TRANSCEND MEMBERS, 1 May 2023
27 Apr 2023 – Eastern Philosophy (EP) has often been neglected in mainstream academic discourse. Philosophy is the way of looking at, understanding, interpreting, and fundamentally bringing together love and wisdom (lovism). This study contributes to a wider understanding of international relations and philosophies in a world where the balance of power is shifting and emerging as superpower countries India and China are increasingly growing in importance.
Philosophy in general connects with human value, human life, family, society, nature, and the universe, and change is professed through the human mind, knowledge, reality, reason, and illusion, and relatively shares to pursue goodness to live a pleasing life.
The objectives of this state-of-the-art book are four-fold: (1) to understand the fundamentals of the ancient EP; (2) to interpret basic concepts, thoughts, and teachings of classical international relation-related theories or peace spiritual insights of various wisdom within Chinese, Indian, Islamic, and Christian Missionaries; (3) to assist the Master’s level students to participate actively in discussions and interpretations and to create insights and critical thinking methods accordingly; and (4) to share the outcomes of philosophy with like-minded actors/institutions globally.
Applying networking tracking methods and or snowball techniques, the required information and literature are mostly gathered and reviewed based on archival research, exchanging and sharing the way forward along with lessons-learned centric theoretical approach from yesterday, investigating the axiomatic truth to assist learners to get acquainted with different ancient and rich wisdom traditions for today and encouraging hope more for not only privileged students but people of all tiers in the Eastern and Western world for better understanding the EP tomorrow for this pioneering researching book.
Before starting this Eastern education philosophy study, the authors asked three questions: Why are they doing this? What results might be? Will they be successful? After holding intensive arguments, discussions, and interactions, when the authors received satisfactory answers, they finally started to engage in these innovative and phenomenal initiatives or studies on The Arts of Eastern Philosophy (2023). This book is being published by Cook Communication (Professor Dr. Bruce Cook), imprinting by Lulu.com, USA within a week.
It is appropriate to discuss here how this book was initiated. On December 1, 2021, at 11.35 am, Professor Dr. Bishal Kumar Sitaula requested the first author to develop a Master’s Level course on Eastern Philosophy for their International Relations Department under the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. The conversation held between the first author and Dr. Sitaula as well as Professor Dr. Stig Jarle Hansen continuously for dozens of times on messengers and emails.
While the first author realized that the manuscript of the book was not possible to write by a single author within a year, he requested the second author, who had just completed her Ph.D. in Peace and Human Rights from Japan. She also has been a second author of a widely circulated book named Negotiation by Peaceful Means: Nepo-India Territorial Disputes, 2022 in Amazon.
The authors believe the book shall be an inspirational asset for disseminating Eastern philosophy and understanding it for all concerned academia, institutions, and society.
The book addresses touched, inspired, and motivated learners as well as academics who want to study further Buddhism, Chanakyaism, Christian Missionary, Confucianism, Gandhism, Ibn Khaldun, Suntzuism, Taoism, general philosophies, and differences between Eastern and Non-Eastern thinkers.
Gautama Buddha was an ascetic cum spiritual non-violent leader. There were four passing insights: old age, sickness, death, and a nomadic ascetic. He left the place seeking four-noble truths of why people endure suffering (duhkha)? What are the causes of suffering (duhkha samudaya)? How to end suffering (duhkha-nirodha)? And what are the truth paths that lead to suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga)? Finally, Buddha enlightened: sufferings are parts of human life; suffering comes from human desire, and human achievement emerges from perfect sukha (nirvana) by overcoming desire, and overcoming desire leads to an eightfold rights-based path. Buddha says that nothing is lost in the universe; only the form of existence changes and rebirth is followed as per Buddhology.
Chanakya (Bishnu Gupta), from a poor Brahmin family, wrote the Arthashastra. It illustrates a treatise on politico-economics, military strategy, politico-diplomacy (sama, dama, bheda, and danda), social organization, and state function. With the help of those treaties, Chanakya overthrew the powerful Nanda King dynasty and made Chandragupta a powerful King in India. Chanakya Neeti teaches dharma, artha, kama, moksha, and social ethics. His Niti motivated many Emperors/Kings, even today. The phenomenon of Niti has been practicology for effective, relevant, and suitable government functions, initiating offensive and defensive war strategies, mobilizing peaceful methods, and ensuring justice even today.
In 1946, Albanian-Indian Catholic Mother Teresa, while traveling by train to the Loreto convent in Darjeeling from Calcutta, got a powerful call (message) from Jesus asking her to give up life to care for the poorest of the poor. In 1948, Teresa left her Loreto convent and entered the Motijhil slums in Calcutta to teach the poor children. On December 22, 1948, when Teresa reached Motijhil, she was very happy to see many children waiting for her on the steps of a railway bridge. She noticed a guava tree nearby and she started to teach them without blackboards, copies, books, desks-benches – only a stick to write in the mud. She finally established the Missionaries of Charity in 1950. By 2020, it consists of 5,167 nuns spread over 134 countries.
Confucius developed theories of value, knowledge, learning, transmission, human nature, society, and consciousness. His golden rule says, “Do not impose on others what you do not wish for yourself.” He has a firm belief that the future is determined by his/her deeds today. He said that family is a symbol of societal relationships for kindness, obedience, nobility, humanness, obedience, benevolence, sincerity, love, and loyalty. And all human beings are equal at birth, upheld by character. He developed empathy, righteousness, sacrifice, wisdom, and trustworthiness for not having physical punishment and law with sincerity and faithfulness.
Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi), an Indian lawyer, civil rights, freedom and non-violent campaigner, and political ethicist successfully conquered by accomplishing the rights and freedom for Indians residing in South Africa in 1913. With the help of Satyagraha, he returned to India to make a sovereign India. Then he led and initiated the struggle for Indian independence for three decades (1915-1945). His entire freedom movement primarily adapted four – Swadeshi, Swaraj, Satyagraha, and Sarvodaya – theories. His theories were based on unity, ends-means, truth, non-violence, and existence. As a result, India became independent from British authoritarian-cum-colonial rule in August 1947.
Tunisian/Arabian sociologist, historian, and philosopher Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) is recognized as one the greatest social scientists. He emphasized empirical thought, overshadowing normative theory and introducing a driver of change. His best-known book, the Muqaddimah (Prolegomenon) records the early thought of universal sociology, history (Akhtar, 1997), cultural history (Abdalla, summer 2007), political theory, historiography, social Darwinism (Gates, July–September 1967 & Baali, January 1, 1988), and human civilization. His contributions summarized cyclical, solidarity, and cooperation theories. Western scholars recognized him as one of the greatest thinkers in the Muslim world.
Lao Tzu is a founder of Taoism or Daoism and Tao Te Ching (a way of life). This text of Tao Te Ching has been the second most translated book in various languages in history (after the Bible) that had been written on bamboo slips. It has two Yang (positive or bright) and Yin (negative or dark) divisions, similar to two sides of the same coin. The core teaching of the Laozi is emptiness, law, humanity, unity, peace, harmony, violence, wisdom, righteousness, and nature. Taoism is neither a religion nor a philosophy alone. In some senses, it describes a flow of natural order of thoughts or things of every living and non-living existence in the entire universe. Universe has been balanced because spiritual immortality joins nature after death.
A legendary military philosopher, military strategist, theorist, and author Sun Tzu had written The Art of War book. That book has been known as the world’s most famous and the first written military treaty on war/guerrilla warfare and military science. It stresses the unpredictability of fighting, surprise attack, and deception of the enemy. The US military applied Sun Tzu’s strategy during the attacks in Japan, Vietnam, North Korea, and Afghanistan, among others. Several theorists and politico-military strategists, including Carl von Clausewitz, Antoine-Henri Jomini, and Napoleon to Mao Zedong, and the People’s War (1996-2006) in Nepal, applied Tzu’s warfare strategies and tactics.
The Eastern philosophy is carried out following the universality, indivisibility, interdependence, and interrelatedness of conflict, peace, harmony, justice, governance, rights, and security, among others.
Eastern and Western philosophies have not been studied to date specifying the differences and similarities between these two in academic sermons. Thus, the concluding chapter of this book has analyzed the detailed differences between the Eastern and Western philosophies in an integrated manner, putting them into tabulation for each issue separately.
Philosophy is the way of looking at, and thoughtfully construing human value, human life, family, society, nature, and the universe. Philosophy relatively pursues goodness to live a pleasing life. Philosophy envisions the reality either of an eternal truth or absolute truth. Eastern and Western philosophies have developed within certain parameters and dimensions and the approach to life in general. Both philosophies are highly influenced by responsibilities of their duties that often argue, along with the presence of inherent knowledge. The thoughts and conceptions of East’s self and West’s truth philosophy are quite opposite.
More than 60 percent of the world’s population resides and believes in Eastern Philosophy, but it lacks research, analysis, resources, motivation, discussion, and dissemination. The East philosophy talks about the mind and meditation. The meditative mind directs the proper path to use, motivate, protect, and promote philosophy. Thus, today’s urgency is to incorporate Eastern philosophy into higher studies of its uniqueness, paramount importance, metaphor, theosophical with metaphysics, passivity, cycles of birth and death, and liberation and ascetic life.
After World War II, when America’s influence (in some senses control) exponentially increased in the Asia Pacific region, non-western including Eastern philosophy could not move forward as the demand for change. The gap between non-Western and Western countries will be bridged if the Master’s Level of education in non-western philosophy is conducted in an integrated approach under the Department of International Relations or any other related/interested Department. International Relations will also be developed and changed over time. Non-Western and Western philosophies will move forward as two wheels of the same chariot.
References and Bibliographies:
- Abdalla, Mohamad. (2007, Summer). “Ibn Khaldun on the Fate of Islamic Science after the 11th Century”. Islam and Science. Volume 5. Issue 1.
- Affandi, Akhmad and Astuti, Dewi Puji. (2014). “Dynamic Model of Ibn Khaldun Theory on Poverty.” Humanomics, vol. 30, no. 2.
- Ahmad, Zaid. (2010). “Ibn Khaldun”. In Oliver Leama (ed.). The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy. Continuum.
- Akhtar, S. W. (1997). “The Islamic Concept of Knowledge”. Al-Tawhid: A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Thought and Culture. Volume 12. Issue 3.
- Alatas, Syed Farid. (2013). Ibn Khaldun. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
- Alpion, Gëzim. (2006). Mother Teresa: Saint or Celebrity? Taylor & Francis.
- Baali, Fuad. (2005). The science of human social organization : Conflicting views on Ibn Khaldun’s (1332–1406) Ilm al-umran (Mellen Studies in Sociology). New York: Edwin Mellen Press.
- Bent, Josephine van den. (2016, May 3). “None of the Kings on Earth is Their Equal in aṣabiyya:” The Mongols in Ibn Khaldūn’s Works”. Al-Masāq. Volume 28, Number 2.
- Boisen, B. (1996). Lao Tzu’s Tao-The-Ching. Boston: Genomad Publishing (Translation into English).
- Boltz, William. (1993), “Lao tzu Tao-te-ching“. Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide. Berkeley: University of California Press. 269–92.
- Brown, Judith M. (2004). “Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand [Mahatma Gandhi] (1869–1948)”, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.Oxford University Press.
- Cannon, Mae Elise. (2013). Just Spirituality: How Faith Practices Fuel Social Action. InterVarsity Press Books.
- Chaturvedi, B.K. (2009). Chanakya Neeti. Diamond Pocket Books.
- Clearly, Thomas. (2000). The Essential Confucius: The Heart of Confucius’ Teachings in Authentic i Ching Order. Castle.
- Cooper, Jean C. (2010). An Illustrated Introduction to Taoism: The Wisdom of the Sages. World Wisdom.
- Devanesan, Paul P. and Selvan, A. Gandhi’s Approach to Human Rights. Online Available in https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3604024.
- Dhaouadi, M. (1990, September). “Ibn Khaldun: The Founding Father Of Eastern Sociology”. International Sociology. Volume 5, Number 3.
- Edward, Konze. (2008). Buddhism A short History of Buddhism. England: Oneworld Publication.
- Egan, Eileen and Egan, Kathleen. (1992). Blessed Are You: Mother Teresa and the Beatitudes. New York: Servant Pubns.
- Enan, Muhammed A. (2007). Ibn Khaldun: His Life and Works. The Other Press.
- Eno, Robert. (2003, 2012 and 2015). The Analects of Confucius. Online Available in http://hdl.handle.net/2022/23420.
- Fischel, Walter. (1967). Ibn Khaldun in Egypt : His public functions and his historical research, 1382–1406; a study in Islamic historiography. Berkeley: University of California Pres
- Fischer, Louis. (2005). The Life of Mahatma Gandhi. HarperCollins Publishers.
- Fromherz, Allen. (2010). Ibn Khaldun : Life and Times. Edinburgh University Press.
- Fung, Yiu-ming. (2008). “Problematizing Contemporary Confucianism in East Asia”. In Richey, Jeffrey (ed.). Teaching Confucianism. Oxford University Press.
- Galtung, Johan & Macqueen, Graheme. (2008). Globalizing God: Religion, Spirituality and Peace. Transcend University Press.
- Galtung, Johan & Macqueen, Graheme. (2008). Globalizing God: Religion, Spirituality and Peace. Transcend University Press.
- Gandhi, M.K. (1993). Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing
- Gandhi, Mohandas. (1965). The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Ahmedabad: The Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.
- Gandhi, Mohandas. (1965). The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. 14. Ahmedabad: The Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.
- Gandhi, Mohandas. (1965). The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. 25. Ahmedabad: The Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.
- Gates, Warren E. (1967, July–September). “The Spread of Ibn Khaldun’s Ideas on Climate and Culture”. Journal of the History of Ideas. Volume 28. Issue 3.
- Gautam, Pradeep K. (2017). “Kautilya’s Arthasastra and its Relevance to Contemporary Governance and Security Studies”. Journal of the United Service Institution of India, Vol. CXLVII, No. 608.
- Gethin, Rupert . (2001). The Buddhist Path to Awakening. UK: OneWorld Publications.
- Gethin, Rupert. (1998). The Foundations of Buddhism. UK: Oxford University Press.
- Ghosal, Debjani. (2018). “Philosophical Foundations of Mahatma Gandhi’s Social and Political Thoughts. An Appraisal”. Heritage, Volume 6. Kolkata.
- Giles, Lionel. (2000). Sun Tzu on the Art of War (Translation from the Chinese). UK: Allandale Online Publishing.
- Giles, Lionel. (2014). Taoist Teachings from the Book of Lieh Tzu (1912).
- Grace, Fran, et al. (2019). The Power of Love: A Transformed Heart Changes the World. Inner Pathway Publishing.
- Harvey, Peter. (2013). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Hitchens, (1995).The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice. Verso.
- Hozien, Muhammad. (2010). Ibn Khaldun: His Life and works. Retrieved April 1, 2023, from https://muslimheritage.com/ibn-khaldun-life-works/.
- Hunter, Michael. (2017). Confucius Beyond the Analects. Brill.
- Hutton, Eric L. (2008). “Han Feizi’s Criticism of Confucianism and its Implications for Virtue Ethics”. Journal of Moral Philosophy 5. Brill.
- Johnson, Janelle. (2012). The Controversy Behind Confucianism. Verbum. Volume 9, Issue 2.
- Johnson, Richard L. (2006). Gandhi’s Experiments with Truth: Essential Writings by and about Mahatma Gandhi. Lexington Books.
- Jones, Constance and Ryan, James D. (2007). Encyclopaedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing.
- Kaltenmark, Max. (1969). Lao Tzu and Taoism. Stanford: Stanford University Press. (Translation into English).
- Kamal, Kajari. (2018). “Kautilya’s Arthashastra: Indian Strategic Culture and Grand Strategic Preferences”. Journal of Defence Studies, Vol. 12, No. 3.
- Kangle, P.R. (1965, 1986). The Kautiliya Arthasastra – Pt. 3. Motilal Banarsidass Publication.
- Kangle, P.R. (2014). The Kautiliya Arthasastra – Vol. 2: Translation with Critical and Explanatory Notes: Pt. 2. Motilal Banarsidass Publication.
- Kohn, Livia; et al. (1998), “Editors’ Introduction”. Lao-tzu and the Tao-te-ching. New York: State University of New York Press. 1–22.
- Kolodiejchuk, Brian and Teresa, Mother. (2009). Mother Teresa: Come Be My Light: The Private Writings of the Saint of Calcutta. Crown Publishing Group.
- Kui, Wong Kwok. (2011). “Hegel’s Criticism of Laozi and Its Implications”. Philosophy East and West. Volume 61, Number 1. 56-79
- Kumar, Ashwani. (2005). “The Structure and Principles of Public Organization in Kautilya’s Arthasastra”. The Indian Journal of Political Science. Volume LXVI, NO. 3.
- Kushi, Sidita. (2007). “A Voice of Peace: Mother Teresa”. A Journal of Undergraduate Research. Volume 9. Article 4.
- Laumakis, Stephen J. (2008). An Introduction to Buddhist Philosophy. Cambridge University. Press.
- Legge, James. (2010). The Works of Mencius. Pacps Pacific Publishing Studio. (Translation into English).
- Life and Teachings of Confucius. Online Available at chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/https://www.lkouniv.ac.in/site/writereaddata/siteContent/202003261536151968anil_kumar_Confucius.pdf
- Lopez Jr., Donald S. (2001). The Story of Buddhism: A Concise Guide to Its History and Teachings. USA: Harper SanFrancisco.
- Mazmudar, Bharati. (2003). Gandhi’s Non-Violence in Theory and Practice. Mumbai: Mani Bhavan Gandhi Sangrahalaya.
- McMahan, David L. (2011). Buddhism in the Modern World. Rutledge.
- Mitra, Subrata K and Liebig, Michael. (2017). Kautilya’s Arthashastra: An Intellectual Portrait: The Classical Roots of Modern Politics in India. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.
- Muggeridge, Malcolm. (1986). Something beautiful for God : Mother Teresa of Calcutta. New York: Harper and Row.
- Muller, Charles A. (1991). The Doctrine of Man. Online Available in http://www.acmuller.net/con-dao/docofmean.html.
- Nelson, Wiliam S. (1957). Satyagraha: Ghandhian Principle of Non-Violence Non-Cooperation. Howard University.
- Neo-Confucian Philosophy. Online Available in from https://iep.utm.edu/neo-conf/.
- Oweiss, Ibrahim M. (1998). Ibn Khaldun, the Father of Economics. New York: Georgetown University.
- Pathak, Bishnu. (2005). Politics of People’s War and Human Rights in Nepal. Kathmandu: BIMIPA Publications.
- Patrick, Olivelle. (2013). King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Phan, Peter C. (2012). “Catholicism and Confucianism: An intercultural and interreligious dialogue”. Catholicism and interreligious dialogue. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Pillai, Radhakrishnan. (2018). Chanakya in the Classroom: Life Lessons for Students. Rupa Publications.
- Pircher, Richard. (2020). Taoism vs Buddhism: Primary Differences and Similarities. Online Available in https://handmadewriting.com/blog/samples/taoism-vs-buddhism-primary-differences-and-similarities/.
- Poplin, Mary (2011). Finding Calcutta: What Mother Teresa Taught Me About Meaningful Work and Service. InterVarsity Press.
- Rabi, Mahmoud. (1967). The political theory of Ibn Khaldun. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
- Rainey, Lee Dian. (2010). Confucius & Confucianism: The Essentials. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
- Rangarajan, L.N. (1987). Kautilya: The Arthashastra. New Delhi: Penguin Books India.
- Reddy, Bh. Ravichandra. (2014). “Buddhism and Its Relevance in Modern World”. Indian Journal of Research. Volume 3. Issue 7.
- Riegel, Jeffrey. (2012). “Confucius”. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University.
- Roy, Manas. Conflict Resolution and Peace: A Gandhian Perspective. Online Available in https://www.mkgandhi.org/articles/oct0802.htm.
- Santina, Peter De La. (1997). The Tree of Enlightenment. Taiwan: Chico Dharma Study Foundation.
- Sebba, Anne. (1997). Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. Doubleday: New York.
- Shamasastry, Rudrapatna. (1915). Arthashastra of Chanakya. Bangalore: Government Press (Translation into English).
- Sharma, Jai (2008). Satyagraha: Gandhi’s Approach to Conflict Resolution. Volume 3. New Delhi: Gandhi Smriti and Darshan Samiti.
- Sharp, Gene. (1979). Gandhi as a Political Strategist: with essays on ethics and politics. P. Sargent Publishers.
- Sims, Bennett B. (1968). Confucius, (Immortals of philosophy and religion). Watts.
- Slavicek, Louise C. (2007). Mother Teresa: Caring for the World’s Poor. Chelsea House Publishers.
- Stamatov, Aleksandar. (2017). “The Laozi’s criticism of government and society and a daoist criticism of the modern state”. Asian Philosophy. 127-149.
- Teresa, Mother. (2002). No Greater Love. New World Library.
- Teresa, Mother. (2017). Thirsting for God: Daily Meditations. Servant.
- Teressa, Mother. (2012). Where There Is Love, There Is God: Her Path to Closer Union with God and Greater Love for Others. Crown Publishing Group.
- The Leadership Lessons from Chanakya’s Arthasastra. Online Available in https://focusu.com/blog/leadership-lessons-from-chanakyas-arthashastra/.
- Thera, Narada Maha. (1998). Buddha and His Teachings. Malaysia: Buddhist Missionary Society.
- Tzu, Lieh. (1912). Taoist Teachings. London: John Murray.
- Vetter, Tilmann. (1988). The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism. BRILL.
- Vittal, Vinay. (2011). Kautilya’s Arthashastra: A Timeless Grand Strategy. A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the School of Advanced Air and Space Studies for Completion of Graduation Requirements.
- Weber, Thomas. (2006). Gandhi, Gandhism and the Gandhians. Roli Books Pvt. Ltd.
- WEI, Xiaohong & LI, Qingyuan. (2013). “The Confucian Value of Harmony and its Influence on Chinese Social Interaction”. Cross-Cultural Communication. Volume 9, No. 1.
- Williams, Paul. (2008). Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations. 2nd Ed. London; New York: Taylor & Francis Ltd.
- Wynne, Alexander. (2015). Buddhism: An Introduction. London, New York: I.B. Tauris.
- Yao, Xinzhong (2000). An Introduction to Confucianism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Zhu, Zhichang. (1998). Confucius and Lao-Tzu: Are Their Teachings Relevant to Information Systems Development. UK: Lincoln School of Management.
Transnational Professor Bishnu Pathak was a former Senior Commissioner at the Commission of Investigation on Enforced Disappeared Persons (CIEDP), Nepal who has been a Nobel Peace Prize nominee from 2013-2019 for his noble finding of Peace-Conflict Lifecycle similar to the ecosystem. A Board Member of the TRANSCEND Peace University holds a Ph.D. in interdisciplinary Conflict Transformation and Human Rights in two decades. Arduous Dr. Pathak is an author of over 100 international paper-book publications including Politics of People’s War and Human Rights in Nepal (2005), Generations of Transitional Justice in the World (2019), The Nepal Compact: Potential for Cold War II (2022), Negotiation by Peaceful Means: Nepo-India Territorial Disputes (2022), among others, have been used as Universities references in more than 100 countries across the globe. Immense versatile personality Dr. Pathak’s publications belong to Human Rights, Human Security, Peace, Conflict Transformation, and Transitional Justice among others. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Susmita Bastola completed her Ph.D. in Peace and Human Rights at the beginning of 2023 at Osaka Jogakuin University, Japan. Her research interest is conflict transformation, peace, transitional justice, reconciliation, mediation, facilitation, and creating alternative mechanisms to deal with armed conflict and violence. She is also a co-author of the widely circulated volume Negotiation by Peaceful Means: Nepo-India Territorial Disputes (2022). Email: email@example.com
Tags: Development, Multipolar World Order, New World Order, Philosophy, Power, Religion
This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 1 May 2023.
Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: Eastern Philosophy, is included. Thank you.
This work is licensed under a CC BY-NC 4.0 License.
3 Responses to “Eastern Philosophy”
Join the discussion!
We welcome debate and dissent, but personal — ad hominem — attacks (on authors, other users or any individual), abuse and defamatory language will not be tolerated. Nor will we tolerate attempts to deliberately disrupt discussions. We aim to maintain an inviting space to focus on intelligent interactions and debates.
Click here to go to the current weekly digest or pick another article: