This Week in History

HISTORY, 25 Sep 2023

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

25 Sep – 1 Oct 2023

Quote of the Week:

State sovereignty is a goner. Bankism and Military Capitalism rule the world in all respects now.

Antonio C.S. Rosa


25 September

1237  England and Scotland sign the Treaty of York, establishing the location of their common border.

1396  Ottoman Emperor Bayezid I defeats a Christian army at the Battle of Nicopolis.

1555  The Peace of Augsburg is signed by Emperor Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League.

1768   Unification of Nepal

–         History of Nepal – Wikipedia

–         Prithvi Nārāyaṇ Shah | Unification of Nepal, Expansion of Gorkha Empire, Military Campaigns | Britannica

1921  Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism is founded in New York City.

–         Peace by P.E.A.C.E. (

–         Peace Journalism vs. War Journalism | Georgie MacRae (


1915  World War I: The Second Battle of Champagne begins.

1918  World War I: The end of the Battle of Megiddo, the climax of the British Army’s Sinai and Palestine campaign under General Edmund Allenby.

1926  The international Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery is first signed.

–         Slavery Convention (

–         Slavery Convention Signed at Geneva on 25 September 1926

1937  Second Sino-Japanese War: The Chinese Eighth Route Army gains a minor, but morale-boosting victory in the Battle of Pingxingguan.

–         Japan invades China. | World War 2 Facts

–         First Sino-Japanese War – Wikipedia

–         List of military engagements of the Second Sino-Japanese War – Wikipedia

–         Why did Japan invade China? (

–         Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere – Wikipedia

–         Nanjing Massacre | History, Summary & Facts | Britannica

–         The Japanese Occupation of China 1937-45: The Divided Opposition and its Consequences by David White | Open History Society

–         China’s War with Japan, 1937-1945: The Struggle for Survival by Rana Mitter – review | History books | The Guardian

1962  The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria is formally proclaimed. Ferhat Abbas is elected President of the provisional government.

1962  The North Yemen Civil War begins when Abdullah al-Sallal dethrones the newly crowned Imam al-Badr and declares Yemen a republic under his presidency.

1964  The Mozambican War of Independence against Portugal begins.

1969  The charter establishing the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation is signed.

1981  Belize joins the United Nations.

1987  Fijian Governor-General Penaia Ganilau is overthrown in a coup d’état led by Lieutenant colonel Sitiveni Rabuka.


26 September

715    Ragenfrid defeats Theudoald at the Battle of Compiègne.

1212  The Golden Bull of Sicily is issued to confirm the hereditary royal title in Bohemia for the Přemyslid dynasty.

1345  Friso-Hollandic Wars: Frisians defeat Holland in the Battle of Warns.

1371  Serbian–Turkish wars: Ottoman Turks fought against a Serbian army at the Battle of Maritsa.

1423   Hundred Years’ War: A French army defeats the English at the Battle of La Brossinière.

1687  Morean War: The Parthenon in Athens, used as a gunpowder depot by the Ottoman garrison, is partially destroyed after being bombarded during the Siege of the Acropolis by Venetian forces.

1799  War of the 2nd Coalition: French troops defeat Austro-Russian forces, leading to the collapse of Suvorov’s campaign.

1905   Albert Einstein publishes the third of his Annus Mirabilis papers, introducing the special theory of relativity.

1907   Four months after the 1907 Imperial Conference, New Zealand and Newfoundland are promoted from colonies to dominions within the British Empire.

1910  Indian journalist Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai is arrested after publishing criticism of the government of Travancore and is exiled.

1917   World War I: The Battle of Polygon Wood begins.

1918  World War I: The Meuse-Argonne Offensive began which would last until the total surrender of German forces.

1923   The German government accepts the occupation of the Ruhr.

1936  Spanish Civil WarLluis Companys reshuffles the Generalitat de Catalunya, with the marxist POUM and anarcho-syndicalist CNT joining the government.

1942   Holocaust: Senior SS official August Frank issues a memorandum detailing how Jews should be “evacuated”.

–         August Frank memorandum – History of Sorts (


–         Step By Step: Phases of the Holocaust | Facing History & Ourselves

–         Responsibility for the Holocaust – Wikipedia

–         How did the Holocaust happen? – The Holocaust Explained: Designed for schools

–         Final Solution – Wikipedia

–         Evidence and documentation for the Holocaust – Wikipedia

1950  Korean War: United Nations troops recapture Seoul from North Korean forces.

–         Korean War Timeline | Britannica

–         Korean War | Combatants, Summary, Years, Map, Casualties, & Facts | Britannica

1960  In Chicago, the first televised debate takes place between presidential candidates Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy.

1969  Abbey Road, the last recorded album by The Beatles, is released.

–         Cultural impact of the Beatles – Wikipedia

–         20 ways The Beatles changed the world | Yardbarker

–         How the Beatles Changed the World (Documentary) | Amplified – YouTube

–         The Beatles: Standing For Peace And Social Justice |

–         The Beatles: Their Anti-War Legacy And Role In The Anti-War Movement |

–         Remembering John Lennon’s Contentious Interview About Peace – InsideHook

–         John Lennon, stamps inspiring message of peace, on UN’s big week | UN News

–         IMAGINE all the people living life in peace. (

–         Exploring The Memories Of World War II Through The Eyes Of The Beatles |

1983  Soviet Air Force officer Stanislav Petrov identifies a report of an incoming nuclear missile as a computer error and not an American first strike.

–         Stanislav Petrov: The Man Who Prevented a Nuclear War – Owlcation

–         Russian officer who prevented nuclear disaster in 1983 | Nuclear Weapons News | Al Jazeera

–         1983: Doomsday | Alternative History | Fandom

–         Stanislav Yevgrafovich Petrov (1939-2017) – Find a Grave Memorial

1984  The United Kingdom and China agree to a transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, to take place in 1997.

–         Sino-British Joint Declaration – Wikipedia

–         The secret negotiations behind the Hong Kong handover | CNN

–         How Hong Kong Came Under ‘One Country, Two Systems’ Rule | HISTORY

–         Hong Kong profile – Timeline – BBC News

–         China says Sino-British Joint Declaration on Hong Kong no longer has meaning | Reuters


27 September

1331  The Battle of Płowce is fought, between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Order. The Poles are defeated but their leaders escape capture.

1422  After the brief Gollub War, the Teutonic Knights sign the Treaty of Melno with Poland and Lithuania.

1529  The Siege of Vienna begins when Suleiman I attacks the city.

1540  The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) receives its charter from Pope Paul III.

1605  The armies of Sweden are defeated by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Battle of Kircholm.

1669  The Venetians surrender the fortress of Candia to the Ottomans, thus ending the 21-year-long Siege of Candia.

1822   Jean-François Champollion officially informs the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres in France that he has deciphered the Rosetta Stone.

–         How the Rosetta Stone unlocked the secrets of ancient civilisations | National Geographic

–         What Does the Rosetta Stone Say? | Britannica

–         Here’s What the Monumental Rosetta Stone Says (

1908  Production of the Model T automobile begins at the Ford Piquette Avenue Plant in Detroit.

1916   Iyasu V is proclaimed deposed as ruler of Ethiopia in a palace coup in favor of his aunt Zewditu.

1928  The Republic of China is recognized by the United States.

1940  World War II: The Tripartite Pact is signed in Berlin by Germany, Japan and Italy.

–         Performing the New Order: The Tripartite Pact, 1940–1945

–         Axis Alliance in World War II | Holocaust Encyclopedia (

–         Axis Powers: The Infamous Tripartite Pact – Warfare History Network

–         UN Charter, Article 107:

Nothing in the present Charter shall invalidate or preclude action, in relation to any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory to the present Charter.…

–         UN Charter, Article 53:

1….without the authorization of the Security Council, with the exception of measures against any enemy state, as defined in paragraph 2 of this Article, provided for pursuant to Article 107 …

  1. The term enemy state as used in paragraph 1 of the Article applies to any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory of the present Charter.

1962  The Yemen Arab Republic is established.

1988  The National League for Democracy is formed by Aung San Suu Kyi and others to fight dictatorship in Myanmar.

–         Myanmar: Timeline of a fragile democracy | Military News | Al Jazeera

–         Myanmar – Myanmar since 1988 | Britannica

1996  The Battle of Kabul ends in a Taliban victory; an Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is established.

1998  The Google internet search engine retroactively claims this date as its birthday.

–         How Google Impacted the World | AMA | SEO & Digital Marketing (

–         How Google Has Changed Our Lives: Is Life Without It Even Possible Anymore? | by Naincy Sharma | Live Your Life On Purpose | Medium

–         Scientists say Google is changing our brains | World Economic Forum (

–         How Google Is Changing The Way We Think | HuffPost Impact

2019  Over two million people participated in worldwide strikes to protest climate change across 2,400 locations worldwide.

2020  Second Nagorno-Karabakh warAzerbaijan launched an offensive against the self-proclaimed Republic of Artsakh, inhabited predominantly by ethnic Armenians.

–         A Summary of the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict | Warsaw Institute

–         First Nagorno-Karabakh War – Wikipedia

–         Timeline of the Second Nagorno-Karabakh War – Wikipedia

–         History of Nagorno-Karabakh – Wikipedia


28 September

1901   Philippine–American War: Filipino guerrillas kill more than forty American soldiers while losing 28 of their own.

1918  World War I: The Fifth Battle of Ypres begins.

1939   World War II: Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union agree on a division of Poland.

1939  World War II: The siege of Warsaw comes to an end.

1944  World War II: Soviet Army troops liberate Klooga concentration camp in Estonia.

1961  A military coup in Damascus effectively ends the United Arab Republic, the union between Egypt and Syria.

1995   Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat sign the Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

–         Palestinian territories – Wikipedia

–         “The Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip commonly known as Oslo II or Oslo 2, was a key and complex agreement in the Israeli–Palestinian peace process.

–         Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (a.k.a. “Oslo II”) – Question of Palestine (

–         Oslo Accords (

–         Oslo Accords: Why the Israeli-Palestinian peace process failed (

2009  The military junta leading Guinea attacks a protest rally, killing or wounding 1,400 people.

2012  Somali and African Union forces launch a coordinated assault on the Somali port of Kismayo to take back the city from al-Shabaab militants.


29 September

1267   The Treaty of Montgomery recognizes Llywelyn ap Gruffudd as Prince of Wales, but only as a vassal of King Henry III.

1364  During the Hundred Years’ War, Anglo-Breton forces defeat the Franco-Breton army in Brittany, ending the War of the Breton Succession.

1567  During the French War of Religion, Protestant coup officials in Nîmes massacre Catholic priests in an event now known as the Michelade.

1714  The Cossacks of the Russian Empire kill about 800 people overnight in Hailuoto during the Great Wrath.

1789   The United States Department of War first establishes a regular army with a strength of several hundred men.

1848  The Battle of Pákozd is a stalemate between Hungarian and Croatian forces and is the first battle of the Hungarian Revolution.

1864  The Treaty of Lisbon defines the boundaries between Spain and Portugal and abolishes the Couto Misto micro-state.

1911  Italy declares war on the Ottoman Empire.

1918  Bulgaria signs the Armistice of Salonica ending its participation in World War I.

1918  Germany’s Supreme Army Command tells Kaiser Wilhelm II and Imperial Chancellor Georg Michaelis to open negotiations for an armistice to end World War I.

1920  Ukrainian War of Independence: The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic agree to a truce with the Makhnovshchina

1923  The Mandate for Palestine takes effect, creating Mandatory Palestine.

1923  The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon takes effect.

1941  During World War II, German forces, with the aid of local Ukrainian collaborators, begin the two-day Babi Yar massacre.

1954  The convention establishing CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) is signed

1971  Oman joins the Arab League.

–         Arab League | History, Purpose, Members, & Achievements | Britannica

–         Member states of the Arab League – Wikipedia

1972  Japan establishes diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China after breaking official ties with the Republic of China.

–         “The Joint Communique of the Government of Japan and the Government of the People’s Republic of China was signed on September 29, 1972, in Beijing.

–         “This study analyses the “one China” framework’s significance for Japan–Taiwan relations since Tokyo switched diplomatic recognition from Taipei to Beijing in 1972.”

2016  Eleven days after the Uri attack, the Indian Army conducts “surgical strikes” against suspected militants in Pakistani-administered Kashmir.


30 September

1918   Ukrainian War of IndependenceInsurgent forces led by Nestor Makhno defeat the Central Powers at the battle of Dibrivka.

1938  Britain, France, Germany and Italy sign the Munich Agreement, whereby Germany annexes the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia.

1938  The League of Nations unanimously outlaws “intentional bombings of civilian populations”.

–         International Law – Bombing of Civilians (

–         The Bombing of Civilians The proposals for prohibiting the bombing » 23 Sep 1938 » The Spectator Archive

–         “On 6 and 9 August 1945, the United States detonated two atomic bombs over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively. The bombings killed between 129,000 and 226,000 people, most of whom were civilians…

–         “Civilians under international humanitarian law are “persons who are not members of the armed forces” and they are not “combatants if they carry arms openly and respect the laws and customs of war“.

–         Protection of civilians in armed conflict

–         Protection of Civilians | How does law protect in war? – Online casebook (

–         Preventing violations of international humanitarian law and protecting civilians require closer cooperation, OSCE leaders say | OSCE

1941  World War II: The Babi Yar massacre comes to an end.

1947   Pakistan joins the United Nations.

1954  The U.S. Navy submarine USS Nautilus is commissioned as the world’s first nuclear-powered vessel.

1966   Bechuanaland declares its independence, and becomes the Republic of Botswana.

2000   Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Twelve-year-old Muhammad al-Durrah is shot and killed on the second day of the Second Intifada.

–         Timeline of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict – Wikipedia

–         Israel-Palestine conflict explained: The history behind the Gaza flare-up – The Washington Post

–         First intifada | Israeli–Palestinian history | Britannica

–         Second intifada | Israeli–Palestinian history | Britannica

–         Timeline of the Arab–Israeli conflict – Wikipedia


1 October

1800  Via the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, Spain cedes Louisiana to France, which would sell the land to the United States thirty months later.

1814  The Congress of Vienna opens with the intention of redrawing Europe’s political map after the defeat of Napoleon in the previous spring.

1827  Russo-Persian War: The Russian army under Ivan Paskevich storms Yerevan, ending a millennium of Muslim domination of Armenia.

1887  Balochistan is conquered by the British Empire.

1918   World War I: The Egyptian Expeditionary Force captures Damascus.

1936  Spanish Civil War: The Central Committee of Antifascist Militias of Catalonia dissolves itself, handing control of Catalan defence militias over to the Generalitat.

1938  Pursuant to the Munich Agreement signed the day before, Nazi Germany begins the military occupation and annexation of Czechoslovakia‘s Sudetenland.

1939  World War II: After a one-month siege, German troops occupy Warsaw.

1943   World War II: After the Four Days of Naples, Allied troops enter the city.

1946  Nazi leaders are sentenced at the Nuremberg trials.

1946  The Daegu October incident occurs in Allied-occupied Korea.

1949  The People’s Republic of China is established.

1953  A United States-South Korea mutual defense treaty is concluded in Washington, D.C.

1955  The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region is established.

–         Xinjiang profile – BBC News

–         History of Xinjiang – Wikipedia

–         History of the Uyghur people – Wikipedia

–         “Xinjiang is a key region in northwestern China, connecting East and West Eurasian populations and cultures for thousands of years.”

–         “In the fall of 2016, the Chinese government embarked on an unprecedented campaign of mass incarceration of the Uyghur population in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.”

–         UN says crimes against humanity may have occurred in China’s Xinjiang region : NPR

–         Who are the Uyghurs and why is China being accused of genocide? – BBC News

1960   Nigeria gains independence from the United Kingdom.

1961  The United States Defense Intelligence Agency is formed, becoming the country’s first centralized military intelligence organization.

1961  East and West Cameroon merge to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon.

1985   Israel-Palestinian conflictIsrael attacks the Palestine Liberation Organization‘s Tunisia headquarters during Operation Wooden Leg.


–         IAF Raid on the PLO Headquarters in Tunis (

–         1985 in Israel – Wikipedia

–         Timeline of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict – Wikipedi”a

1991  Croatian War of Independence: The Siege of Dubrovnik begins.

–         Dubrovnik | Dubrovnik war (

–         Attack on Dubrovnik Planned at Highest Level | Institute for War and Peace Reporting (

–         “However, Montenegrin politicians spread panic in Montenegro through media, saying that the Croatian army is gathering in Dubrovnik, and that they will attack Montenegro.

–         Split and Dubrovnik – The Jerusalem Post (

–         Tudjman’s Police Minister Admits Croatia Started the War by Attacking Serbs (

2018  The International Court of Justice rules that Chile is not obliged to negotiate access to the Pacific Ocean with Bolivia.

–         International Court of Justice: Reports of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders–Obligation to Negotiate Access to the Pacific Ocean (Bolivia vs Chile)


Satoshi Ashikaga is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment. Having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, he prefers a peaceful and prudent life.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, constantly remind him of the invaluableness of peace.


This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 25 Sep 2023.

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