chang’e 3 lunar exploration mission.

2009  The Treaty of Lisbon, which amends the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community, which together comprise the constitutional basis of European Union, comes into effect.

2001  Captain Bill Compton brings Trans World Airlines Flight 220, an MD-83, into St Louis International Airport bringing to an end 76 years of TWA operations following TWA’s purchase by American Airlines.

1997  In the Indian state of Bihar, Ranvir Sena attacked the CPI(ML) Party Unity stronghold Lakshmanpur-Bathe, killing 63 lower caste people.

1991  Cold War: Ukrainian voters overwhelmingly approve a referendum for independence from the Soviet Union.

Independence of Ukraine:

History of Ukraine:

Ukraine-Russian Relations:

Relations: Ukraine, the West and Russia:

1990  Channel Tunnel sections started from the United Kingdom and France meet 40 metres beneath the seabed.

1989  Cold War: East Germany‘s parliament abolishes the constitutional provision granting the Communist Party the leading role in the state.

1989  USSR Pres Mikhail S Gorbachev meets Pope John Paul II at the Vatican.

Mikhail Gorbachev:

Karol Wojtyla or Pope John Paul II:

1989  Philippine coup attempt: The right-wing military rebel Reform the Armed Forces Movement attempts to oust Philippine President Corazon Aquino in a failed bloody coup d’état.

1988  Benazir Bhutto is appointed Prime Minister of Pakistan.

1984  NASA conducts the Controlled Impact Demonstration, wherein an airliner is deliberately crashed in order to test technologies and gather data to help improve survivability of crashes.

1981  Inex-Adria Aviopromet Flight 1308, a McDonnell Douglas MD-80, crashes in Corsica, killing all 180 people on board.

1978  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1976  Angola joins the United Nations.

Independence of Angola:


Foreign Relations of Angola:

Angola and the United Nations:

History of Angola:

Economy of Angola:

1974  TWA Flight 514, a Boeing 727, crashes northwest of Dulles International Airport, killing all 92 people on board.

1973  Papua New Guinea gains self-governance from Australia.

1971  Cambodian Civil War: Khmer Rouge rebels intensify assaults on Cambodian government positions, forcing their retreat from Kompong Thmar and nearby Ba Ray.

Cambodian Civil War:

Vietnam War and Communism in Cambodia:

Khmer Rouge:


History of Cambodia:

Foreign Relations of Cambodia:

Economy of Cambodia:

1969  Vietnam War: The first draft lottery in the United States is held since World War II.

Vietnam War in 1969:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1965  India’s Border Security Force is established.

1964  Malawi, Malta and Zambia join the United Nations.

1964  Vietnam War: US President Lyndon B Johnson and his top-ranking advisers meet to discuss plans to bomb North Vietnam.

Vietnam War in 1964:

1959  Cold War: Opening date for signature of the Antarctic Treaty, which sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve and bans military activity on the continent.

Antarctic Treaty:

1958  The Our Lady of the Angels School fire in Chicago kills 92 children and three nuns.

1958  The Central African Republic attains self-rule within the French Union.

Central African Republic:

195American Civil Rights Movement: In Montgomery, Alabama, seamstress Rosa Parks refuses to give up her bus seat to a white man and is arrested for violating the city’s racial segregation laws, an incident which leads to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

Montgomery Bus Boycott:

History of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States – Overview:

Civil Rights Movements of Various Ethnic Minorities in the United States:

Nonviolence, Movements against Racism, and More:

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination:

One of the Historical Cases – Nuremberg Laws of Nazi Germany:

One of the Historical Cases – Apartheid of South Africa:

Sports and Racism:

Beauty Contest and Racism:

1941  World War II: Fiorello La Guardia, Mayor of New York City and Director of the Office of Civilian Defense, signs Administrative Order 9, creating the Civil Air Patrol.

1941  World War II: Emperor Hirohito of Japan gives the final approval to initiate war against the United States.

1934  In the Soviet Union, Politburo member Sergey Kirov is shot dead by Leonid Nikolaev at the Communist Party headquarters in Leningrad.

1919  The first issue of Diário de Noite is published from Goa.

1919  Lady Astor becomes the first female Member of Parliament to take her seat in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. (She had been elected to that position on November 28.)

1918  The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) is proclaimed.

1918  The Kingdom of Iceland becomes a sovereign state, yet remains a part of the Danish kingdom.

1918  Transylvania unites with the Kingdom of Romania, following the incorporation of Bessarabia (March 27) and Bukovina (November 28), thus concluding the Great Union.

History of Transylvania:

1913  Crete, having obtained self rule from Turkey after the First Balkan War, is annexed by Greece.

Crete Autonomous Government:

History of Crete:

Balkan Wars:

First Balkan War:

1913  The Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving assembly line.

1913  The Buenos Aires Metro, the first underground railway system in the Southern Hemisphere and in Latin America, begins operation.

1885  First serving of the soft drink Dr Pepper at a drug store in Waco, Texas.

1865  Shaw University, the first historically black university in the southern United States, is founded in Raleigh, North Carolina.

1864  Great Fire of Brisbane

1862  In his State of the Union Address President Abraham Lincoln reaffirms the necessity of ending slavery as ordered ten weeks earlier in the Emancipation Proclamation.

1834  Slavery is abolished in the Cape Colony in accordance with the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.

Slavery in the Cape Colony:

History of the Cape Colony:

1828  Argentine general Juan Lavalle makes a coup against governor Manuel Dorrego, beginning the Decembrist revolution.

1826  French philhellene Charles Nicolas Fabvier forces his way through the Turkish cordon and ascends the Acropolis of Athens, which had been under siege.




2001  Enron files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

1999  The United Kingdom devolves political power in Northern Ireland to the Northern Ireland Executive.

1993  Space Shuttle program: STS-61: NASA launches the Space Shuttle Endeavour on a mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope.

1993  Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar is shot and killed in Medellín.

1991  Canada and Poland become the first nations on earth to recognize the independence of Ukraine from the Soviet Union.

1988  Benazir Bhutto is sworn in as Prime Minister of Pakistan, becoming the first woman to head the government of an Islam-dominated state.

1988  UN votes 151-2 (Israel & US) to move PLO debate to Geneva, Brit abstains.

UN Decides to Hold PLO Session at the UN Geneva:

Refusal of Arafat’s Visa by the US Department of State:

Arguments on the Refusal of Arafat’s Visa:

1987  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1984  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1984:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1982  At the University of Utah, Barney Clark becomes the first person to receive a permanent artificial heart.

1980  Salvadoran Civil War: Four U.S. nuns and churchwomen, Ita Ford, Maura Clarke, Jean Donovan, and Dorothy Kazel, are murdered by a military death squad.

1979  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1976  Fidel Castro becomes President of Cuba, replacing Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado.

Fidel Castro:

Cuba or the “Republic of Cuba” (Repúlica de Cuba):

Foreign Relations of Cuba:

Cuba and USSR/Russia:

Cuba and the United States:

History and Culture of Cuba:

Economy of Cuba:

1975  Laotian Civil War: The Pathet Lao seizes the Laotian capital of Vientiane, forces the abdication of King Sisavang Vatthana, and proclaims the Lao People’s Democratic Republic.

Laotian Civil War:

History of Laos:

1971  Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Fujairah, Sharjah, Dubai, and Umm al-Quwain form the United Arab Emirates.

1970  The United States Environmental Protection Agency begins operations.

1968  US President Richard Nixon names Henry Kissinger security advisor.

Henry Kissinger:

Kissinger and the Vietnam War:

196Vietnam War: After a trip to Vietnam at the request of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, U.S. Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield becomes the first American official to comment adversely on the war’s progress.

Vietnam War in 1962:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

1961  In a nationally broadcast speech, Cuban leader Fidel Castro declares that he is a Marxist–Leninist and that Cuba is going to adopt Communism.

1956  The Granma reaches the shores of Cuba‘s Oriente Province. Fidel Castro, Che Guevara and 80 other members of the 26th of July Movement disembark to initiate the Cuban Revolution.

1954  The Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, between the United States and Taiwan, is signed in Washington, D.C.

1954  Cold War: The United States Senate votes 65 to 22 to censure Joseph McCarthy for “conduct that tends to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute”.

194Jerusalem Riots of 1947: Riots break out in Jerusalem in response to the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine.

Jerusalem Riots of 1947:

History of Israel:

Israeli-Palestine Conflict:

Timeline of Israel-Palestine Conflict:

1943  World War II: A Luftwaffe bombing raid on the harbour of Bari, Italy, sinks numerous cargo and transport ships, including the American SS John Harvey, which is carrying a stockpile of World War I-era mustard gas.

1942  World War II: During the Manhattan Project, a team led by Enrico Fermi initiates the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.

1930  Great Depression: In a State of the Union message, U.S. President Herbert Hoover proposes a US$150 million public works program to help generate jobs and stimulate the economy.

1927  Following 19 years of Ford Model T production, the Ford Motor Company unveils the Ford Model A as its new automobile.

1920  Following more than a month of Turkish–Armenian War, the Turkish dictated Treaty of Alexandropol is concluded.

1917  World War I: Russia and the Central Powers sign an armistice at Brest-Litovsk, and peace talks leading to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk begin.

1899  Philippine–American War: The Battle of Tirad Pass, termed “The Filipino Thermopylae”, is fought.

1859 Militant abolitionist leader John Brown is hanged for his October 16 raid on Harpers Ferry, West Virginia.

1852  Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte becomes Emperor of the French as Napoleon III.

1851  French President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte overthrows the Second Republic.

1848  Franz Josef I becomes Emperor of Austria.




2014  The Japanese space agency, JAXA, launches the space explorer Hayabusa 2 from the Tanegashima Space Center on a six-year round trip mission to a asteroid to collect rock samples.

2012  In Northern Ireland, 15 police officers are injured during rioting at Belfast City Hall following a vote to change Belfast City Council‘s policy on flying the union flag.

2012  At least 475 people are killed after Typhoon Bopha makes landfall in the Philippines.

2009  A suicide bombing at a hotel in Mogadishu, Somalia, kills 25 people, including three ministers of the Transitional Federal Government.

2005  XCOR Aerospace makes the first manned rocket aircraft delivery of U.S. Mail in Kern County, California.

1999  NASA loses radio contact with the Mars Polar Lander moments before the spacecraft enters the Martian atmosphere.

1997  In Ottawa, Canada, representatives from 121 countries sign the Ottawa Treaty prohibiting manufacture and deployment of anti-personnel landmines. The United States, People’s Republic of China, and Russia do not sign the treaty, however.

1992  UN Security Council votes unanimous for US led forces to enter Somalia.

UN Resolution 794 (1992) of 1992:

1992  A test engineer for Sema Group uses a personal computer to send the world’s first text message via the Vodafone network to the phone of a colleague.

1992  The Greek oil tanker Aegean Sea, carrying 80,000 tonnes of crude oil, runs aground in a storm while approaching A Coruña, Spain, and spills much of its cargo.

1989  Cold War: In a meeting off the coast of Malta, US President George H W Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev release statements indicating that the Cold War between NATO and the Soviet Union may be coming to an end.

The End of the Cold War:

1984  Bhopal disaster: A methyl isocyanate leak from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, kills more than 3,800 people outright and injures 150,000–600,000 others (some 6,000 of whom would later die from their injuries) in one of the worst industrial disasters in history.

1982  A soil sample is taken from Times Beach, Missouri, that will be found to contain 300 times the safe level of dioxin.

Times Beach and Dioxin:

1981  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1979  Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini becomes the first Supreme Leader of Iran.

Ruhollah Khomeini and the Iranian Revolution:

1973  Pioneer program: Pioneer 10 sends back the first close-up images of Jupiter.

1971  Indo-Pakistani War of 1971: Pakistan launches a pre-emptive strike against India and a full-scale war begins claiming hundreds of lives.

Indo-Pakistan War of 1971:

History of the India-Pakistan Wars:

1970  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

For some more pertinent information, see1981 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site,” mentioned above.

1967  At Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, a transplant team headed by Christiaan Barnard carries out the first heart transplant on a human (53-year-old Louis Washkansky).

1966  US performs underground nuclear test in Hattiesburg, Mississippi.

Project Sterling:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1964  Free Speech Movement: Police arrest over 800 students at the University of California, Berkeley, following their takeover and sit-in at the administration building in protest of the UC Regents‘ decision to forbid protests on UC property.

1944  Greek Civil War: Fighting breaks out in Athens between the ELAS and government forces supported by the British Army.

Modern History of Greece:

Greek Civil War:

1925  World War I aftermath: The final Locarno Treaty is signed in London, establishing post-war territorial settlements.

The Locarno Treaty:

1919  After nearly 20 years of planning and construction, including two collapses causing 89 deaths, the Quebec Bridge opens to traffic.

1912  Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and Serbia (the Balkan League) sign an armistice with the Ottoman Empire, temporarily halting the First Balkan War. (The armistice will expire on February 3, 1913, and hostilities will resume.)

First Balkan War:

1904  The Jovian moon Himalia is discovered by Charles Dillon Perrine at California’s Lick Observatory.

1854  Battle of the Eureka Stockade: More than 20 gold miners at Ballarat, Victoria, are killed by state troopers in an uprising over mining licences.

1834  The Zollverein (German Customs Union) begins the first regular census in Germany.

1800  War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden – French General Moreau decisively defeats the Archduke John of Austria near Munich. Coupled with First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte‘s earlier victory at Marengo, this will force the Austrians to sign an armistice and end the war.

1799  War of the Second Coalition: Battle of WieslochAustrian Lieutenant Field Marshal Anton Sztáray defeats the French at Wiesloch.


(Sources and references:   december_3;   to december/3;   to december_3.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 27 Nov 2017.

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