This Week in History
HISTORY, 25 Sep 2023
Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service
25 Sep – 1 Oct 2023
Quote of the Week:
“State sovereignty is a goner. Bankism and Military Capitalism rule the world in all respects now.”
– Antonio C.S. Rosa
1237 England and Scotland sign the Treaty of York, establishing the location of their common border.
1396 Ottoman Emperor Bayezid I defeats a Christian army at the Battle of Nicopolis.
1555 The Peace of Augsburg is signed by Emperor Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League.
1768 Unification of Nepal
– History of Nepal – Wikipedia
– Prithvi Nārāyaṇ Shah | Unification of Nepal, Expansion of Gorkha Empire, Military Campaigns | Britannica
1921 Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism is founded in New York City.
– Peace by P.E.A.C.E. (columbia.edu)
– Peace Journalism vs. War Journalism | Georgie MacRae (wordpress.com)
– TRANSCEND MEDIA SERVICE » (1) WHAT IS PEACE JOURNALISM?
1915 World War I: The Second Battle of Champagne begins.
1918 World War I: The end of the Battle of Megiddo, the climax of the British Army’s Sinai and Palestine campaign under General Edmund Allenby.
1926 The international Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery is first signed.
– Slavery Convention (un.org)
– Slavery Convention Signed at Geneva on 25 September 1926
1937 Second Sino-Japanese War: The Chinese Eighth Route Army gains a minor, but morale-boosting victory in the Battle of Pingxingguan.
– Japan invades China. | World War 2 Facts
– First Sino-Japanese War – Wikipedia
– List of military engagements of the Second Sino-Japanese War – Wikipedia
– Why did Japan invade China? (jluggage.com)
– Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere – Wikipedia
– Nanjing Massacre | History, Summary & Facts | Britannica
– The Japanese Occupation of China 1937-45: The Divided Opposition and its Consequences by David White | Open History Society
– China’s War with Japan, 1937-1945: The Struggle for Survival by Rana Mitter – review | History books | The Guardian
1962 The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria is formally proclaimed. Ferhat Abbas is elected President of the provisional government.
1962 The North Yemen Civil War begins when Abdullah al-Sallal dethrones the newly crowned Imam al-Badr and declares Yemen a republic under his presidency.
1964 The Mozambican War of Independence against Portugal begins.
1969 The charter establishing the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation is signed.
1981 Belize joins the United Nations.
1987 Fijian Governor-General Penaia Ganilau is overthrown in a coup d’état led by Lieutenant colonel Sitiveni Rabuka.
715 Ragenfrid defeats Theudoald at the Battle of Compiègne.
1212 The Golden Bull of Sicily is issued to confirm the hereditary royal title in Bohemia for the Přemyslid dynasty.
1345 Friso-Hollandic Wars: Frisians defeat Holland in the Battle of Warns.
1371 Serbian–Turkish wars: Ottoman Turks fought against a Serbian army at the Battle of Maritsa.
1423 Hundred Years’ War: A French army defeats the English at the Battle of La Brossinière.
1687 Morean War: The Parthenon in Athens, used as a gunpowder depot by the Ottoman garrison, is partially destroyed after being bombarded during the Siege of the Acropolis by Venetian forces.
1799 War of the 2nd Coalition: French troops defeat Austro-Russian forces, leading to the collapse of Suvorov’s campaign.
1905 Albert Einstein publishes the third of his Annus Mirabilis papers, introducing the special theory of relativity.
1907 Four months after the 1907 Imperial Conference, New Zealand and Newfoundland are promoted from colonies to dominions within the British Empire.
1910 Indian journalist Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai is arrested after publishing criticism of the government of Travancore and is exiled.
1917 World War I: The Battle of Polygon Wood begins.
1918 World War I: The Meuse-Argonne Offensive began which would last until the total surrender of German forces.
1923 The German government accepts the occupation of the Ruhr.
1936 Spanish Civil War: Lluis Companys reshuffles the Generalitat de Catalunya, with the marxist POUM and anarcho-syndicalist CNT joining the government.
1942 Holocaust: Senior SS official August Frank issues a memorandum detailing how Jews should be “evacuated”.
– August Frank memorandum – History of Sorts (dirkdeklein.net)
– WWII THIS MONTH…SEPTEMBER 1942 (magzter.com)
– Step By Step: Phases of the Holocaust | Facing History & Ourselves
– Responsibility for the Holocaust – Wikipedia
– How did the Holocaust happen? – The Holocaust Explained: Designed for schools
– Final Solution – Wikipedia
– Evidence and documentation for the Holocaust – Wikipedia
1950 Korean War: United Nations troops recapture Seoul from North Korean forces.
– Korean War Timeline | Britannica
– Korean War | Combatants, Summary, Years, Map, Casualties, & Facts | Britannica
1960 In Chicago, the first televised debate takes place between presidential candidates Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy.
1969 Abbey Road, the last recorded album by The Beatles, is released.
– Cultural impact of the Beatles – Wikipedia
– 20 ways The Beatles changed the world | Yardbarker
– How the Beatles Changed the World (Documentary) | Amplified – YouTube
– The Beatles: Standing For Peace And Social Justice | TaprootMusic.com
– The Beatles: Their Anti-War Legacy And Role In The Anti-War Movement | TaprootMusic.com
– Remembering John Lennon’s Contentious Interview About Peace – InsideHook
– John Lennon, stamps inspiring message of peace, on UN’s big week | UN News
– IMAGINE all the people living life in peace. (johnlennon.com)
– Exploring The Memories Of World War II Through The Eyes Of The Beatles | TaprootMusic.com
1983 Soviet Air Force officer Stanislav Petrov identifies a report of an incoming nuclear missile as a computer error and not an American first strike.
– Stanislav Petrov: The Man Who Prevented a Nuclear War – Owlcation
– Russian officer who prevented nuclear disaster in 1983 | Nuclear Weapons News | Al Jazeera
– 1983: Doomsday | Alternative History | Fandom
– Stanislav Yevgrafovich Petrov (1939-2017) – Find a Grave Memorial
1984 The United Kingdom and China agree to a transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, to take place in 1997.
– Sino-British Joint Declaration – Wikipedia
– The secret negotiations behind the Hong Kong handover | CNN
– How Hong Kong Came Under ‘One Country, Two Systems’ Rule | HISTORY
– Hong Kong profile – Timeline – BBC News
– China says Sino-British Joint Declaration on Hong Kong no longer has meaning | Reuters
1331 The Battle of Płowce is fought, between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Order. The Poles are defeated but their leaders escape capture.
1422 After the brief Gollub War, the Teutonic Knights sign the Treaty of Melno with Poland and Lithuania.
1529 The Siege of Vienna begins when Suleiman I attacks the city.
1540 The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) receives its charter from Pope Paul III.
1605 The armies of Sweden are defeated by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Battle of Kircholm.
1669 The Venetians surrender the fortress of Candia to the Ottomans, thus ending the 21-year-long Siege of Candia.
1822 Jean-François Champollion officially informs the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres in France that he has deciphered the Rosetta Stone.
– How the Rosetta Stone unlocked the secrets of ancient civilisations | National Geographic
– What Does the Rosetta Stone Say? | Britannica
– Here’s What the Monumental Rosetta Stone Says (mymodernmet.com)
1908 Production of the Model T automobile begins at the Ford Piquette Avenue Plant in Detroit.
1916 Iyasu V is proclaimed deposed as ruler of Ethiopia in a palace coup in favor of his aunt Zewditu.
1928 The Republic of China is recognized by the United States.
1940 World War II: The Tripartite Pact is signed in Berlin by Germany, Japan and Italy.
– Performing the New Order: The Tripartite Pact, 1940–1945
– Axis Alliance in World War II | Holocaust Encyclopedia (ushmm.org)
– Axis Powers: The Infamous Tripartite Pact – Warfare History Network
– UN Charter, Article 107:
“Nothing in the present Charter shall invalidate or preclude action, in relation to any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory to the present Charter.…”
– UN Charter, Article 53:
“1….without the authorization of the Security Council, with the exception of measures against any enemy state, as defined in paragraph 2 of this Article, provided for pursuant to Article 107 …
- The term enemy state as used in paragraph 1 of the Article applies to any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory of the present Charter.”
1962 The Yemen Arab Republic is established.
1988 The National League for Democracy is formed by Aung San Suu Kyi and others to fight dictatorship in Myanmar.
– Myanmar: Timeline of a fragile democracy | Military News | Al Jazeera
– Myanmar – Myanmar since 1988 | Britannica
1996 The Battle of Kabul ends in a Taliban victory; an Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is established.
1998 The Google internet search engine retroactively claims this date as its birthday.
– How Google Impacted the World | AMA | SEO & Digital Marketing (weareama.com)
– How Google Has Changed Our Lives: Is Life Without It Even Possible Anymore? | by Naincy Sharma | Live Your Life On Purpose | Medium
– Scientists say Google is changing our brains | World Economic Forum (weforum.org)
– How Google Is Changing The Way We Think | HuffPost Impact
2019 Over two million people participated in worldwide strikes to protest climate change across 2,400 locations worldwide.
2020 Second Nagorno-Karabakh war: Azerbaijan launched an offensive against the self-proclaimed Republic of Artsakh, inhabited predominantly by ethnic Armenians.
– A Summary of the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict | Warsaw Institute
– First Nagorno-Karabakh War – Wikipedia
– Timeline of the Second Nagorno-Karabakh War – Wikipedia
– History of Nagorno-Karabakh – Wikipedia
1901 Philippine–American War: Filipino guerrillas kill more than forty American soldiers while losing 28 of their own.
1918 World War I: The Fifth Battle of Ypres begins.
1939 World War II: Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union agree on a division of Poland.
1939 World War II: The siege of Warsaw comes to an end.
1944 World War II: Soviet Army troops liberate Klooga concentration camp in Estonia.
1961 A military coup in Damascus effectively ends the United Arab Republic, the union between Egypt and Syria.
1995 Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat sign the Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
– Palestinian territories – Wikipedia
– “The Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip commonly known as Oslo II or Oslo 2, was a key and complex agreement in the Israeli–Palestinian peace process.”
– Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (a.k.a. “Oslo II”) – Question of Palestine (un.org)
– Oslo Accords (history.com)
– Oslo Accords: Why the Israeli-Palestinian peace process failed (nzz.ch)
2009 The military junta leading Guinea attacks a protest rally, killing or wounding 1,400 people.
2012 Somali and African Union forces launch a coordinated assault on the Somali port of Kismayo to take back the city from al-Shabaab militants.
1267 The Treaty of Montgomery recognizes Llywelyn ap Gruffudd as Prince of Wales, but only as a vassal of King Henry III.
1364 During the Hundred Years’ War, Anglo-Breton forces defeat the Franco-Breton army in Brittany, ending the War of the Breton Succession.
1567 During the French War of Religion, Protestant coup officials in Nîmes massacre Catholic priests in an event now known as the Michelade.
1714 The Cossacks of the Russian Empire kill about 800 people overnight in Hailuoto during the Great Wrath.
1789 The United States Department of War first establishes a regular army with a strength of several hundred men.
1848 The Battle of Pákozd is a stalemate between Hungarian and Croatian forces and is the first battle of the Hungarian Revolution.
1864 The Treaty of Lisbon defines the boundaries between Spain and Portugal and abolishes the Couto Misto micro-state.
1911 Italy declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
1918 Bulgaria signs the Armistice of Salonica ending its participation in World War I.
1918 Germany’s Supreme Army Command tells Kaiser Wilhelm II and Imperial Chancellor Georg Michaelis to open negotiations for an armistice to end World War I.
1920 Ukrainian War of Independence: The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic agree to a truce with the Makhnovshchina
1923 The Mandate for Palestine takes effect, creating Mandatory Palestine.
1923 The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon takes effect.
1941 During World War II, German forces, with the aid of local Ukrainian collaborators, begin the two-day Babi Yar massacre.
1954 The convention establishing CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) is signed
1971 Oman joins the Arab League.
– Arab League | History, Purpose, Members, & Achievements | Britannica
– Member states of the Arab League – Wikipedia
1972 Japan establishes diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China after breaking official ties with the Republic of China.
– “The Joint Communique of the Government of Japan and the Government of the People’s Republic of China was signed on September 29, 1972, in Beijing.”
– “This study analyses the “one China” framework’s significance for Japan–Taiwan relations since Tokyo switched diplomatic recognition from Taipei to Beijing in 1972.”
2016 Eleven days after the Uri attack, the Indian Army conducts “surgical strikes” against suspected militants in Pakistani-administered Kashmir.
1918 Ukrainian War of Independence: Insurgent forces led by Nestor Makhno defeat the Central Powers at the battle of Dibrivka.
1938 Britain, France, Germany and Italy sign the Munich Agreement, whereby Germany annexes the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia.
1938 The League of Nations unanimously outlaws “intentional bombings of civilian populations”.
– International Law – Bombing of Civilians (dannen.com)
– The Bombing of Civilians The proposals for prohibiting the bombing » 23 Sep 1938 » The Spectator Archive
– “On 6 and 9 August 1945, the United States detonated two atomic bombs over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively. The bombings killed between 129,000 and 226,000 people, most of whom were civilians…”
– “Civilians under international humanitarian law are “persons who are not members of the armed forces” and they are not “combatants if they carry arms openly and respect the laws and customs of war“.
– Protection of civilians in armed conflict
– Protection of Civilians | How does law protect in war? – Online casebook (icrc.org)
– Preventing violations of international humanitarian law and protecting civilians require closer cooperation, OSCE leaders say | OSCE
1941 World War II: The Babi Yar massacre comes to an end.
1947 Pakistan joins the United Nations.
1954 The U.S. Navy submarine USS Nautilus is commissioned as the world’s first nuclear-powered vessel.
1966 Bechuanaland declares its independence, and becomes the Republic of Botswana.
2000 Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Twelve-year-old Muhammad al-Durrah is shot and killed on the second day of the Second Intifada.
– Timeline of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict – Wikipedia
– Israel-Palestine conflict explained: The history behind the Gaza flare-up – The Washington Post
– First intifada | Israeli–Palestinian history | Britannica
– Second intifada | Israeli–Palestinian history | Britannica
– Timeline of the Arab–Israeli conflict – Wikipedia
1800 Via the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, Spain cedes Louisiana to France, which would sell the land to the United States thirty months later.
1814 The Congress of Vienna opens with the intention of redrawing Europe’s political map after the defeat of Napoleon in the previous spring.
1827 Russo-Persian War: The Russian army under Ivan Paskevich storms Yerevan, ending a millennium of Muslim domination of Armenia.
1887 Balochistan is conquered by the British Empire.
1918 World War I: The Egyptian Expeditionary Force captures Damascus.
1936 Spanish Civil War: The Central Committee of Antifascist Militias of Catalonia dissolves itself, handing control of Catalan defence militias over to the Generalitat.
1938 Pursuant to the Munich Agreement signed the day before, Nazi Germany begins the military occupation and annexation of Czechoslovakia‘s Sudetenland.
1939 World War II: After a one-month siege, German troops occupy Warsaw.
1943 World War II: After the Four Days of Naples, Allied troops enter the city.
1946 Nazi leaders are sentenced at the Nuremberg trials.
1946 The Daegu October incident occurs in Allied-occupied Korea.
1949 The People’s Republic of China is established.
1953 A United States-South Korea mutual defense treaty is concluded in Washington, D.C.
1955 The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region is established.
– Xinjiang profile – BBC News
– History of Xinjiang – Wikipedia
– History of the Uyghur people – Wikipedia
– “Xinjiang is a key region in northwestern China, connecting East and West Eurasian populations and cultures for thousands of years.”
– “In the fall of 2016, the Chinese government embarked on an unprecedented campaign of mass incarceration of the Uyghur population in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.”
– UN says crimes against humanity may have occurred in China’s Xinjiang region : NPR
– Who are the Uyghurs and why is China being accused of genocide? – BBC News
1960 Nigeria gains independence from the United Kingdom.
1961 The United States Defense Intelligence Agency is formed, becoming the country’s first centralized military intelligence organization.
1961 East and West Cameroon merge to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon.
1985 Israel-Palestinian conflict: Israel attacks the Palestine Liberation Organization‘s Tunisia headquarters during Operation Wooden Leg.
– ISRAELI PLANES ATTACK P.L.O. IN TUNIS, KILLING AT LEAST 30; RAID ‘LEGITIMATE,’ U.S. SAYS – The New York Times (nytimes.com)
– IAF Raid on the PLO Headquarters in Tunis (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
– 1985 in Israel – Wikipedia
– Timeline of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict – Wikipedi”a
1991 Croatian War of Independence: The Siege of Dubrovnik begins.
– Dubrovnik | Dubrovnik war (dubrovnikdigest.com)
– Attack on Dubrovnik Planned at Highest Level | Institute for War and Peace Reporting (iwpr.net)
– “However, Montenegrin politicians spread panic in Montenegro through media, saying that the Croatian army is gathering in Dubrovnik, and that they will attack Montenegro.”
– Split and Dubrovnik – The Jerusalem Post (jpost.com)
– Tudjman’s Police Minister Admits Croatia Started the War by Attacking Serbs (freerepublic.com)
2018 The International Court of Justice rules that Chile is not obliged to negotiate access to the Pacific Ocean with Bolivia.
– International Court of Justice: Reports of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders–Obligation to Negotiate Access to the Pacific Ocean (Bolivia vs Chile)
Satoshi Ashikaga is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment. Having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, he prefers a peaceful and prudent life. His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, constantly remind him of the invaluableness of peace.
This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 25 Sep 2023.
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