“Peace”: The Neuro-Anthropology of Peace and the Innate Proclivity of Humanoids to Generate Conflict (Part 2)


Prof Hoosen Vawda – TRANSCEND Media Service

Oh, Humanoids control you Reptilian Brain and the Elusive Peace will be yours. [1]

Mahatma Gandhi The Great Soul of India:   Protagonist of Passive Resistance as a Peaceful Means of Protest to gain Independence from the oppressive British Raj in India.

23 Apr 2022 – In Part 1 of this publication, the author elaborates on the work of the pioneer of Peace Research, Professor Johan Vincent Galtung [4]and the Theory of Conflict Resolution. Galtung is a Norwegian sociologist, and the principal founder of the discipline of peace and conflict studies. He was the principal founder of the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) in 1959 and served as its first director until 1970. This publication examines the components in the central nervous system which, when dysfunctional, are responsible for peace destruction, in humanoids.  The neurological dysfunction could be genetically predisposed, or caused by various socio-environmental factors, in the formative years of the life of a child, resulting in an endogenous peace disruptive, belligerent personality type, in the individual.[5]

According to astro-biological scientists[6], approximately 3,7 to 4,2 billion years ago, great and complex biochemical reactions were taking place, in an auto-catalytic manner, in the primordial or prebiotic or primaeval soup or broth, together with the elements contained in the primitive gaseous atmosphere of the newly formed galaxy, including earth. Astrobiology, also known as exobiology, is an interdisciplinary scientific field that studies the origins, early evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Astrobiology is the multidisciplinary field that investigates the deterministic conditions and contingent events with which life arises, distributes, and evolves in the universe.[7]  The primordial soup is a generic term which describes the aqueous solution of organic compounds that accumulated in primitive water bodies of the early Earth as a result of endogenous abiotic syntheses and the extraterrestrial delivery by cometary and meteoritic collisions, and from which some scientist have assumed that the first living systems evolved.[8]

The planet was still in its embryonic state with a hypothetical set of appropriate conditions present on the Earth, at the time of mega intergalactic and universal geospace turmoil and interstellar tumult. This was a slow process occurring over billion of years. It is a fundamental aspect to the heterotrophic theory of the origin of life, first proposed by Alexander Oparin in 1924[9], and J. B. S. Haldane in 1929.[10]  While it is not the scope of this publication, suffice it to state that all life evolved in this primordial concoction or “base clay” as stated in some of the scriptures of the Abrahamic faiths, as a monocellular organizing from a cohesion of amino acids, water and organic compounds to form cells.  These cells decided to unite with one another, instead of living an independent life in the primordial broth and form a unified, multicellular organism, from a physical and biological union of numerous unicellular microbes.

This process of muti-cellularisation occurred over a few billion years of evolutionary mechanisms and paleo-biological processes.  Therefore the end result of this aggregation This unification then led to a process of specialised cellular differentiation of the multicellular organism to develop specific systems to control the absorption of nutritive compounds for the complex, analogous to eating, metabolism of ingested products by  process of phagocytosis, as there was not oral cavity, nor a digestive system in these early life forms,  of metabolism, distribution of nutrients to all the cells in the complex, gaseous exchange within the primordial broth, excretion of products, as well as reproduction and removal of dead cells upon the demise of older cells and apoptosis, in order to ensure an economy of scales.  Therefore, rather than every cell engaged in each of the above functions for survival, the multicellular organism which developed by a coalition of individual cells, from a unicellular organism, a group of cells emerged, to execute a specific, aforementioned  “bodily” function.

Hence, a  process of further cellular differentiation over a few billion years again.  The end result was an evolved organism which had specialized systems for each bodily function.  The initial multicellular clump of cells also needed a system of tubes to distribute absorbed nutrients to all the cells placed far away from the external surface in contact with the primordial broth.  Therefore, eventually a primitive vascular  system developed and finally a muscle pump which enabled the blood in the vascular system to be distributed with the body of this multicellular organism.  This was the primitive heart which functioned automatically in the body.  The organism then developed a primitive nervous system, both sensory and motor to perceive the aquatic environment in the primordial broth.

With further physical developmental evolution, the organism developed primitive lungs with recession of gills to extract life giving oxygen.  This enabled the organism to make forays into the terrestrial environment as the fluid of the primordial broth receded.  Hence we see evidence of these type of lung breathing fish in the living fossil, the Coelacanths discovered and documented by J.L.B. Smith in South Africa.   Further physical as well as social and cultural evolution occurred resulting in the modern-day species of humanoids called Homo sapiens, sapiens from the primitive Neanderthal ancestor.  However, our reptilian brain parts are retained as anatomical and functional vestigial elements, carried forward as the basic system for emergency use in life threatening situations,.  However, this is functionally and constantly inhibited by the newer upgrades of the human brain, the neocortex as represented by the highly expanded frontal lobes of the newly evolved human brain, in the modern humanoid.

Simplified stages in Evolution from organic ingredients in the Primordial broth to a complex humanoid, with vestiges of the “Reptilian, Lizard Brain”.
Note the transformation of the early quadrupedal gait, to the development of an erect posture and the bipedal gait.

Concomitant with the evolution of the physical body of the early humanoids, from our days as Neanderthals, roaming around in the primordial forest, with early fauna and flora, the size of the head and the brain contained within also grew.  This increase in size of the head in modern humanoids is mainly attributed to the acquisition of the massive frontal lobes of the brain resulting in an average brain mass of 1425 grams in a healthy young individual.[11]  There is great variations in the recorded averages of brain mass, including sexual dimorphism in the brain mass between females and males.  However, the brain mass does not correlate with intelligence levels of the individuals studied. This increased brain size is evidenced in the bulging forehead of present-day humanoids instead of the small cranial size and capacity, with the sloping forehead of the primitive man, and woman, of course. To understand this concept of the development of the human brain, it is appropriate to refer to the early theory of “The Triune Brain”[12].

This is a model of the evolution of the vertebrate forebrain and behavior, proposed by the American physician and neuroscientist Paul D. MacLean.[13] The triune brain consists of the reptilian complex (or lizard brain), the paleomammalian complex (limbic system), and the neo-mammalian complex (neocortex), viewed each as independently conscious, and as structures sequentially added to the forebrain in the course of evolution.[14] In simple terms, the human brain had two upgrades during the course of evolution.  The basic brain is the original model which is essential for survival of the individual found in “lower life forms” in evolution and was the prototype of the Central Nervous System, when it first made its presence from differentiation of the multicellular organism into cells of each system in its body. The first upgrade was the limbic system referred to as the paleobrain.  This is added around the central core of the primitive archibrain, responsible for emotions including aggression and is represented by the human limbic system.  The second upgrade is found in modem humanoids and is called the neobrain.  This is represented by the expanded frontal lobe and its six layered cortical cells.

It is responsible for higher function in humanoids, including discretion and also functions by sending inhibitory impulses to the original archibrain components as well as the paleobrain represented by the limbic system.  In an emergency the physical body may suffer, the primitive archibrain overrides the other two inhibitory subsystems and results in preservation of life, as a reflex output of impulses in the body, allowing the humanoid to safely react to any life-threatening situation, either real or perceived.  This phenomenon is experienced in neuropsychiatric patients, disturbing internal as well as external peace  with reference to the individual operating his brain under those self-perceived circumstances.  Therefore, in some individuals, under non-emergency situations, the inhibition from the neo brain is removed resulting in a cartre blanche operation of the primitive brain sectors, causing aggression and disruption of peace.

Brain’s limbic system. Artwork of the brain’s limbic system seen inside a woman’s head. This system is a complex network of nerve pathways involved with the expression of instinct and mood. The system is colour-coded: the reticular formation is light purple, the thalamus is pink and the hypothalamus is orange. The light green structures are: the mamillary body on top of the hypothalamus; the amygdala is immediately below the hypothalamus; the hippocampus is beneath the amygdala; the large caudate nucleus is at the top of the limbic system. The limbic system governs self-preservation, mood expression, reproduction and memory formation.

 The humanoid so affected acts selfishly, demonstrates envy, aggression, belligerence, maleficence and behaves in a manner conducive to a perceived life-threatening situation, when in reality, it is not.  The person is perpetually on “Red Alert” and acts as such to the detriment of peace all around. This is the basis for the disinhibited status of psychoses, intoxicated persons, as well as patients on drugs and are involved in substance abuse.  This state of intermittent or chronic “Red Alert” disturbs the harmonious and peaceful functioning of the three sectors of the human brain, which generates social distress, decohesion, xenophobias and regional wars, as presently experienced in the Ukraine.  The affected person operates at a primitive level of a reptile, such as crocodile, demonstrates unjustifiable and profound mistrust, even in his spouse, or closest friend, becomes psycho-pathologically envious and persecutory, as King Henry VIII (1491-1547), who is the most well-known of all English monarchs, notably for the fact that he had six wives and beheaded two of them.[15]

A simplistic classification of the triad of the evolutionary parts of Brain in modern humanoids. The Tribune

 The Limbic System controls moods, emotions, aggression and attitudes, stores emotional memories and is the centre piece in the sexual arousal reaction, functioning through the neural links with autonomic nervous system in the body.  The dysfunction of these components of the human brain will result in the development of  historical “Peace Destroyers” in the form of tyrants[18], such as Roman Emperor Caligula[19], and in medieval times, Queen Mary I, Britain’s “blood queen”, the daughter of Henry VIII, who even surpassed the brutality of her father, Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich of Russia, a cold blooded murderer and Count Vlad Tepes III, the vampire legend alive, serial killers[20] exemplified by Jack the Ripper[21], revengeful individuals like Adolph Hitler[22],  sexual perverts and predators[23],  war mongers, like Genghis Khan[24] and Russian oppressors like Joseph Stalin[25], genocide megalomaniacs like, Bosnian genocide massacre orchestrators Radovan Karadzic and the Bosnian Serb military commander, General Ratko Mladic, were among those indicted[26],  autocrats like Idi Amin [27], cult murderers such as American criminal, Charles Manson[28]

It is interesting to note that Adolph Hitler, as a boy of 12 in 1907. applied to the Academy of Fine Arts for enrollment. When he was interviewed by Professor Christian Griepenkerl (17 March 1839-22 March 1916), who was a German painter and professor at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, as well as a director, Hitler was officially informed that his entrance submission piece was both unimaginative and unsatisfactory, therefore rejcted admission.[29] But the truth was that only applicants of Jewish descent, were admitted to the Academy.[30]  Perhaps, the lives of over six million Jews would have been spared and Holocaust would not have occurred if Hitler was accepted in the Viennese art school by Professor Christian Griepenkerl.  It is an obvious conclusion which seems that the unsuccessful application triggered Hitler’s reptilian brain and the limbic system, with revengeful emotional memories in his hippocampus[31], for him to orchestrate the Final Solution[32], during World War 11, leading to the genocide.

Since the 1970s, in some circles of evolutionary and developmental neuroscience, the concept of the Triune brain has been subject to criticism[33] and is regarded as a myth.[34] Due to its longevity, the triune brain idea has also been called “one of the most successful and widespread errors in all of science.”[35] as the hypothesis is no longer espoused by the majority of comparative neuroscientists in the post-2000 era.[36] The theory has been embraced by some psychiatrists and at least one leading affective neuroscience researcher.[37]

MacLean originally formulated his model in the 1960s and propounded it at length in his 1990 book The Triune Brain in Evolution.[38] The triune brain hypothesis became familiar to a broad popular audience through Carl Sagan’s Pulitzer prize winning 1977 book The Dragons of Eden.  However, the author proposes its relevance to the role of the hypothesis in the neural works in the mind of a “Peace Destroyer”.  The reptilian complex (also known as the “R-complex”, “reptilian brain” or “lizard brain”) was the name MacLean gave to the basal ganglia, structures derived from the floor of the forebrain during development. The term derives from the idea that comparative neuroanatomists once believed that the forebrains of reptiles and birds were dominated by these structures. MacLean proposed that the reptilian complex was responsible for species-typical instinctual behavioural patterns, involved in aggression, dominance, territoriality, and ritual displays. [39]

“Biblical Peace Destroyer” Caine murdering his brother Abel out of Jealously.
The first demonstration of the disinhibited functioning of the Reptilian Brain and Limbic System in Humans. Peter Paul Rubens, c. 1600

The Bottom line is that the neuro-anthropology of peace and the innate proclivity of humanoids to generate conflict, since evolution and genesis of the species goes back to Biblical days, when the jealousy generated by the Reptilian Complex, as it is disinhibited by the neobrain in  humans, led to the treacherous murder of Abel by his brother Caine[41], as narrated in the Quran, the Bible and the ancient Hebrew scriptures.   In the biblical Book of Genesis, Cain and Abel are the first two sons of Adam and Eve. Cain, the firstborn, was a farmer, and his brother Abel was a shepherd.

The brothers made sacrifices to God, but God favored Abel’s sacrifice instead of Cain’s. Cain then murdered Abel, whereupon God punished Cain by condemning him to a life of wandering. Cain then dwelt in the land of Nod, where he built a city and fathered the line of descendants beginning with Enoch.[42]  In the present-day context, the formula to effectively arrest and implement peace lies in the words of Mahatma Gandhi; “Peace between countries must rest on the solid foundation of love between individuals.” [43]   If one examines the entire galaxy, each galaxy is synchronised to other galaxies.  Similarly, every heavenly body is synchronised to every other heavenly body.

The Sun, the moon and the planets are all organized in an orderly manner running their perfect courses as orbits in a synchronous manner. In addition, there is harmony in the plant, as well as in the animal kingdoms.  However, humanoids are the only species which are desynchronised and in doing so, we are killing off the earth by engaging in activities which cause drastic climate change , leasing to disruptive cyclonic weather on a global scale, resulting in structural violence.  In addition, our religious, political and social dogmas are also desynchronised from everything else, causing cultural violence. Our inherent nature of aggression is generating direct violence.

These are the three types of conflicts found in society, globally as proposed by Johan Galtung[44] who in his writing in 1969 defined violence as that which prevents us from reaching our full potential.  We are therefore totally and functionally incompetent and cannot reach our full potential, as humanoids.  We are not at peace within, nor at peace with our own kind, nor with the environment, nor the universe.  The situation creates a serious social disease, which impacts upon all walks of human endeavours. There is no solution for Peace, unless there is a total renaissance in our thinking, attitudes and actions.

For this to materialise and be effective, our reptilian brain must be reformatted and reprogrammed to be subservient to our neobrain, which is highly evolved. Humanoids must learn to inhibit our reptilian brain and the limbic system, to achieve a higher functional status and world peace.  It begins with each and everyone of us, as individuals in order to achieve a collective universal peace effect.


[1] Personal quotation by the author 2022.

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahatma_Gandhi

[3] https://www.123helpme.com/essay/Mahatma-Gandhis-Role-in-Indias-Fight-for-283561#:~:text=Mahatma%20Gandhi%E2%80%99s%20Role%20in%20India%E2%80%99s%20Fight%20for%20Independence,self-rule%2C%20and%20the%20unity%20of%20Hindus%20and%20Muslims.

[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johan_Galtung

[5] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21994088/

[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrobiology

[7] https://www.bing.com/search?q=astro-biological+scientists&cvid=d0fe654b9f4d4c0898de8b6357c7be4d&aqs=edge..69i57j69i59i450l8.1378638j0j4&pglt=41&FORM=ANNTA1&PC=U531#:~:text=Astrobiology%20%2D%20Wikipedia-,Astrobiology%2C%20also%20known%20as%20exobiology%2C%20is%20an%20interdisciplinary%20scientific%20field,with%20which%20life%20arises%2C%20distributes%2C%20and%20evolves%20in%20the%20universe.,-https%3A//en.wikipedia

[8] https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-662-44185-5_1275

[9] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primordial_soup#:~:text=%5E-,Oparin%2C%20Alexander.%20%22The%20Origin%20of%20Life%22,-(PDF).

[10] http://www.uv.es/~orilife/textos/Haldane.pdf

[11] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_size

[12] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triune_brain

[13] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_D._MacLean

[14] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triune_brain#:~:text=The%20triune%20brain%20consists%20of%20the%20reptilian%20complex%20(or%20lizard%20brain)%2C%20the%20paleomammalian%20complex%20(limbic%20system)%2C%20and%20the%20neomammalian%20complex%20(neocortex)%2C%20viewed%20each%20as%20independently%20conscious%2C%20and%20as%20structures%20sequentially%20added%20to%20the%20forebrain%20in%20the%20course%20of%20evolution.

[15] https://whatcanilearntoday.wordpress.com/2012/01/16/how-many-wives-did-henry-viii-have-executed/

[16] https://www.bing.com/search?q=What+is+triune&cvid=badf16cd414d4024bf9706d9d3bed329&aqs=edge..69i57j0l2.26890j0j1&pglt=41&FORM=ANNTA1&PC=U531

[17] https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a8/Triune_brain.png/800px-Triune_brain.png

[18] https://scienceinfo.net/the-three-most-notorious-tyrants-of-the-middle-ages-night.html#:~:text=The%20%22terrible%20Ivan%22%20emperor%2C%20also%20known%20as%20the,the%20most%20famous%20Tsar%20of%20the%20Russian%20history.

[19] https://www.bing.com/search?q=caligula&filters=dtbk:%22MCFvdmVydmlldyFvdmVydmlldyE2YTU4ZGViNy0xMDhiLWE5ZTgtMjNlYS1kNWU3NGNlYzYwZGQ%3d%22+sid:%226a58deb7-108b-a9e8-23ea-d5e74cec60dd%22+tphint:%22f%22&FORM=DEPNAV

[20] https://www.history.com/news/8-of-historys-most-notorious-serial-killers

[21] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_the_Ripper

[22] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler

[23] https://listverse.com/2012/09/25/top-10-famous-perverts/

[24] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genghis_Khan

[25] https://www.bing.com/search?q=joseph+stalin&filters=dtbk:%22MCFvdmVydmlldyFvdmVydmlldyEzNmE1ZmViOC0zZDg4LTRkNmYtNTZjNy02NmNmOTY3MDViMTQ%3d%22+sid:%2236a5feb8-3d88-4d6f-56c7-66cf96705b14%22+tphint:%22f%22&FORM=DEPNAV

[26] https://www.history.com/topics/1990s/bosnian-genocide#:~:text=Radovan%20Karadzic%20and%20the%20Bosnian%20Serb%20military%20commander%2C,crimes%20committed%20during%20conflict%20in%20the%20former%20Yugoslavia.

[27] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idi_Amin

[28] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Manson

[29] https://www.theodysseyonline.com/hitler-failed-get-into-art-school

[30] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Griepenkerl#:~:text=Brigitte%20Hamann%2C%20Hitler%27s%20Vienna.%20A%20Dictator%27s%20Apprenticeship.%20Oxford%20University%20Press%2C%201999.

[31] https://www.masterclass.com/articles/hippocampus-explained#6-disorders-associated-with-hippocampal-dysfunction

[32] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Final_Solution

[33] Cesario, Joseph; Johnson, David J.; Eisthen, Heather L. (8 May 2020). “Your Brain Is Not an Onion With a Tiny Reptile Inside”. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 29 (3): 255–260. doi:10.1177/0963721420917687. S2CID 218960531

[34] Georg F. Striedter (2005). Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. ISBN 978-0-87893-820-9

[35] Barrett, Lisa Feldman (2020). “You Have One Brain (Not Three)”. Seven and a half lessons about the brain. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 13–28. ISBN 978-0-358-15714-4. OCLC 1129098750

[36] Kiverstein, Julian; Miller, Mark (6 May 2015). “The embodied brain: towards a radical embodied cognitive neuroscience”. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 9: 237. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00237. PMC 4422034. PMID 25999836. S2CID 17811190.

[37] Panksepp, J. (2003). Foreword to Cory, G. and Gardner, R. (2002) The Evolutionary Neuroethology of Paul MacLean: Convergences and Frontiers. ISBN 978-0-275-97219-6

[38] https://www.kheper.net/topics/intelligence/maclean/

[39] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triune_brain#:~:text=Sax%2C%20Boria%20(15%20October%202017).%20Lizard.%20Reaktion%20Books.%20ISBN%C2%A0978%2D1%2D78023%2D872%2D2.

[40] https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=caine+by+his+brother+adel%2c&id=EBF21059ED1C7FEF74828070D08CA4A4D18751FA&FORM=IQFRBA&tsc=ImageHoverTitle

[41] https://answering-islam.org/authors/masihiyyen/cain_abel.html

[42] https://www.bing.com/search?q=Caine+by+his+brother+Adel%2C&cvid=951eba56ed0045cda91ee6992b4ba55d&aqs=edge..69i57j69i59i450l8.3995976j0j1&pglt=41&FORM=ANNTA1&PC=U531#:~:text=Cain%20and%20Abel-,In%20the%20biblical%20Book%20of%20Genesis%2C%20Cain%20and%20Abel%20are,city%20and%20fathered%20the%20line%20of%20descendants%20beginning%20with%20Enoch.,-Wikipedia

[43] https://www.azquotes.com/quote/376635#:~:text=Peace%20between%20countries%20must%20rest%20on%20the%20solid%20foundation%20of%20love%20between%20individuals.

[44] https://www.aihrhre.org/understanding-violence-triangle-johan-galtung-conflict-theory/#:~:text=Johan%20Galtung%20explained%20violence%20in%20terms%20of%20its,depicted%20as%20the%20three%20arms%20of%20a%20triangle.


Read Part 1  Part 3 Part 4 

Professor G. Hoosen M. Vawda (Bsc; MBChB; PhD.Wits) is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment.
Director: Glastonbury Medical Research Centre; Community Health and Indigent Programme Services; Body Donor Foundation SA.

Principal Investigator: Multinational Clinical Trials
Consultant: Medical and General Research Ethics; Internal Medicine and Clinical Psychiatry:UKZN, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine
Executive Member: Inter Religious Council KZN SA
Public Liaison: Medical Misadventures
Activism: Justice for All
Email: vawda@ukzn.ac.za

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This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 25 Apr 2022.

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