The Psychology of Truth-Tellers: Inspired by Dan Ellsberg


Diane Perlman, Ph.D. | Substack - TRANSCEND Media Service

[This is a revision of an earlier piece on “The Psychology of Veridos™ (Seekers of Truth and Justice) being repurposed as a tribute to Dan Ellsberg.]

In my A Tribute to Daniel Ellsberg: The Inspiration for My Psychological Study of Moral Heroism and the Courageous Personality, I described how Daniel Ellsberg was the source of my inspiration to develop a theory of “the Courageous Personality.” His exceptional courage motivated me to study people who take great personal risks for truth, justice, peace, and freedom. I was curious about the psychology of the very few courageous souls who rise up in the face of oppression.

I described our meeting at the 1995 International Psychohistorical Association (IPhA) and the discussion after his keynote address regarding why he alone had the courage to expose the truth. After some discussion, I realized that it was up to me to answer my question. I thought that if interviewed several moral heroes that a pattern would be revealed to me.


I undertook to interview whistleblowers, human rights activists, movement pioneers, women who hid Jews from the Nazis, and judges at the Hague War Crimes Tribunals. I was honored to interview Joseph Rotblat, Nobel Peace Prize winner, the only scientist to quit the Manhattan Project when he discovered that Germany could not get the bomb; Betty Friedan, feminist pioneer; DC Congresswoman Eleanor Holmes Norton; and psychiatrist Peter Breggin, who challenged overdiagnosis of ADHD, psychosurgery and the drugging of children. See Appendix 7 for list.

I also interviewed several pioneers in the Israeli Palestinian peace movement and antinuclear Israelis recommended by Dan who were friends of Mordechai Vanunu, Israeli whistleblower who had exposed Israel’s secret nuclear weapons program.

Dan was my first interview in his Washington DC apartment. I think we spoke for 5 hours before getting to the first question.

  1. DISCOVERING VERIDO™: The Instinctual Drive for Truth and Justice

Throughout my interviews, I felt a palpable sense that these risk takers did not undergo a conscious, deliberative decision-making process. They were incapable of holding untruths within their bodies and souls.

I reject the mindless adage that “the line between good and evil runs through every human heart.” It obviously does not. These people demonstrate the capacity to resist and transcend the powerful pull towards evil.

I coined the term “Verido”, to describe the instinctual drive for truth and justice, like “libido” the instinctual energy and drive for sex.

The capacity for Verido, like libido, may be cultivated or squashed with familial and cultural practices in childrearing, education and socialization. Before the Holocaust, German childrearing practices were characterized by physical punishment, the demand for obedience, breaking the child’s will and inducing submissiveness to authority. These were conducive to developing a followership for authoritarianism.

Veridos™ may represent less than 5% of the population. They see through deception, investigate truth and have the strength to challenge official narratives. They are truly courageous and refuse to remain silent.

Suppression and Retaliation

Historically truth-tellers who threaten the powers of domination have been shunned and silenced, like Galileo; demonized and imprisoned, like Antonio Gramsci, John Kiriakou, and Mordechai Vanunu; exiled, like Edward Snowden; punished and threatened, like Julian Assange; hung, like people who hid Jews from the Nazis; and burned at the stake like Giordano Bruno.

Because information is power, those who expose truth are a threat and must be punished and silenced by the forces of oppressive authority, who need a mystified, pliable populace.


Before presenting my findings, I wish to highlight the meaning of moral heroes for the collective psyche.

Carl Jung considered moral heroism as an aspect of the life force, Eros. The hero archetype personifies progressive elements in the collective psyche. It is the aspect of the Self that fights against the pulls toward regression, passivity, fear, and the desire to take refuge in the protective nurturance of the Great Mother. The collective symbol of the hero embodies the highest aspirations and ideals of a culture.

Jungian analyst, Dr. Jerome Bernstein distinguished between the immature hero, who is identified with physical strength, and mastery over death and the mature hero, who is concerned with moral and ethical issues. Bernstein describes the immature hero who embodies warrior energy as being anti-life, whereas the mature hero is committed to the life principle.

Veridos exemplify high levels of psychological, moral, cognitive and political development, maturity and integration.

The Archetypal Drama of Liberation from Oppression

Veridos arise in response to oppression, corruption, and deception to stimulate humanity to higher levels of consciousness, creativity and functioning – the stuff of myths and fairy tales.

Their devotion to relieving suffering transcends ego, which I define here as the sense of the Self as separate. Each Verido embodies a force of healthy development towards equality, freedom, truth, and justice. Some are moved to live on the front lines. Their work can contribute to conscious evolution.

Veridos represent “the ideal of the Bodhisattva, the symbol of compassion … the ultimate expression of the underlying concern to lead every being to freedom from suffering, to enlightenment” (Self and Liberation: Jung/Buddhist Dialogue).


Some patterns emerged through my semi-structured interviews. Not every finding applies to every moral hero. In various combinations, they paint a picture.

My findings regard:

Family of Origin

Life Experiences – Discrepant Realities

Jungian Psychological Type

Psychological Maturity and Human Development

Psycho-Sociological Observations

·      Mothers (in one case an older sister, in one case a nanny) were described as being ahead of their time, competent, strong, having minds of their own, open-minded, compassionate, creative. They were unfulfilled (likely for women in previous generations). Their children felt the frustration of their mother’s unlived life. They felt delegated to live out and fulfill her dreams. Sometimes the father was frustrated.

As a girl, Betty Friedan prayed for “someone who loved me best and ‘a work’ “

·      Families valued equality, justice, freedom

·       Clear boundaries, limitations, sometimes a strict but loving father

·      Mother was regarded as subject, not object, and affirmed their child’s subjectivity, individuality and uniqueness. If not the mother, another adult filled this function.

·      Mutual recognition and close relationship with a member of opposite sex, a sibling, cousin, friend, relative. This applies to race in some cases.  There are developmental connections between consciousness of otherness – the Other Sex and the Other Race. With unshakable knowledge of the humanity of the Other (sex and race) they could not dehumanize and found intolerable the dehumanization of others.

·      As children, they demonstrated acts of individuality, integrity, intuition, and trust of a higher moral authority above conformity and conventional authority, or just having a mind of their own. One stood up for other children who were bullied. Some refused to comply with rules, got kicked out of school or quit activities in protest.

·      In adolescence they differentiated from family, carved out their own identity and values. They could reject parents’ values, without rejecting parents. Family could tolerate difference and negotiate the tension between individuality and connection (neither enmeshed nor disengaged).

·      Veridos were not enamored of hero figures. Since they manifested courageous aspects of the Self, they did not need to engage with these qualities through projection onto external heroes who embody disowned aspects of the self. Some admired Gandhi, King, Malcolm X, Einstein, Paul Robeson.

·      Capacity for intimacy, depth, richness in relationships. Several became co-creative couples.

·      Some felt special, the “Christ child.”  Parents had confidence in them.

·      Alice Miller, who attended my presentation at the International Psychohistorical Association in Amsterdam in 1999, urged me to emphasize that (most) were not punished as children.

·      A few Veridos had harsh parenting and punishment but likely had one parent or other adults in their lives, relatives, teachers, etc. who recognized and affirmed them. I don’t have enough data on this.

·      Child Holocaust survivor Samuel Oliner and his wife Pearl studied people who rescued Jews in the Altruistic Personality. They similarly found that families were close. Parents had moral principles and taught empathy, compassion, and equity for all humanity. They had lenient childrearing practices. They did not demand obedience. Hence, their children were not submissive to authority.

·      Rather than physical punishment, parents used reasoning, a sign of respect and trust. By contrast, child-rearing practices in Germany before the Holocaust were very strict and authoritarian. They demanded obedience to break the child’s will, and were authoritarian and punitive to encourage toughness.

·      A secure attachment pattern, as opposed to anxious, avoidant and disorganized attachment patterns, is established in the first year of life. It optimizes development, empathy, trust, problem-solving, and openness to exploration. It is associated with taking risks.


·       Psychological Maturity. Emotional Intelligence.

·      Capacity to Tolerate Ambiguity, to live in and negotiate the tension between the opposites, a sign of psychological health.

·      Strong egos, not necessarily big egos. They operate at a level that transcends ego. (They are not necessarily ego-less either.) Jung said that to withstand such overwhelming opposition, the ego must be equal to the whole world. They have a good connection along the ego-Self (higher Self) axis.

·       Not deterred by fear. Does not regress in the face of fear.  Others who sometimes function at higher levels regress under fear, lose higher level brain functions and may be vulnerable to psychological manipulation.

·       Low on hypnotic susceptibility and the Tellegen Absorption Scalelow on “openness to absorbing and self-altering experiences (Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974).

 Jungian Psychological Types. This was a fascinating and significant discovery. The theory of Psychological Types requires explanation beyond the scope of this article.  Some may be familiar with the Myers-Briggs typology, which developed, tested and popularized Jung’s model, rendering it widely usable as a tool in training, business and beyond.

I found that Veridos take in information more through their highly developed functions of sensing or intuition, categorized as Perceiving, rather than those who use the functions of thinking and feeling, categorized as Judging. Veridos rely on direct experience rather than concepts. They have heightened, fluid perceptive abilities which enable them to take in new information directly and in more detail, and to see through propaganda and preconceived notions, social conventions and belief systems.

Perceiving has a parallelism with the idea of being “data driven.” One is influenced by direct observation of facts, and is able to change theories and beliefs according to new factual evidence, as opposed to being “theory driven.” Those who are “theory driven” filter the world through preconceived notions and filter information to fit into their beliefs or cognitive frames.

Intuition is not a hunch or a guess. It is a form of knowledge, perceived through the unconscious, rather than on the level of concrete reality. Intuitives can see below the surface and intuit into the future. Some can feel when they are being lied to. They sense incongruencies in a story that don’t add up. They detect something hidden and anticipate trajectories.

Sensation types perceive empirical reality directly and immediately through their heightened senses. People with a strong sensation function are good with directions, mechanical abilities, science, finance, and possibly the arts.

LIFE EXPERIENCES – Discrepant Realities, Ruptures, Paradise Lost, and Failed Enactment

Many Veridos had formative life experiences I call “discrepant realities.” Others are vicariously affected by historical traumas like genocides, massacres, displacement, and slavery.

One’s primary experience of dignity, equality, freedom, safety, and love was ruptured in some way, generating a sense of paradise lost, failed enactment, the pain of preventable loss and suffering. The discrepancy feels physiologically intolerable.

Processed by their developed psychological functions of intuition, sensation and feeling, they experience tension between current reality and what is possible, and their inalienable human right. They feel a deep urge to repair and devote their lives to restoring the ideal state. Examples include:

·  Paradise lost

Nelson Mandela said, “I wasn’t born with a hunger for freedom. I was born free…” Having lost the freedom he had known, he devoted his life to regaining freedom.

Nobel Peace Prize winner

Joseph Rotblat, Nobel Peace Prize winner, born in 1908, grew up in a secure, prosperous household in Russian Poland. With the outbreak of World War 1 the family lost everything and went into poverty.

RFK, Jr., “Camelot Lost,” experienced the assassinations of his uncle and father, and his knowledge of hidden forces motivates his fierce courage and relentless dedication and readiness to “die with my boots on.” I wish him a long, healthy, successful life.

Vera Sharav – Child survivor of the Holocaust, whose intuition and refusal to comply at age 6 saved her life. She founded the Alliance for Human Research Protection, highlighting the role of doctors then and now, and Nuremberg Code, Never Again is Now.

Betty Friedan – Feminist pioneer Betty Friedan was the first to name and research “the problem that had no name.” She struck a huge collective nerve when she described a malaise felt by privileged women in suburbia in her groundbreaking “The Feminist Mystique.” She wrote, ”There was a strange discrepancy between the reality of our lives as women and the image to which we were trying to conform, the image that I had come to call the feminine mystique. I wondered if other women faced this schizophrenic split, and what it meant.”

· Failed Enactment – See Dan Ellsberg’s Story of the accident that could have been prevented.

Veridos, motivated by experiences of loss, betrayal, and failure, have an inner knowing that a better world is possible. They palpably feel it in their bodies and strive to overcome the discrepancy.


Around 1990 I was developing a “unified field theory” model of human development, called “Eros Development,” inspired by Erik Erikson’s eight stage model, Jane Loevenger’s scale of Ego Development, Piaget’s model of genetic epistemology and others.

I read a disturbing fact, that 50% of Americans did not achieve “formal operations,” the capacity for abstract thinking. I also read that business school students graduated at a lower level of ego development than when they entered. When listening to political discourse, I began coding development levels.  Much reflected immature, concrete, black-and-white thinking.

Veridos exemplify high levels of psychological, moral, cognitive and political development, individuation and self-actualization. Their lives and work are dedicated to stimulating humanity to higher levels of functioning.

·      Loevenger’s Model of Ego Development (see full chart below in APPENDIX 2)

Loevenger’s stages, from birth, are:

·      pre-social (undifferentiated)

·      Impulsive

·      self-protective

·      conformist

·      self-aware

·      conscientious

·      individualistic

·      autonomous

·      integrated

Stage E4 Conformist

“Belonging to group is paramount; “right” and “wrong” simply determined by social convention; self and others viewed in terms of “fit” with group norms; simplistic and banal inner life.”

At the conformist stage we identify with our group, act as a member of the group, and treat others as members of groups. I believe that nationalism, submerging one’s identity with the group (as opposed to patriotism perhaps), is associated with the conformist stage of development and below.

People who may not feel good about themselves can feel pride and esteem by binding their identity to being part of a group that is good and superior. Those who criticize and blame the group are psychologically threatening at a core level and will be fiercely resisted.

Psychologically, at the conformist stage, one has not yet constructed a concept of the individual. One emerges from the conformist stage with budding self-awareness, followed by conscientiousness, individualism, autonomous and then integrated.

I hypothesize that Veridos are at least “Autonomous”

Stage E8 Autonomous

“Freedom from excessive striving and achievement; search for self-fulfillment; recognition of individual human complexity; tolerance for ambiguity and paradox; deepened respect for autonomy of others.”

Stage E9 Integrated

“Self-actualization; not fully described.”

·      Moral Development – Kohlberg and Gilligan  

In the 1950s and 1960’s psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg extended Piagetian cognitive development into a model of moral development based on interviews with boys about moral dilemmas. Kohlberg’s theory consists of three levels and six stages of moral development. The levels are Preconventional level, Conventional and Postconventional or principled level. See APPENDIX 3.

Developmental psychologist Carol Gilligan challenged Kohlberg’s work in her groundbreaking book In a Different Voice (1982). Gilligan conducted research with girls and women, discovering that females use different reasoning. While males are concerned with rules, females are more concerned with caring. Gilligan attributes changes in moral reasoning to changes in relational thinking rather than cognitive thinking.

The distinction between a justice orientation and a mercy orientation is shown here in KOHLBERG’S SIX LEVELS OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT.

“On Kohlberg’s model, moral development is the development of an autonomous self, capable of being motivated by abstract principles understood as a kind of “mathematical” solution to conflicts of interests.”

“On Gilligan’s model, moral development is the development of a self-in-relation.  Morality is understood in terms of the preservation of valuable human relations.  Progress from stage to stage is motivated by increasing understanding of human relationships.”

Males and females can possess both justice and care orientations, but one is more prevalent. The more evolved and mature we are, the more likely we are to integrate both dimensions.

Hopefully, the gender split is less rigid than it was in the 1980s, and Veridos in particular are crying out for mercy.

You guessed it. Veridos are at the highest Post-Conventional stage. See APPENDIX 3.

·       Individuation – (Jung and others), self-actualization (Abraham Maslow), and Heinz Kohut’s “nuclear program of the self.”

Individuation is to live according to one’s design, to become whole, realize one’s Self. A goal of Jungian analysis is expanding consciousness by awareness and integration of unconscious contents from one’s shadow, anima/animus (the complex of the opposite sex in one’s psyche), and other unconscious complexes. It strives to develop balance in one’s personality by developing one’s inferior function. Following the horrors of World War II, Jung strongly believed that to resist tyranny, mass psychology and the potential destruction of the planet, it was critical for more people to become individuated.

“In the last analysis, the essential thing is the life of individual. This alone makes history, here alone do the great transformations take place, and the whole future, the whole history of the world, ultimately springs as a gigantic summation from these hidden sources in individuals.”

Carl Jung

“Resistance to the organized mass can be effected only by the man who is as well organized in his individuality as the mass itself.”

Carl Jung

“Individualization does not shut one out from the world, but gathers the world to oneself.”

— Carl Jung

·      Differentiation of Self from Family of Origin (Murray Bowen)

The goal of Bowen’s family of origin therapy is to establish a sense of self, one’s own personality, and one’s own path despite (family) pressures and expectations. It involves developing one’s ability to hold an “I position” while maintaining relationship rather than disengaging. One is able to resist “groupthink,” conformity, and the need for approval. That makes it possible to think clearly, handle criticism and conflicts constructively and creatively.


Studies on the Authoritarian Personality have exposed the underlying psychopathology in those who have caused the greatest damage to humankind. I was struck by the high level of psychological development and integration in Veridos, as compared to the Authoritarian Personality.

Authoritarianism and Human Development

I had an “Aha!” experience, concluding, among other things, that “the Courageous Personality” is the psychological opposite of “the Authoritarian Personality,” a concept that emerged from the body of work developed after the Nazi Holocaust to explain genocide, anti-Semitism, fascism, ethnocentrism and anti-democratic attitudes.

After World War II, many psychologists studied the psychological forces and conditions that allowed the Holocaust, including Stanley Milgram, on obedience, Phil Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment, Solomon Asch on pressures to conform, and many others. Adorno, et all developed a theory of the Authoritarian Personality. (More on this at the end. See my chart below).

Erich Fromm was a prominent social psychologist, psychoanalyst, sociologist and humanistic philosopher. Here are excerpts from his 1957 article on “The Authoritarian Personality.” (Note the term applies to the followers of authoritarian leaders. Bolds are mine.):

What they have in common, what defines the essence of the authoritarian personality is an inability: the inability to rely on one’s self, to be independent, to put it in other words: to endure freedom.

The opposite of the authoritarian character is the mature person: a person who does not need to cling to others because he actively embraces and grasps the world, the people, and the things around him.

… the individual’s goal must be to become his own authority; i.e., to have a consciousness in moral issues, conviction in questions of intellect, and fidelity in emotional matters. However, the individual can only have such an inner authority if he has matured enough to understand the world with reason and love. The development of these characteristics is the basis for one’s own authority and therefore the basis for political democracy.

Comparing Authoritarianism and the Courageous Personality

Here is my comparison of the Authoritarian Personality with the Courageous Personality, written around 1997. The left side of the chart is from p.164 in The Authoritarian Personality, Adorno, Frankel-Brunswick, Levinson, and Sanford.


Living in this incredible time of existential danger and great promise, there is value in raising consciousness about the too few courageous people who have made personal sacrifices to speak truth, expose secrets, and challenge oppressive authority. They are uplifting humanity.

Childrearing – Can we cultivate more Veridos?

Consider psychohistorian Lloyd DeMause’s observation that “psychoclass” emerged from a particular style of childrearing, and Alice Miller’s work on the harms of punishment in childhood, which can make people hypnotically susceptible and obedient to authority.  The difference in childrearing between Veridos and authoritarians is undeniable.

The use of harsh physical and psychological punishment in patriarchal authoritarian cultures results in higher incidences of avoidant attachment patterns, associated with more problems in adulthood that negatively impact society.

Some can be helped with therapy, social support and corrective experiences, but it would be best to prevent the damage in the first place. Years ago, realizing the harms of childhood punishment, the German Parliament banned corporal punishment.

“German parents nowadays prefer to use dialogue rather than physical punishment to correct wayward children, while traditional virtues such as strict punctuality, orderliness and discipline are no longer considered as important.” German parents go off corporal punishment.

This should cultivate the development of more Veridos. We could benefit from mass education in childrearing practices.

The immunity of the nation depends entirely upon the existence of a leading minority immune to the evil and capable of combating the powerful suggestive effect. — C. G. Jung, The Symbolic Life, para. 1400.

MORE JUNG QUOTES (emphasis added)

From the blurb of The Undiscovered SelfFirst published January 1, 1961:

One of the world’s greatest psychiatrists reveals how to embrace our own humanity and resist the pressures of an ever-changing world.

In this challenging and provocative work, Dr. Carl Jung—one of history’s greatest minds—argues that civilization’s future depends on our ability as individuals to resist the collective forces of society. Only by gaining an awareness and understanding of one’s unconscious mind and true, inner nature —“the undiscovered self”—can we as individuals acquire the self-knowledge that is antithetical to ideological fanaticism…. Jung compellingly argues that only then can we begin to cope with the dangers posed by mass society – “the sum total of individuals”—and resist the potential threats posed by those in power.

Indeed, it is becoming ever more obvious that it is not famine, not earthquakes, not microbes, not cancer but man himself who is man’s greatest danger to man, for the simple reason that there is no adequate protection against psychic epidemics, which are infinitely more devastating than the worst of natural catastrophes.

The supreme danger which threatens individuals as well as whole nations is a psychic danger. Reason has proved itself completely powerless, precisely because its arguments have an effect only on the conscious mind and not on the unconscious.

The greatest danger of all comes from the masses, in whom the effects of the unconscious pile up cumulatively and the reasonableness of the conscious mind is stifled. Every mass organization is a latent danger just as much as a heap of dynamite is. It lets loose effects which no man wants and no man can stop.

It is therefore in the highest degree desirable that a knowledge of psychology should spread so that men can understand the source of the supreme dangers that threaten them. Not by arming to the teeth, each for itself, can the nations defend themselves in the long run from the frightful catastrophes of modern war. The heaping up of arms is itself a call to war. Rather must they recognize those psychic conditions under which the unconscious [tsunami-like] bursts the dykes of consciousness and overwhelms it. ” — The Undiscovered Self

Only a few individuals succeed in throwing off mythology in a time of a certain intellectual supremacy–the mass never frees itself.

— Psychology of the Unconscious

The mass State has no intention of promoting mutual understanding and the relationship of man to man; it strives, rather, for atomization, for the psychic isolation of the individual. The more unrelated individuals are, the more consolidated the State becomes, and vice versa.

For, in order to turn the individual into a function of the State, his dependence on anything beside the State must be taken from him.

It is the individual’s task to differentiate himself from all the others and stand on his own feet. All collective identities . . . interfere with the fulfillment of this task. Such collective identities are crutches for the lame, shields for the timid, beds for the lazy, nurseries for the irresponsible.

The achievement of personality means nothing less than the optimum development of the whole individual human being. It is impossible to foresee the endless variety of conditions that have to be fulfilled. A whole lifetime, in all its biological, social, and spiritual aspects, is needed. Personality is the supreme realization of the innate idiosyncrasy of a living being. It is an act of high courage flung in the face of life, the absolute affirmation of all that constitutes the individual, the most successful adaptation to the universal conditions of existence coupled with the greatest possible freedom for self-determination. To educate a man to this seems to me no light matter. It is surely the hardest task the modern mind has set itself.

Until you make the unconscious conscious, it will direct your life and you will call it fate. — The Undiscovered Self


Acknowledgement and much gratitude to David Schonbrunn for help with editing, clarity and being a sounding board.

Diane Perlman, PhD   is a clinical and political psychologist, devoted to applying knowledge from psychology, conflict studies and social sciences to designing strategies and policies to reverse nuclear proliferation, to drastically reduce terrorism, reduce enmity, and to raise consciousness about nonviolent strategies for tension reduction and conflict transformation. She is a visiting scholar at the School for Conflict Analysis and Resolution at George Mason University, is active in Psychologists for Social Responsibility, the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment, and on the Global Council of Abolition 2000. Some of her writings can be found on her websites,  and Email:

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