This Week in History

HISTORY, 18 Sep 2023

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

18-24 September 2023

Quote of the Week:

It is when we all play safe that we create a world of utmost insecurity.
— Dag Hammarskjöld

———————-

18 September

1454  Thirteen Years’ War: In the Battle of Chojnice, the Polish army is defeated by the Teutonic knights.

1739  The Treaty of Belgrade is signed, whereby Austria cedes lands south of the Sava and Danube rivers to the Ottoman Empire

1837  Tiffany & Co. (first named Tiffany & Young) is founded by Charles Lewis Tiffany and Teddy Young in New York City. The store is called a “stationery and fancy goods emporium”.

1922  The Kingdom of Hungary is admitted to the League of Nations.

1931  Imperial Japan instigates the Mukden Incident as a pretext to invade and occupy Manchuria.

1934  The Soviet Union is admitted to the League of Nations.

1939   World War II: The radio show Germany Calling begins transmitting Nazi propaganda.

1943  World War II: Adolf Hitler orders the deportation of Danish Jews.

1945  General Douglas MacArthur moves his general headquarters from Manila to Tokyo.

1948  Operation Polo is terminated after the Indian Army accepts the surrender of the army of Hyderabad.

1960  Fidel Castro arrives in New York City as the head of the Cuban delegation to the United Nations.

–         Fidel Castro’s First Speech at UN, Hours that Made History | FIDEL Soldier of Ideas

–         Fidel Castro’s 1960 Address to the U.N. General Assembly, Part 1 of 4 by Ron Kurtus – Succeed by Studying Historical Speeches: School for Champions (school-for-champions.com)

1961  U.N. Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld dies in an air crash while attempting to negotiate peace in the Katanga region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

–         TRANSCEND MEDIA SERVICE » Dag Hammarskjold (29 Jul 1905 – 18 Sep 1961): Crisis Manager and Longer-Range World Community Builder

–         Death of Dag Hammarskjöld | Archives and Records Management Section | New York (un.org

–         UN Leader Dag Hammarskjold Died in Mysterious Circumstances in 1961. What Really Happened? | HISTORY

–         Dag Hammarskjold’s Plane Crash: What Really Happened to the U.N. Chief (foreignpolicy.com)

–         1961 Ndola Transair Sweden DC-6 crash – Wikipedia

–         “Dag Hammarskjöld died with 13 others in September 1961, when his plane crashed near Ndola, in what was then Northern Rhodesia. There has been speculation that the plane was brought down…

–         RAF veteran ‘admitted 1961 killing of UN secretary general’ | Dag Hammarskjöld | The Guardian

–         “Hammarskjöld’s plane was shot down by Belgian pilot Jan van Risseghem, who had flown Royal Air Force fighters during World War II and at the time was a mercenary pilot on behalf of Congolese rebels…

–         “Exclusive research reveals that a British-trained Belgian mercenary admitted the killing of Dag Hammarskjöld in 1961 RAF veteran ‘admitted 1961 killing of UN secretary general’

–         UN document S­0888­0006­02­00001: Items­in­Congo ­ reports to the Secretary­General from the Officer­ln­Charge of the UN: Operation in the Congo (5/4531 ­ S/5053/Add. 13) ­Volume 1, 2,_S/5053/Add.l2 English Annex I Page 35

–         “Intriguingly, the first person to see Hammarskjöld’s body at the hospital in Ndole – Norwegian UN officer Bjørn Egge – claimed it had a round hole in the forehead, which was airbrushed from the published photos.

–         “The first U.N. official to identify his body swore that he had a bullet sized hole in his forehead. But the autopsy, including X-rays of Hammarskjold’s body, undercut such claims.

–         “The post-mortem summary (the full autopsy report is nowhere to be found, and the in situ police photographs are believed to be in private hands) describes Hammarskjöld’s body as “complete, unburnt and clothed”.

–         Dag Hammarskjöld and spirituality at the United Nations | Share The World’s Resources (STWR) (sharing.org)

–         Markings of Maturity (spectrummagazine.org)

1962  BurundiJamaicaRwanda and Trinidad and Tobago are admitted to the United Nations.

1962  BurundiJamaicaRwanda and Trinidad and Tobago are admitted to the United Nations.

1973  The BahamasEast Germany and West Germany are admitted to the United Nations.

1988  The 8888 Uprising in Myanmar comes to an end.

1988  General Henri Namphy, president of Haiti, is ousted from power in a coup d’état led by General Prosper Avril

1990  Liechtenstein becomes a member of the United Nations.

1997  United States media magnate Ted Turner donates US$1 billion to the United Nations.

1997  The Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention is adopted.

–         History and Text | Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (apminebanconvention.org)

–         International Campaign to Ban Landmines – Wikipedia

–         Landmines – UNODA

–         Background Briefing on Landmine Use in Ukraine | Human Rights Watch (hrw.org)

2001  First mailing of anthrax letters from Trenton, New Jersey in the 2001 anthrax attacks.

2007  Buddhist monks join anti-government protesters in Myanmar, starting what some call the Saffron Revolution.

2014  Scotland votes against independence from the United Kingdom, by 55% to 45%.

2016  The 2016 Uri attack in Jammu and Kashmir, India by terrorist group Jaish-e-Mohammed results in the deaths of nineteen Indian Army soldiers and all four attackers

———————-

19 September

1410  End of the Siege of Marienburg: The State of the Teutonic Order repulses the joint PolishLithuanian forces.

1870  Franco-Prussian War: The siege of Paris begins. The city held out for over four months before surrendering.

1916  World War I: During the East African Campaign, colonial forces of the Belgian Congo (Force Publique) under the command of Charles Tombeur capture the town of Tabora after heavy fighting.

1940  World War II: Witold Pilecki is voluntarily captured and sent to Auschwitz concentration camp to gather and smuggle out information for the resistance movement

1944  World War II: The Moscow Armistice between Finland and the Soviet Union is signed, which officially ended the Continuation War

1946  The Council of Europe is founded following a speech by Winston Churchill at the University of Zurich.

1950  Korean War: An attack by North Korean forces was repelled at the Battle of Nam River.

–         Korean War | Combatants, Summary, Years, Map, Casualties, & Facts | Britannica

1978  The Solomon Islands join the United Nations.

2006  The Thai army stages a coup. The Constitution is revoked and martial law is declared.

2019  A drone strike by the United States kills 30 civilian farmers in Afghanistan.

–         Afghan Civilians | Costs of War (brown.edu)

–         U.S. and Afghan Forces Killed More Civilians Than Taliban Did, Report Finds  The New York Times (nytimes.com)

———————-

20 September

1058  Agnes of Poitou and Andrew I of Hungary meet to negotiate about the border territory of Burgenland.

1187  Saladin begins the Siege of Jerusalem.

1260  The Great Prussian Uprising among the old Prussians begins against the Teutonic Knights.

1602  The Spanish-held Dutch town of Grave capitulates to a besieging Dutch and English army under the command of Maurice of Orange

1697  he Treaty of Ryswick is signed by France, England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the Dutch Republic, ending the Nine Years’ War.

1835  The decade-long Ragamuffin War starts when rebels capture Porto Alegre in Brazil.

1854   Crimean War: British and French troops defeat Russians at the Battle of Alma.

–         The Crimean War: A Timeline Of Key Moments | HistoryExtra

–         Crimean War – Summary, Facts & Causes (history.com)

–         8 Facts About the Crimean War | HISTORY

1893  Charles Duryea and his brother road-test the first American-made gasoline-powered automobile.

1920  Irish War of Independence: British police known as “Black and Tans” burn the town of Balbriggan and kill two local men in revenge for an IRA assassination.

–         Timeline of the Irish War of Independence – Wikipedia

–         Irish War of Independence | Summary, Guerrilla War, Death Toll, & Anglo-Irish Treaty | Britannica

1941  The Holocaust in Lithuania: Lithuanian Nazis and local police begin a mass execution of 403 Jews in Nemenčinė.

–         Timeline of Jewish history in Lithuania and Belarus – Wikipedia

–         The Holocaust in Lithuania | Facing History & Ourselves

–         Lithuania – The Holocaust Explained: Designed for schools

1946  The first Cannes Film Festival is held, having been delayed for seven years due to World War II.

1946  Six days after a referendum, King Christian X of Denmark annuls the declaration of independence of the Faroe Islands.

1955  The Treaty on Relations between the USSR and the GDR is signed.

1962   James Meredith, an African American, is temporarily barred from entering the University of Mississippi.

1965  Following the Battle of Burki, the Indian Army captures Dograi in during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.

–        Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 – Wikiwand

1977  Vietnam is admitted to the United Nations.

1979  A French-supported coup d’état in the Central African Empire overthrows Emperor Bokassa I.

–         The Decline and Fall of the Central African Empire (Chapter 7) – France’s Wars in Chad (cambridge.org)

–         Jean-Bédel Bokassa | Central African Dictator, Emperor & Military Leader | Britannica

–         “The empire would be dissolved less than three years later when French and Central African forces overthrew Bokassa and re-established the Central African Republic on 21 September 1979.

–         Colonialism in the Central African Republic – Wikipedia

1990  South Ossetia declares its independence from Georgia

2011  The United States military ends its “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy, allowing gay men and women to serve openly for the first time.

2019  Roughly four million people, mostly students, demonstrate across the world to address climate change.  Sixteen-year-old Greta Thunberg from Sweden leads the demonstration in New York City.

–         Climate movement – Wikipedia

–         Youth for climate action | UNICEF

–         Timeline: The Politics of Climate Change | FRONTLINE (pbs.org)

–         Climate change: How do we know it is happening and caused by humans? – BBC News

–         12 Important Moments in the History of Climate Action: In Photos (globalcitizen.org)

———————-

21 September

1860  Second Opium War: An Anglo-French force defeats Chinese troops at the Battle of Palikao.

–         Opium – Wikipedia

–         Opium | Drug, Physiological Actions, & History | Britannica

–         Opium Wars – Wikipedia

–         Opium Wars | Timeline | Britannica

–         The 1st and 2nd Opium Wars: Britain Versus China (thoughtco.com)

–         Milestones: 1830–1860 – Office of the Historian (state.gov)

1896  Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan: British forces under the command of Horatio Kitchener take Dongola.

1898  Empress Dowager Cixi seizes power and ends the Hundred Days’ Reform in China.

1942  The Holocaust in Ukraine: On the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur, Nazis send over 1,000 Jews of Pidhaitsi to Bełżec extermination camp.

–         The “Holocaust by Bullets” in Ukraine | The National WWII Museum | New Orleans (nationalww2museum.org)

–         Ukrainian collaboration with Nazi Germany – Wikipedia

–         Ukraine — United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (ushmm.org)

1942  The Holocaust in Ukraine: In Dunaivtsi, Ukraine, Nazis murder 2,588 Jews.

1942  The Holocaust in Poland: At the end of Yom Kippur, Germans order Jews to permanently move from Konstantynów to Biała Podlaska.

1942  The Boeing B-29 Superfortress makes its maiden flight.

1953  Lieutenant No Kum-sok, a North Korean pilot, defects to South Korea with his jet fighter.

1964  Malta gains independence from the United Kingdom, but remains in the Commonwealth.

1964  The North American XB-70 Valkyrie, the world’s fastest bomber, makes its maiden flight from Palmdale, California.

1965  The GambiaMaldives and Singapore are admitted as members of the United Nations.

1971  BahrainBhutan and Qatar join the United Nations.

1972  Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos begins authoritarian rule by declaring martial law.

1976  Orlando Letelier is assassinated in Washington, D.C because had been a member of the former Chilean Marxist government.

1976  Seychelles joins the United Nations.

1981  Belize is granted full independence from the United Kingdom.

1981  Sandra Day O’Connor is unanimously approved by the U.S. Senate as the first female Supreme Court justice.

1984  Brunei joins the United Nations.

1991  Armenia gains independence from the Soviet Union.

1993  Russian President Boris Yeltsin triggers a constitutional crisis when he suspends parliament and scraps the constitution.

1993   A Transair Georgian Airlines Tu-134 is shot down by a missile in the Black Sea near Sukhumi, Georgia

2003  The Galileo spacecraft is terminated by sending it into Jupiter’s atmosphere.

2012  Three Egyptian militants open fire on a group of Israeli soldiers in a southern Israel cross-border attack.

2013  Al-Shabaab Islamic militants attack the Westgate shopping mall in Kenya, killing at least 67 people.

2018  Killing of Zak Kostopoulos, LGBT rights activist beaten to death on a busy street in Athens

———————-

22 September

1499  The Treaty of Basel concludes the Swabian War.

1586  The Battle of Zutphen is a Spanish victory over the English and Dutch.

1692  The last hanging of those convicted of witchcraft in the Salem witch trials; others are all eventually released.

1866  The Battle of Curupayty is Paraguay’s only significant victory in the Paraguayan War.

1891  The first hydropower plant of Finland was commissioned along the Tammerkoski rapids in TamperePirkanmaa.

1939  World War II: A joint German–Soviet military parade in Brest-Litovsk is held to celebrate the successful invasion of Poland.

1941  The Holocaust in Ukraine: On the Jewish New Year Day, the German SS murders 6,000 Jews in Vinnytsia, Ukraine. Those are the survivors of the previous killings that took place a few days earlier in which about 24,000 Jews were executed.

–         The “Holocaust by Bullets” in Ukraine | The National WWII Museum | New Orleans (nationalww2museum.org)

–         Ukrainian collaboration with Nazi Germany – Wikipedia

–         Ukraine — United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (ushmm.org)

–         Ukraine – Nazi Occupation, Soviet, Genocide | Britannica

1948  Israeli-Palestine conflict: The All-Palestine Government is established by the Arab League.

–         Timeline of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict – Wikipedia

–         Israeli-Palestinian Conflict | Global Conflict Tracker (cfr.org)

–         Historical Timeline: 1900-Present – Israeli-Palestinian – ProCon.org

1960  The Sudanese Republic is renamed Mali after the withdrawal of Senegal from the Mali Federation.

1965  The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 between India and Pakistan over Kashmir ends after the United Nations calls for a ceasefire.

–         Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts – Wikipedia

–         Conflict Between India and Pakistan | Global Conflict Tracker (cfr.org)

–         What were the reasons behind India-Pakistan War and its effects? (jagranjosh.com)

1979  A bright flash, resembling the detonation of a nuclear weapon, is observed near the Prince Edward Islands. Its cause is never determined.

–         “On September 22, 1979 a double flash was reported in the Indian Ocean near the Prince Edward Islands.

–         Blast From the Past – Foreign Policy

–         The Vela Incident (nuclearweaponarchive.org)

–         “New Declassified Records Deepen the Debate on the 22 September 1979 Event – Including Whether Israel and South Africa Were Involved.

1980  Iraq invades Iran, sparking the nearly eight year Iran–Iraq War.

–         Iran Iraq War Timeline | Timetoast timelines

–         Iran-Iraq War summary | Britannica

–         1 Million Dead: Why the Iran-Iraq War Was So Brutal – 19FortyFive

1991  The Dead Sea Scrolls are made available to the public for the first time.

2013  At least 75 people are killed in a suicide bombing at a Christian church in Peshawar, Pakistan

———————-

23 September

1409  The Battle of Kherlen is the second significant victory over Ming dynasty China by the Mongols since 1368.

1803  Second Anglo-Maratha War: The Battle of Assaye is fought between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India

1905  Norway and Sweden sign the Karlstad Treaty, peacefully dissolving the Union between the two countries.

1942  World War II: The Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins: U.S. Marines attack Japanese units along the Matanikau River.

1950  Korean War: The Battle of Hill 282 is the first US friendly-fire incident on British military personnel since World War II.

–         Korean War – Causes, Timeline & Veterans | HISTORY

–         Korean War Timeline | Britannica

1973  Argentine general electionJuan Perón returns to power in Argentina.

———————-

24 September

787    Second Council of Nicaea: The council assembles at the church of Hagia Sophia.

–         Second Council of Nicaea | Description, History, Significance, & Facts | Britannica

1674  Second Tantrik Coronation of Shivaji.

–         Shivaji Maharaj, Only King in the History Who Had 2 Coronation – Treachery of Brahmins – Velivada – Educate, Agitate, Organize

1890  The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints officially renounces polygamy.

–         Current state of polygamy in the Latter Day Saint movement – Wikipedia

–        What do Latter-day Saints Believe? (churchofjesuschrist.org)

1906  Racial tensions exacerbated by rumors lead to the Atlanta Race Riot, further increasing racial segregation.

1946  Cathay Pacific Airways is founded in Hong Kong.

1946  The top-secret Clifford-Elsey Report on the Soviet Union is delivered to President Truman.

–         The Elsey Report (researchgate.net)

–         NSC 68: America’s Cold War Blueprint (americainclass.org)

–         1946: A Year of Ideological Preconceptions | much of the volume concerns Soviet Union. Like Dean of the post … (brchlane.com)

–         X Article – Wikipedia

–         History 393 10.30.14 Flashcards | Quizlet

1948  The Honda Motor Company is founded.

1973  Guinea-Bissau declares its independence from Portugal.

1975  Southwest Face expedition members become the first persons to reach the summit of Mount Everest by any of its faces, instead of using a ridge route.

1993  The Cambodian monarchy is restored, with Norodom Sihanouk as king.

1996  Representatives of 71 nations sign the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty at the United Nations.

–         Full Text: COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR-TEST-BAN TREATY

–         SUMMARY OF THE COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR-TEST-BAN TREATY (CTBT)

–         Technical Issues in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Ratification Debate: A 20 Year Retrospective (Technical Report) | OSTI.GOV

2007  Between 30,000 and 100,000 people take part in anti-government protests in Yangon, Burma, the largest in 20 years.

2008  Thabo Mbeki resigns as president of South Africa.

2009  The G20 summit begins in Pittsburgh with 30 global leaders in attendance.

2014  The Mars Orbiter Mission makes India the first Asian nation to reach Mars orbit, and the first nation in the world to do so in its first attempt.

_____________________________________________

Satoshi Ashikaga is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment. Having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, he prefers a peaceful and prudent life.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, constantly remind him of the invaluableness of peace.


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This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 18 Sep 2023.

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