The Forgotten: Migration of All Creations–Causing Peace and War (Part 2)

TRANSCEND MEMBERS, 9 Oct 2023

Prof Hoosen Vawda – TRANSCEND Media Service

“Biologically, the migration of humans has caused invasion of the ecosystem of all other creations, including fellow humans and has resulted in significant Peace Disruption over the centuries.” [1]

The Great, Annual Salmon Migration: Every year grizzly bear families in North America depend for their survival on a spectacular natural event: the return of hundreds of millions of salmon from the Pacific Ocean to the mountain streams where they were born. The salmon travel thousands of miles to spawn and then die. The great run not only provides food for bears, but for killer whales, wolves, bald eagles, and even the forest itself, making their annual contribution to the fragile ecosystem, now being destroyed by human.  The question is: will the salmon return in time to keep hungry bears alive?

This paper, Part 2, in the series on “The Forgotten”, discusses the migration of all creations, from origins, through evolution, to their final phenotypes in the present-day context.  In this arduous odyssey, some of the biological prototypes, have become extinct either by a process of “Natural Selection” as espoused by the evolutionary theories of Darwin[2], or through the exploitation by human of these biologics, and disturbance of their ecosystems over millennia, These biological organisms, ranging from gigantic dinosaurs[3] to the sub-microscopic viruses [4] and other, yet to be discovered microscopic organisms orientated in one location and have migrated great distance, either of their own accord, or using Hominidae[5] as vectors to different parts of the globe, principally causing major peace disruption, but also has resulted in the genesis of peace and peace propagation, by adding value to the frenzied existence of all humans, in a balanced ecosystem, dominated by, as well as destroyed by humans, over the eons. However, the general principle is that there is always a root cause for human migration from their original abode and in the case of our early ancestors, the Homo sapiens, sapiens[6], profound drought drove early humans out of Africa, around 200,000 to 150,000 years ago.[7]

Out of Africa Theory of Early Human Evolution and Migration – Hypothetical pathways of prehistoric human migration. Arrows indicate hypothetical prehistoric migration routes of humans after leaving Africa approximately 70 thousand years ago. Homo sapiens, which first emerged in Africa between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago, migrated in waves to different parts of the world.
Credit: K. Cantner, AGI

 It is necessary to define specific terms related to migration. Internal displacement, mass migration, and emigration are distinct concepts related to the movement of people, each with its own characteristics and implications:

 

Internal Displacement:

 

Internal displacement refers to the forced movement of people within the borders of their own country due to conflict, violence, human rights abuses, natural disasters, or other factors. These individuals are often referred to as internally displaced persons (IDPs).

Stay Within National Borders: IDPs do not cross international borders; they remain within the boundaries of their home country.

Causes: Internal displacement can result from armed conflict, ethnic or religious persecution, forced evictions, environmental disasters, or other forms of violence or crises.

Protection: IDPs are entitled to protection and assistance under international law, primarily the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. Governments are responsible for ensuring the rights and well-being of IDPs within their territories.

 

Mass Migration:

 

Mass migration refers to the movement of a large number of people, often in a relatively short period, from one place to another. It can occur for various reasons, including economic opportunities, political instability, natural disasters, or other factors.

Cross-Border Movement: Mass migration can involve movement across international borders, which distinguishes it from internal displacement.

Causes: Mass migration can be driven by factors such as economic disparities, conflict, persecution, climate change, or regional crises.

Diverse Outcomes: Mass migration can lead to a wide range of outcomes, including individuals seeking asylum or refugee status, economic migrants, or people seeking temporary labor opportunities in other countries.

 

Emigration:

 

Refers to the act of leaving one’s own country or place of residence to establish a new permanent residence in another country. The individuals who emigrate are referred to as emigrants.

Permanent Move: Emigration involves a permanent or long-term relocation to another country.

Causes: Emigration can be motivated by various factors, including better economic prospects, family reunification, seeking asylum or refugee status, or escaping persecution or conflict.

Legal and Administrative Processes: Emigration often involves legal and administrative processes, such as obtaining visas, residence permits, or refugee status, depending on the circumstances and destination country’s immigration policies.

 

In summary, internal displacement relates to people forced to move within their own country’s borders, mass migration involves the movement of large numbers of people, often across international borders, and emigration pertains to individuals permanently leaving their home country to establish a new residence elsewhere. Each of these forms of human mobility has distinct implications for governance, legal frameworks, and humanitarian responses.

Large herds of annual buffalo migration in African countries, often a perilous journey, in which it is a case of survival of the fittest. Photo Credit: unsplash.com

It is also noteworthy, that other biological creations also undergo migration, some of which are on an annual basis, with great loss of lives of these non-human creations.  Mass migrations among animals, fishes, and birds serve various ecological and biological purposes, and they have evolved over millions of years as adaptive strategies. These migrations are driven by a combination of environmental cues, reproductive needs, and survival strategies. The author discusses an overview of why many species of animals, fishes, and birds undertake mass migrations. While the study of avian migration is the domain of phenologists[8], it is necessary to highlight a few general principles:

 

Resource Availability:

Many migratory species follow the availability of essential resources, such as food, water, and suitable breeding sites. They move to areas with abundant resources during specific seasons.

For example, herbivorous mammals may migrate to follow the growth of new vegetation, while carnivorous species may migrate to areas where prey is more abundant.

 

Breeding and Reproduction:

 

Migratory species often migrate to specific locations for breeding and reproduction. These sites are selected for their safety, food availability, and suitable conditions for raising offspring.

Birds, for instance, migrate to regions with ample food and nesting sites for raising their young.

 

Avoiding Harsh Conditions:

 

Migration allows species to escape harsh environmental conditions, such as extreme cold, drought, or other adverse factors that can make it challenging to survive.

For example, many birds migrate to warmer climates during the winter to avoid freezing temperatures and scarcity of food.

 

Exploiting Seasonal Opportunities:

 

Some species migrate to exploit seasonal opportunities that are available in different regions at different times of the year. This can include seasonal blooms of plankton in the ocean or the emergence of insects in terrestrial ecosystems.

 

Avoiding Predators:

 

Migration can be a strategy to evade predators. Some prey species may move to areas where they are less likely to be hunted, increasing their chances of survival.

Similarly, predators may migrate to follow their prey.

 

Energy Efficiency:

 

Migratory species often travel to areas where they can conserve energy by taking advantage of favorable winds, currents, or temperature conditions.

This energy efficiency is crucial for long-distance migrations, such as those undertaken by some birds and marine mammals.

 

Geographic Isolation and Genetic Diversity:

 

Migration can promote genetic diversity and geographic isolation, as individuals from different populations may interbreed when they converge at breeding or feeding sites. This genetic diversity can enhance a species’ adaptability and resilience.

 

Evolutionary Advantage:

 

Over time, species that have developed migratory behaviors and strategies have gained an evolutionary advantage by increasing their chances of survival, reproduction, and population growth.

 

These mass migrations are often impressive feats of navigation and endurance, shaped by natural selection over millennia. While they are triggered by environmental cues such as changes in daylight, temperature, and food availability, the precise mechanisms guiding migration are still the subject of ongoing scientific research. Understanding these migrations is crucial for conservation efforts and the preservation of ecosystems, as they play a vital role in the ecological balance and functioning of our planet.

 

Mass migration of humans and mass migration of other life forms in nature share some similarities but also have significant differences. A comparison is made between the two groups of creations:

 

Mass Migration of Humans:

 

Purposeful Decision: Human mass migration is typically a conscious and purposeful decision made by individuals or communities. It often involves considerations of economic opportunity, political stability, personal safety, or family reunification.

 

Varied Motivations: Humans migrate for diverse reasons, including seeking better economic prospects, escaping conflict or persecution, reuniting with family, pursuing education, or responding to environmental factors.

 

Complex Planning: Human migration often involves complex planning, legal processes, and administrative procedures, such as obtaining visas or refugee status. It may require significant financial resources and logistical arrangements.

 

Intercontinental Migration: Humans can undertake intercontinental migrations, crossing oceans and continents, thanks to modern transportation systems, such as airplanes and ships.

 

Sociopolitical Context: Human migrations can have sociopolitical implications and can lead to debates about immigration policies, refugee protection, and cultural diversity in destination countries.

 

Mass Migration of Other Life Forms in Nature:

 

Instinctual Behavior: Mass migration in nature is typically an instinctual behavior triggered by environmental cues, such as changes in temperature, daylight, or food availability. It is not a conscious decision.

 

Reproductive Purposes: Many mass migrations in nature are related to reproduction and breeding. Species move to specific areas where conditions are suitable for breeding and raising offspring.

 

Simplified Logistics: Migration in nature often involves simpler logistics than human migration. Animals may rely on physical adaptations, such as wings, to cover vast distances.

 

Intercontinental Movement: Some animal species, such as birds, undertake intercontinental migrations. However, their movement across continents is driven by natural instincts and physical adaptations rather than technological means.

 

Ecological Impact: Mass migrations in nature have significant ecological impacts. They can affect food chains, nutrient cycling, and ecosystem dynamics, often benefiting multiple species in the process.

 

Adaptation to Environmental Changes: Mass migrations in nature are evolutionary adaptations to changing environmental conditions. They allow species to exploit seasonal opportunities and evade adverse conditions.

 

Lack of Sociopolitical Context: Migration in nature occurs without sociopolitical debates or policy considerations. It is part of the natural order and not subject to human governance.

 

In summary, while both human mass migration and mass migration in nature involve the movement of large numbers of individuals, the motivations, decision-making processes, and societal implications are fundamentally different. Human migration is driven by conscious choices and often influenced by political, economic, and social factors, whereas mass migration in nature is a product of instinctual behaviors shaped by natural selection and ecological pressures.

 

Oceanic migration is a fascinating phenomenon involving the movement of aquatic life forms across vast distances within the world’s oceans. The Gulf Stream is one of the ocean currents known for its role in facilitating the migration of various marine species. Here’s an overview of oceanic migration and how the Gulf Stream is involved:

 

Oceanic Migration:

 

Oceanic migration refers to the seasonal or cyclical movement of marine organisms across large expanses of the ocean. This migration can involve a wide range of aquatic life forms, including fish, marine mammals, sea turtles, and planktonic organisms.

 

The Gulf Stream[9]:

 

The Gulf Stream is a warm and swift ocean current in the western North Atlantic Ocean. It originates in the Gulf of Mexico, flows along the eastern coast of the United States, and extends into the North Atlantic before turning eastward toward Europe.

The Gulf Stream is part of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, a circular system of ocean currents.

 

Role of the Gulf Stream in Migration:

 

The Gulf Stream has a significant influence on the distribution and migration patterns of marine species in the North Atlantic Ocean. Its warm, nutrient-rich waters create a productive marine environment.

Some key aspects of the Gulf Stream’s role in migration include:

Temperature Gradient: The Gulf Stream generates a distinct temperature gradient between its warm waters and the cooler waters of the surrounding ocean. This temperature difference can attract and support a variety of marine life.

Food Availability: The Gulf Stream’s currents bring nutrients and plankton to the surface, providing a rich source of food for a wide range of marine organisms, including small fish and zooplankton.

Navigational Aid: Some species of fish, such as tuna and billfish, use the Gulf Stream as a navigational aid during migration. They may follow the warm waters to find food or reach breeding grounds.

 

Examples of Species and Migratory Patterns:

 

Various species engage in oceanic migration along the Gulf Stream. Some notable examples include:

 

Atlantic Bluefin Tuna[10]: These large fish migrate across the Atlantic Ocean, often using the Gulf Stream as a route. They are known for their remarkable long-distance migrations between feeding and spawning grounds.

Sea Turtles: [11] Some sea turtle species, like loggerhead turtles, migrate through the Gulf Stream to find nesting sites along the southeastern coast of the United States.

Marine Birds[12]: Bird species that rely on marine resources, such as shearwaters and petrels, may also use the Gulf Stream as a migratory pathway.

 

Challenges and Conservation:

 

The Gulf Stream’s role in marine migration highlights the importance of conserving this ocean current and the broader marine ecosystem it supports. Environmental changes, including shifts in ocean currents and temperature patterns, can impact the timing and success of migration for marine species.

Conservation efforts, such as the protection of critical habitats, sustainable fishing practices, and efforts to reduce plastic pollution and climate change, are essential to preserving the Gulf Stream and the species that depend on it for migration.

 

In summary, the Gulf Stream plays a crucial role in facilitating the migration of various aquatic life forms across the North Atlantic Ocean. Its warm, nutrient-rich waters provide essential resources for marine species, making it a vital component of the oceanic ecosystem. Understanding and conserving the Gulf Stream and its associated migration patterns are important for marine conservation efforts

 

While there are well-known examples of oceanic and riverine migratory occurrences, there may indeed be lesser-known or understudied migrations that are not as widely recognized. A few examples of such migrations are:

 

Diel Vertical Migration of Zooplankton:[13]

 

Zooplankton, tiny aquatic organisms, often exhibit a behavior called diel vertical migration. During the day, they tend to stay in deeper, darker waters to avoid predators. At night, they migrate to the surface to feed on phytoplankton. This migration plays a vital role in marine food webs but is not as well-studied as larger animal migrations.

 

Oceanic Drift and Dispersal of Larvae:[14]

 

Many marine species, including corals, fish, and invertebrates, release larvae into the ocean. These larvae can be transported by ocean currents over long distances, eventually settling and colonizing new habitats. The extent and impact of larval migration on marine biodiversity are areas of ongoing research.

 

Amazon River Migration of Fish:[15]

 

The Amazon River and its tributaries host one of the most diverse and extensive fish migrations in the world. While some species, like the piracatinga catfish, are known for their long-distance migrations, many other fish species in the Amazon basin may have migration patterns that are not fully understood.

 

Microbial Ocean Migrations:[16]

 

Microbes, including bacteria and phytoplankton, can undergo vertical migrations in the ocean. They move between surface waters, where they photosynthesize, and deeper waters, where they find nutrients. These microbial migrations play a crucial role in nutrient cycling and the marine carbon cycle.

 

Deep-Ocean Ecosystems:[17]

 

Deep-sea ecosystems, including hydrothermal vent communities and cold seeps, may host migratory species and behaviors that are not well-documented due to the challenges of studying these remote and extreme environments.

 

Riverine Migrations of Amphibians:[18]

 

Some amphibian species, such as the hellbender salamander in North America, undertake riverine migrations between their aquatic breeding habitats and terrestrial habitats. These migrations are less studied compared to the more famous migrations of salmon.

It is important to note that the study of animal migrations, whether in oceans or rivers, can be challenging due to the vastness of these ecosystems, the difficulty of tracking small or elusive species, and the logistical constraints of conducting research in aquatic environments. However, ongoing advances in technology, such as satellite tracking and environmental DNA analysis, are helping scientists uncover new insights into various migratory phenomena. As a result, our understanding of these migrations continues to evolve, and there may be many more fascinating migratory occurrences yet to be fully explored and documented.

 

Climate change, global warming, and the melting of glacial ice can indeed have significant effects on oceanic currents, including the Gulf Stream and other undercurrents. These changes can disrupt established ocean circulation patterns with potentially far-reaching consequences for climate, ecosystems, and weather patterns. Here are some potential impacts and a worst-case scenario:

 

Gulf Stream and Ocean Circulation Changes:[19]

 

Melting glacial ice, particularly from the Greenland Ice Sheet, contributes freshwater to the North Atlantic Ocean. This influx of freshwater can disrupt the salinity gradient in the North Atlantic, which plays a key role in driving the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation [20](AMOC), a major component of global ocean circulation.

Weakening or disrupting the AMOC could impact the Gulf Stream, potentially slowing it down or altering its path. The Gulf Stream plays a crucial role in regulating climate in the North Atlantic region and beyond.

 

Potential Consequences:

 

Slowing or weakening of the Gulf Stream and AMOC could have far-reaching consequences:

Altered Climate Patterns: Changes in ocean circulation can affect climate patterns, leading to shifts in temperature and precipitation regimes in affected regions.

Sea Level Rise: Disruption of ocean circulation can impact sea level rise patterns along coastlines, including the eastern United States and northern Europe.

Weather Extremes: Changes in ocean circulation can influence the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, including hurricanes and heatwaves.

Ecosystem Disruption: Altered ocean currents can disrupt marine ecosystems, affecting the distribution of species and impacting fisheries.

 

Worst-Case Scenario:

 

In a worst-case scenario, continued greenhouse gas emissions and rapid ice melt could lead to a collapse of the AMOC, including the Gulf Stream. Such a collapse could result in severe disruptions to regional and global climate systems.

Impacts could include:

Rapid warming in some regions and cooling in others, leading to abrupt and unpredictable shifts in climate.

Accelerated sea level rise along the U.S. East Coast and northern Europe.

Increased frequency and severity of extreme weather events.

Disruption of marine ecosystems and fisheries, affecting food security.

 

Mitigation and Adaptation:

 

To mitigate the worst-case scenario and limit the disruption of ocean circulation patterns, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are crucial. Slowing the rate of climate change can help stabilize ocean circulation systems.

Additionally, adaptation strategies, such as improved coastal infrastructure and sustainable fisheries management, can help communities prepare for potential changes in ocean circulation and their associated impacts.

 

It is important to note that while some models project a slowdown of the AMOC and the Gulf Stream in response to climate change, the exact nature and timing of these changes remain areas of active research and uncertainty. Nonetheless, the potential consequences of such disruptions underscore the urgency of addressing climate change and its impacts on the world’s oceans.

 

The annual Piscean migrations in North American rivers[21] involve several species of fish, with some of the most notable migrations occurring in the following rivers:

 

Columbia River:[22]

 

Salmon Species: Chinook salmon, coho salmon, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, and pink salmon.

Steelhead: Steelhead trout (a sea-run form of rainbow trout).

 

Fraser River:[23]

 

Salmon Species[24]: Chinook salmon[25], coho salmon, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, and pink salmon.

 

Yukon River:[26]

 

Salmon Species: Chinook salmon, coho salmon, sockeye salmon, and chum salmon.

 

Sacramento River:

 

Salmon Species: Chinook salmon.

 

Snake River:

 

Salmon Species: Chinook salmon.

 

Skeena River[27]:

 

Salmon Species: Chinook salmon, coho salmon, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, and pink salmon.

 

Great Lakes Tributaries [28](e.g., Salmon River in New York):

 

Salmon Species: Chinook salmon, coho salmon.

Reasons for Upstream Migration:

The annual upstream migration of these fish species is a remarkable natural phenomenon and serves several important ecological and biological purposes:

 

Reproduction: Fish migrate upstream to reach their natal spawning grounds where they were born. They need to lay their eggs (females) and fertilize them (males) in these specific areas of rivers and streams.

 

Habitat Selection: Spawning grounds in upstream areas often provide ideal conditions for the development and survival of fish eggs and young fry. These areas typically have well-oxygenated water and protection from predators.

 

Nutrient Transport: Salmon, in particular, play a crucial role in nutrient cycling. They bring marine-derived nutrients from the ocean back to freshwater ecosystems when they die after spawning. These nutrients enrich the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, benefiting both aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

 

Challenges and Predation:

While migrating upstream to spawn is a critical part of their life cycle, it is not without challenges:

 

Predators: Many predators, including bears, eagles, and other wildlife, are aware of the annual salmon runs and gather near rivers to take advantage of this abundant food source. Bears, in particular, are known for catching salmon during their migration.

 

Energetic Costs: The migration requires an enormous amount of energy, and by the time salmon reach their spawning grounds, they are often weakened and may not survive long after spawning.

 

Rationale for Migration:

The seemingly counterintuitive act of migrating upstream only to be preyed upon by bears has an evolutionary rationale:

 

Resource Investment: By investing energy and effort into reaching upstream spawning grounds, fish ensure that their offspring have access to a safer and more nutrient-rich environment. Even though many individuals die during the process, enough survive to continue the species.

 

Nutrient Transfer: The nutrients brought from the ocean and deposited in freshwater systems by spawning fish benefit both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, enhancing the overall health and productivity of these ecosystems.

 

In summary, the annual upstream migration of fish, such as salmon and steelhead, is a complex but vital aspect of their life cycle. It is driven by the need to reproduce, and while it comes with challenges and predation risks, it ultimately benefits both the survival of the species and the ecosystems they inhabit. This natural phenomenon is a testament to the intricate interconnections in the natural world.

 

Often one hears the statement that “Human and fishes have the same natural instincts for survival and the quest for a “Better Life””  Would this be a reasonable conclusion of a complex biological situation?  observation draws an interesting parallel between the natural instincts for survival and the pursuit of a “better life” in both humans and certain fish species during their annual migrations. While there are some similarities in terms of seeking conditions that favor survival and reproduction, it’s important to recognize the fundamental differences between human and fish behavior:

 

Survival Instinct:

 

Both humans and fish share a fundamental survival instinct, which drives them to seek conditions conducive to their well-being and the continuation of their species.

 

Reproduction and Offspring:

 

In the case of fish, their migration upstream is primarily driven by the need to reproduce and provide a suitable environment for their offspring to thrive. This instinct is deeply ingrained in their biology.

Humans also have a strong instinct for reproduction and the care of offspring, but our pursuit of a “better life” often encompasses a broader range of desires and aspirations, including economic, social, and personal goals.

 

Goals and Decision-Making:

 

Humans have the capacity for complex decision-making and goal-setting. Our pursuit of a “better life” can involve a wide range of choices, including education, career, relationships, and personal fulfillment.

Fish, on the other hand, follow a more instinctual and predetermined path in their migrations, with the primary goal of reaching suitable spawning grounds.

  1. Cultural and Societal Factors:

 

Humans are influenced by cultural, societal, and individual factors that shape their understanding of a “better life.” This concept is subjective and varies greatly from one person to another and from one culture to another. Fish, driven by biological imperatives, do not have the capacity for cultural or societal influences on their migration patterns.  In conclusion, while there are shared instincts for survival and reproduction in both humans and fish, the pursuit of a “better life” is a distinctly human concept that encompasses a wide range of goals and desires influenced by culture, society, and individual experiences. Fish, in contrast, primarily migrate for the purpose of reproduction, with their behavior largely determined by biological imperatives.

 

Migration behavior in animals, including fish, is primarily governed by a combination of biological factors, including genetic predispositions, hormonal changes, environmental cues, and neural mechanisms. While the limbic system and the autonomic nervous system play important roles in various aspects of animal behavior, including some related to migration, it’s essential to note that the specific mechanisms governing migration are complex and can vary among species.

 

A brief overview of how various factors influence migration in animals is:

 

Genetic Predispositions: Many species have genetic predispositions that guide their migration behavior. These genetic factors can influence the timing, direction, and distance of migration.

 

Hormonal Changes: Hormonal changes, particularly related to reproduction, can trigger migratory behavior in many animals. For example, the release of certain hormones can stimulate the urge to migrate and initiate the journey to breeding or spawning grounds.

 

Environmental Cues: Animals often rely on environmental cues to guide their migrations. These cues can include changes in day length, temperature, and the availability of food resources. For example, some birds migrate based on the changing length of daylight hours.

 

Sensory Navigation: Animals use sensory cues such as magnetic fields, celestial cues (like the position of stars), and landmarks to navigate during migration. These cues are often processed in the nervous system.

 

Autonomic Nervous System[29]: The autonomic nervous system, which includes the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches, controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, and respiratory rate. While the autonomic nervous system may play a role in coordinating physiological responses during migration, it is not the primary driver of the decision to migrate.

 

Brain Structures: The brain, including regions like the hippocampus, which is involved in spatial memory and navigation, and the hypothalamus, which regulates hormonal processes, may also play a role in migration.

 

Learning and Experience: In some cases, animals may learn migration routes through experience and social learning. Young animals may follow more experienced individuals during their first migrations.

 

It is important to recognize that the precise mechanisms of migration can vary widely among species. For example, in fish, the combination of hormonal changes triggered by the maturation process and environmental cues plays a significant role. In birds, genetic predispositions, environmental cues, and sensory navigation are crucial.

 

While the limbic system [30]is involved in emotional and motivational processes in the brain, its role in migration may be more indirect, influencing aspects of an animal’s behavior related to motivation and decision-making. The autonomic nervous system can influence physiological responses during migration, such as changes in heart rate and metabolism.

 

In summary, migration in animals is a complex behavior influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, environmental, and neural factors. While the limbic system and the autonomic nervous system may play roles in aspects of this behavior, the specific mechanisms can vary widely among species.

 

Fishes do not have a limbic system in the same way that mammals do. The limbic system is a complex group of structures in the brain found primarily in mammals, including humans, and it is associated with various functions, including emotions, motivation, and certain aspects of memory. While fish have brains, their brain structures are different from those of mammals, and they lack a limbic system as it is understood in the context of mammalian neuroanatomy.

 

Instead, fish have a simpler brain structure that is adapted to their specific needs and behaviors. Their brains are capable of processing sensory information, controlling motor functions, and regulating basic physiological processes. While fish do exhibit behaviors that suggest they can experience stress, fear, and even some form of social interactions, these processes are not mediated by a limbic system as seen in mammals.

 

It is important to recognize that the neurobiology and behavior of fish are quite different from those of mammals, and their brains have evolved to meet the demands of their aquatic environment and specific ecological niches. Fish exhibit various forms of behavior, including navigation, foraging, and reproduction, but these behaviors are typically regulated by simpler neural structures adapted to their way of life.

 

In summary, while fish exhibit complex behaviors and instincts that are vital for their survival and reproduction, they do not have a limbic system analogous to that of mammals. Their brain structures and neural mechanisms are adapted to their unique biology and ecological roles as aquatic organisms.

 

It is also necessary to elaborate on the oceanic currents, globally:

 

Bay of Bengal Stream:[31]

 

The Bay of Bengal Stream is a major current in the northeastern Indian Ocean. It originates in the northern Bay of Bengal and flows southward along the eastern coast of India.

It plays a crucial role in the monsoon climate of the Indian subcontinent, influencing the seasonal reversal of winds and the distribution of rainfall.

The Bay of Bengal Stream also affects marine ecosystems and fisheries in the region, as it carries nutrient-rich waters.

 

Africa-Madagascar Current:[32]

 

The Africa-Madagascar Current is a southward-flowing ocean current in the southwestern Indian Ocean. It runs along the eastern coast of Africa and then turns eastward, passing to the south of Madagascar.

This current is a branch of the South Equatorial Current and influences weather patterns and marine life in the region.

It can have significant impacts on the climate of nearby islands, including Madagascar.

 

Mid Pacific Current:[33]

 

The Mid Pacific Current is part of the complex system of currents in the Pacific Ocean. It flows roughly east to west and is located near the equator.

This current system is influenced by the trade winds and can affect weather patterns in the central Pacific region.

It plays a role in redistributing heat and nutrients in the ocean, which can influence marine life and ecosystems.

 

Mid Atlantic Streams:[34]

 

The Mid Atlantic streams refer to various currents in the North Atlantic Ocean. One notable current is the North Atlantic Current, which carries warm water from the Gulf of Mexico toward northern Europe.

These currents have a significant impact on the climate of Western Europe, helping to moderate temperatures in the region.

They also influence marine ecosystems and are important for shipping routes.

 

Peri Arctic and Peri Antarctic Circular Streams[35]:

 

Peri Arctic and Peri Antarctic circular streams refer to the circulation patterns around the Arctic and Antarctic regions, respectively.

In the Arctic, the Beaufort Gyre and the Transpolar Drift are examples of circular currents that move sea ice and impact the polar climate.

In the Antarctic, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is a major eastward-flowing current that circles the continent. It plays a key role in isolating Antarctica climatically and affecting global ocean circulation.

 

Mid Indian Ocean Stream:

 

The Mid Indian Ocean Stream is a major current system in the Indian Ocean. It flows westward along the equator, roughly between 5°N and 5°S.

This current system is influenced by the monsoon winds and has a significant impact on the climate and weather patterns of the Indian Ocean region.

It can also affect the distribution of marine species and fisheries.

These oceanic currents are essential components of the Earth’s climate and ocean systems, influencing weather patterns, marine ecosystems, and even global climate dynamics. Understanding their behavior and changes due to climate variability is crucial for both scientific research and practical applications, such as weather forecasting and marine resource management.

 

Significant mass migrations from antiquity through to biblical times, the medieval era, the colonial era, and the present period are summarised:

 

Antiquity:

 

The Great Migration of the Peoples [36](circa 375-568 CE): A series of migrations and invasions by various tribes, including the Huns, Goths, Vandals, and Visigoths, led to the movement of large groups across Europe and the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

 

The Jewish Diaspora (Various Periods): The dispersion of Jewish communities from the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah to various parts of the world, including Babylon, Egypt, and later, during the Roman era, to Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.

 

Biblical Times:

 

The Exodus (circa 13th century BCE): [37]The biblical account of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt under the leadership of Moses in search of the Promised Land.

Medieval Era:

 

The Migration Period (circa 4th-9th centuries CE):[38] also known as the Barbarian Invasions. A period of large-scale migrations in Europe, including the migration of Germanic tribes, Huns, and others, which contributed to the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

 

The Crusades (11th-13th centuries):[39] A series of religious wars and migrations of European Christian armies to the Holy Land in the Levant.

 

Colonial Era:

 

African Slave Trade (15th-19th centuries): [40]The forced migration of millions of Africans to the Americas, Europe, and other parts of the world as part of the transatlantic slave trade.

 

European Colonial Settlements (17th-20th centuries): [41]The colonization of various regions by European powers, resulting in mass migrations of settlers and the displacement of indigenous populations.

 

Present Period:

 

Partition of India (1947): [42]The partition of British India into India and Pakistan resulted in a massive migration of Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs between the two newly created nations, leading to violence and displacement.

 

Refugee Crises (Various Periods): Ongoing refugee crises in the 20th and 21st centuries, including the Syrian refugee crisis[43], the Rohingya refugee crisis[44], and others, have led to mass migrations due to conflict, persecution, and violence.

 

Economic Migration: Contemporary economic migrations from regions such as Latin America, the Middle East, and sub-Saharan Africa to North America, Europe, and the Gulf countries, driven by economic disparities and employment opportunities.

 

Environmental Migration: Migration due to environmental factors, including rising sea levels, droughts, and natural disasters, has become a significant concern in the present era.

 

These are just a few examples of mass migrations across different historical periods. Each migration had its unique causes, consequences, and impacts on the regions and societies involved. Migration has been a recurring phenomenon throughout history, shaped by various factors and circumstances.

 

A special mention must be made of the he Mongol invasion of Europe[45] in the 12th and 13th centuries, particularly during the Mongol Empire’s expansion under Genghis Khan and his successors, had significant consequences, including mass migrations and population displacement. Here are some details about the Mongol invasions and their impact on Europe:

 

Mongol Invasions in Eastern Europe:

 

In the early 13th century, the Mongol Empire, under the leadership of Genghis Khan’s successors, launched a series of invasions into Eastern Europe.

The Mongols defeated various Eastern European powers, including the Khwarezmian Empire, the Kievan Rus’, and the Cumans.

 

Invasion of Hungary and Poland:[46]

 

One of the most significant Mongol invasions in Europe occurred in 1241 when the Mongols invaded Hungary and Poland.

The Mongols inflicted a devastating defeat on the Hungarian and Polish armies at the Battle of Mohi in 1241.[47]

Following this battle, the Mongols continued to advance deeper into Europe, sacking and pillaging towns and cities.

  1. Impact on Eastern Europe:

 

The Mongol invasion had a profound impact on Eastern Europe, leading to widespread destruction and depopulation.

Many cities and settlements were either destroyed or severely damaged, and the region experienced a significant loss of life.

 

Mass Migrations:

 

As a result of the Mongol invasions, many Eastern Europeans fled their homes to escape the advancing Mongol armies.

Mass migrations occurred, with some people seeking refuge in other regions of Europe, such as Bohemia and Austria, while others headed south to the Balkans or westward to Germany.

 

Repercussions and Legacy:

 

The Mongol invasions disrupted the political and economic structures of Eastern Europe, and some regions took years or decades to recover.

The Mongol invasions are often considered a contributing factor to the decline of the Kievan Rus’ and the fragmentation of Eastern European states.

While the Mongol invasions of Europe did result in mass migrations and population displacement in Eastern Europe, it is important to note that the scale and consequences of these migrations varied across regions. Some areas experienced more significant population loss and disruption than others. Additionally, the Mongol Empire’s control over European territories was relatively short-lived, as the Mongols eventually withdrew from much of Eastern Europe in the mid-13th century.

Putative migration waves out of Africa and back migrations into the continent, as well as the locations of major ancient human remains and archeological sites.
Photo Credit: López et al. 2015

 Human migration and the evolution of different races and populations over time is a complex and fascinating story that spans thousands of years. The movement of early human populations out of Africa and their subsequent adaptations to diverse environments around the world have shaped the genetic, physical, and cultural diversity seen in modern humans today. Here is a comprehensive overview of human migration and evolution:

 

Out of Africa Theory:[48]

 

The prevailing scientific theory is known as the “Out of Africa” or “Recent African Origin” theory. According to this theory, anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) originated in Africa around 200,000 years ago. These early humans eventually began migrating out of Africa, spreading to other continents.

 

Early Migrations:

 

The earliest migrations likely occurred within Africa itself, with human populations moving to different regions of the continent. This resulted in the development of diverse cultures and adaptations to varying ecological niches.

The first major migration out of Africa occurred approximately 70,000 to 100,000 years ago, when a group of Homo sapiens left Africa and began to populate other parts of the world.

 

Expansion into Eurasia:[49]

 

Early human populations spread into Eurasia, including regions now occupied by Europe and Asia. These populations encountered a wide range of environments, from temperate forests to harsh tundra.

Over tens of thousands of years, these early migrants adapted to their new environments through genetic changes and cultural innovations.

 

Populating the Americas:[50]

 

One of the most significant and challenging migrations was the peopling of the Americas. This occurred around 15,000 to 20,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age, when a land bridge known as Beringia connected Siberia and Alaska.

Early human groups crossed this land bridge, eventually spreading throughout North and South America, adapting to diverse ecosystems.

 

Migration to Australia and the Pacific Islands:[51]

 

Early humans also migrated across Asia and reached Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean around 50,000 years ago. These migrations involved navigating open ocean and settling on isolated islands.

Populations in these regions developed unique cultures and languages.

 

Environmental Adaptations:

 

Human populations adapted to their new environments in various ways, including changes in skin pigmentation, body shape, and disease resistance.

For example, populations in high-latitude regions developed adaptations for cold climates, such as lighter skin to optimize vitamin D synthesis.

 

Genetic Diversity:

 

Over time, isolated populations developed genetic diversity through mechanisms like genetic drift, mutations, and selective pressures.

This genetic diversity led to the emergence of different racial and ethnic groups with distinct genotypes and phenotypes.

 

Cultural Evolution:

 

Alongside genetic adaptations, human cultures evolved and diversified. Different populations developed unique languages, belief systems, technologies, and social structures.

 

Modern Genetic Research:

 

Modern genetic research, using techniques like DNA analysis, has provided valuable insights into human migration patterns and genetic diversity. It has confirmed the African origin of modern humans and traced specific genetic markers that reflect historical migrations.

In summary, human migration and evolution are intricately linked processes that have resulted in the remarkable diversity of modern humanity. These migrations, driven by the need to adapt to different environments and the pursuit of resources, have shaped the physical, genetic, and cultural traits of human populations around the world. The study of human origins and migrations continues to be an active and dynamic field of research, providing insights into our shared history as a species.

 

Migration routes for humans are diverse and can vary depending on the reasons for migration, including seeking better economic opportunities, escaping conflict or persecution, or pursuing family reunification. These routes often lead migrants to various regions of the world, and unfortunately, some migrants face life-threatening risks during their journeys. Here are some of the main global migration routes and the destinations where migrants may face dangers:

 

Central and North African Routes to Europe:[52]

 

Destination: Southern Europe, particularly countries such as Italy, Spain, and Greece.

Challenges: Migrants and refugees from sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, and the Middle East often attempt to reach Europe through perilous journeys across the Mediterranean Sea, leading to risks of drowning, human trafficking, and exploitation.

South and Central American Routes to North America:

 

Destination: The United States and Canada.

Challenges: Migrants from Central and South America, including countries like Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador, often make dangerous journeys through Mexico to reach the United States. The dangers include human trafficking, violence, and harsh conditions.

Horn of Africa and Middle Eastern Routes to Gulf States:

 

Destination: Gulf countries such as Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar.

Challenges: Migrants from countries like Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Yemen may seek employment in Gulf states but often face exploitative working conditions and lack of legal protections.

 

Southeast Asian Routes:[53]

 

Destination: Countries like Malaysia and Thailand.

Challenges: Migrants from Myanmar, Bangladesh, and other countries in the region may attempt to find work but can face human trafficking, forced labor, and exploitation, particularly in industries such as fishing and agriculture.

 

Central Asian Routes to Russia and Europe:[54]

 

Destination: Russia and, for some, onward to Western European countries.

Challenges: Migrants from Central Asian countries often seek employment in Russia, but some face exploitation, discrimination, and dangerous working conditions.

African Routes through the Sahara Desert:

 

Destination: Mediterranean coast for onward travel to Europe.

Challenges: Migrants and refugees from sub-Saharan Africa often pass through the Sahara Desert to reach the Mediterranean, facing extreme heat, lack of water, and the risk of human trafficking.

 

Crossing the Darién Gap:[55]

 

Destination: North America, particularly the United States.

Challenges: Some migrants from South America, including countries like Colombia, may attempt to cross the treacherous Darién Gap, a dense jungle region, to reach North America, facing dangers such as harsh terrain, diseases, and violence.

 

Mediterranean Sea Crossings:[56]

 

Destination: Southern European countries, including Italy, Spain, and Greece.

Challenges: Migrants and refugees often risk their lives crossing the Mediterranean Sea in overcrowded and unseaworthy vessels, leading to numerous deaths due to drowning.

These migration routes illustrate the desperate circumstances that many people face when seeking better lives or safety. It’s crucial to address the root causes of migration and ensure that migrants’ rights are protected, while also addressing the risks and dangers associated with their journeys. Humanitarian efforts and international cooperation are essential to mitigate these challenges.

 

Further questions which are often raised is how did the first humans reach the Americas from Africa? Did this happen before the splitting up of Gondwana into continents or they went off in some type of boats? What are the proposed theories for transoceanic migrations of humans during evolution to result in morphological changes including a transformation of skin colour and progressive loss of body hair from Neanderthal like hairy humans to blue eyed, fair skinned Aryan, stocks, presumably highly evolved compared with the primitive tribes?

 

The peopling of the Americas is a complex and fascinating chapter in human history. While there is a consensus that the earliest human migrants to the Americas came from Eurasia, the exact mechanisms and timing of their arrival have been the subject of ongoing research and debate. There are several proposed theories for how the first humans reached the Americas:

 

Bering Land Bridge:[57]

 

The most widely accepted theory is that the earliest human migrants reached the Americas by crossing a land bridge known as Beringia. During the last Ice Age, which peaked around 20,000 years ago, much of Earth’s water was locked up in glaciers, causing global sea levels to drop.

Beringia was a vast region that connected Siberia (Asia) with Alaska (North America) when sea levels were lower. Archaeological evidence suggests that human populations used this land bridge to enter North America.

These early migrants are often referred to as the “Clovis people,” named after distinctive stone tools known as Clovis points that have been found in North America and are associated with their culture.

 

Coastal Migration:[58]

 

Some researchers propose that humans may have followed a coastal route along the Pacific shoreline, using boats or rafts, to move southward from Beringia into the Americas.

This theory suggests that these coastal migrants may have had access to maritime resources and a reliable food supply, which allowed them to successfully settle in new areas.

 

Transoceanic Migration Hypotheses:[59]

 

There are alternative theories, although less widely accepted, that suggest transoceanic migration routes. These theories propose that early humans used boats or rafts to cross the oceans. However, there is limited concrete evidence to support these hypotheses, and they are considered more speculative.

 

As for the morphological changes, including skin color and hair loss, these adaptations are thought to be the result of human populations adapting to their specific environments over many generations. Here are some key points related to these adaptations:

 

Skin Color: The evolution of skin color is primarily related to the level of melanin in the skin. Populations in regions with higher UV radiation (such as equatorial regions) tend to have darker skin with more melanin to provide protection against harmful UV rays. Populations in regions with lower UV radiation (such as higher latitudes) tend to have lighter skin to facilitate the synthesis of vitamin D in less intense sunlight.

 

Hair Loss: The loss of body hair in Homo sapiens is thought to be an adaptation to a more active, bipedal lifestyle and a response to changing climatic conditions. Hairlessness helped with thermoregulation and reduced the risk of parasites.

 

Eye Color: Eye color is primarily determined by genetics, with variations related to the presence and distribution of pigments in the iris. Blue eyes, for example, are associated with the presence of a specific genetic variant.

 

Genetic Diversity: These traits reflect genetic diversity within human populations. As humans migrated to different environments, natural selection favored certain genetic variants that were advantageous in those environments. Over time, these adaptations became more prevalent in specific populations.

 

It is important to note that the concept of “Aryan” as a superior or highly evolved [60]race is a historical misconception and has been used to promote harmful and unfounded ideas of racial superiority. Modern genetics has shown that all humans share a common ancestry, and the genetic diversity seen in different populations reflects adaptations to specific environments over time.

 

In summary, the peopling of the Americas likely occurred through the Bering Land Bridge, with adaptations to new environments leading to morphological changes like skin color and hair loss. The idea of transoceanic migrations is less supported by evidence, and these adaptations are better explained by regional selection pressures and genetic diversity within human populations.

 

Human migration has occurred in multiple stages throughout our evolutionary history to the present day. These migrations were often driven by a combination of environmental, social, and technological factors. Here is a stratification of the stages of human migration:

 

Early Hominin Migration (Pre-Homo sapiens):[61]

 

Timeline: Millions of years ago to around 200,000 years ago.

Reasons: Early hominins, such as Australopithecus and early Homo species, migrated within Africa in response to changes in climate, the availability of resources, and ecological factors. These migrations were likely influenced by the need for food, water, and suitable habitats.

 

Emergence of Homo sapiens and African Dispersal:

 

Timeline: Around 200,000 to 100,000 years ago.

Reasons: Anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) emerged in Africa and gradually began dispersing across the continent. This early African migration may have been driven by population growth, resource competition, and the search for new habitats.

 

Migration Out of Africa:

 

Timeline: Around 70,000 to 100,000 years ago.

Reasons: Homo sapiens began to migrate out of Africa, possibly due to environmental changes, expansion of populations, or the search for new food sources. This marked the beginning of global human dispersal.

 

Settlement of Eurasia:

 

Timeline: Tens of thousands of years ago.

Reasons: As humans spread into Eurasia, they adapted to diverse environments and climates. Migration was driven by the need to find suitable habitats and resources, such as game animals and edible plants.

 

Peopling of the Americas:

 

Timeline: Around 15,000 to 20,000 years ago.

Reasons: Early human populations crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Siberia into North America, marking one of the most significant migrations in human history. This migration was driven by the pursuit of new territories and resources.

 

Migration to Australia and the Pacific Islands:

 

Timeline: Around 50,000 years ago to more recent millennia.

Reasons: Early humans reached Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean through maritime migrations. These migrations were motivated by the search for new lands to settle and access to marine resources.

 

Agricultural Revolution and Population Expansion:[62]

 

Timeline: Around 10,000 years ago.

Reasons: The development of agriculture led to sedentary lifestyles and population growth. Some groups migrated to new regions to establish farming communities and trade networks.

 

Age of Exploration and Colonization:

 

Timeline: From the late 15th century to the 19th century.

Reasons: European powers embarked on voyages of exploration and colonization, leading to the migration of people from Europe to the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. Economic opportunities, religious motivations, and territorial expansion were key drivers.

 

Modern Global Migration:[63]

 

Timeline: From the late 19th century to the present.

Reasons: Migration patterns have been shaped by factors such as industrialization, labor demands, political instability, conflict, persecution, and globalization. Economic opportunities, family reunification, and the search for safety continue to drive migration in the modern era.

 

Contemporary Migration and Displacement:

– Timeline: Ongoing.

– Reasons: Current migration trends are influenced by factors like economic disparities, conflict, climate change, and humanitarian crises. People continue to migrate for better livelihoods, safety, and opportunities.

 

Throughout these stages, human migration has been a dynamic and adaptive response to changing circumstances. Migration has played a crucial role in the spread of cultures, the exchange of ideas, and the development of diverse societies across the globe.

 

the distinction between “hominid” and “hominin”[64] is important in the context of human evolution and taxonomy.

 

Hominid: The term “hominid” refers to a broader taxonomic family that includes all great apes and their ancestors. This family, Hominidae, encompasses humans (Homo), chimpanzees (Pan), bonobos (Pan), gorillas (Gorilla), and their common ancestors. In other words, hominids include both modern humans and our closest living relatives, the great apes.

 

Hominin: The term “hominin” is more specific and refers to the tribe within the Hominidae family that includes modern humans (Homo sapiens) and our direct ancestors, as well as any other species more closely related to us than to chimpanzees. This group encompasses species such as Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthals), and others. Hominins are characterized by bipedalism (walking on two legs) and a range of anatomical and behavioral traits that distinguish them from other primates.

 

In summary, “hominid” is a broader term that includes all great apes and their ancestors, while “hominin” specifically refers to the tribe that includes modern humans and our direct ancestors. The distinction helps clarify the evolutionary relationships within the Hominidae family.

 

The concept of future migration of Hominidae to the moon, interplanetary travel, subterranean habitats, or sub-oceanic environments is a fascinating and speculative topic that falls within the realm of science fiction and hypothetical scenarios. While these ideas have been explored in literature, film, and speculative discussions, it’s important to note that they currently exist as imaginative concepts rather than established realities. Here’s a brief overview of each concept:

 

Moon Colonization:[65]

 

Moon colonization has been a topic of interest for space agencies and private organizations. There have been discussions about establishing lunar bases or habitats for scientific research, resource extraction, and potential future human settlement. However, significant technological and logistical challenges must be overcome for sustained moon colonization.

 

Interplanetary Travel:[66]

 

The idea of humans traveling to other planets, such as Mars, has gained attention in recent years. Organizations like NASA and private companies like SpaceX have been working on plans for potential missions to Mars. The goal is to explore and potentially establish human outposts on other planets, but these endeavors are in the early stages of development.

 

Subterranean Habitats:[67]

 

Subterranean living has been a reality for some communities throughout history, and it remains a concept for future urban planning. Regions like Cappadocia in Turkey feature underground cities carved into soft rock, providing protection from extreme temperatures and external threats.

 

Sub-oceanic Environments[68]:

 

While there are underwater habitats used for scientific research, the idea of large-scale sub-oceanic living remains speculative. The concept of underwater cities or colonies would require advanced technology for sustained human habitation and resource management.

It’s important to emphasize that these concepts involve numerous technical, logistical, and environmental challenges. They also raise ethical, legal, and environmental considerations that would need to be carefully addressed. The future of human migration and expansion into such environments will depend on advancements in technology, international cooperation, and societal considerations.

 

As of now, these ideas remain subjects of scientific exploration, imagination, and potential future endeavors, but they are not currently established forms of human migration.

 

The Bottom Line is that the pattern of early human migration, often referred to as the “Out of Africa” theory, indeed suggests that the ancestors of modern humans originated in Africa and gradually migrated to other parts of the world. This migration pattern is supported by genetic, archaeological, and fossil evidence. There are several reasons why early humans migrated out of Africa and why subsequent migrations tended to be outward rather than back to Africa:

 

Environmental Changes: Early human migrations were often driven by changes in climate and environmental conditions. Africa’s diverse landscapes, including savannas, forests, and deserts, offered a range of ecological niches. As environments changed, human populations moved in search of suitable habitats and resources.

 

Resource Availability: Early humans were hunter-gatherers who relied on local resources for food, water, and shelter. When local resources became scarce due to population growth or environmental changes, migration to new areas with more abundant resources became necessary for survival.

 

Population Expansion: As human populations grew, there was increased competition for resources within a given region. Migration allowed some groups to alleviate resource pressures and establish new communities in unexplored territories.

 

Exploration and Curiosity: Humans have a natural curiosity and drive to explore their surroundings. Early humans likely ventured beyond their familiar habitats out of curiosity, leading to the discovery and settlement of new lands.

 

Technological Advancements: Over time, early humans developed tools, such as boats and rafts, that enabled them to traverse bodies of water and explore distant coastlines. This technological progress facilitated migration to areas beyond Africa.

 

Geographic Barriers: Geographic features like oceans, deserts, and mountain ranges often acted as natural barriers to migration, influencing the direction of human movement. For example, early migrations to the Americas required crossing the Bering Land Bridge, which was accessible during periods of lower sea levels.

 

Adaptation to Local Conditions: Once early humans settled in new regions, they adapted to local environmental conditions, developing unique cultures, technologies, and adaptations to local challenges. These adaptations further anchored human populations in their new environments.

 

While the “Out of Africa” migration pattern is a dominant theme in human evolutionary history, it is important to note that there were also migrations within Africa itself, leading to the diverse human populations found on the continent. Additionally, migration and human movement are dynamic processes, and different factors may influence migration patterns at different times in history.

 

The complex history of human migration reflects the adaptability, curiosity, and drive of our species to explore and settle in diverse environments around the world in the context of human evolution and contemporary history, all humans can trace their ancestry to migrants who, at some point in the past, left their original homelands and migrated to different regions of the world for various motivations. This concept is often encapsulated in the phrase “Out of Africa,” which refers to the scientific consensus that modern humans originated in Africa and subsequently migrated to other parts of the world.

 

Human migration has been a defining characteristic of our species for tens of thousands of years. Early humans left Africa in waves, settling in different continents and regions, adapting to new environments, and eventually giving rise to diverse populations with distinct genetic and cultural traits.

 

In contemporary history, migration continues to be a fundamental aspect of human life. People migrate for a wide range of reasons, including seeking better opportunities, escaping conflict or persecution, reuniting with family members, and responding to environmental changes. Migration is a global phenomenon that shapes societies, cultures, and economies in profound ways.

 

So, indeed, the idea that “once we were all migrants” is a testament to the shared human experience of migration and the interconnectedness of our species’ history. It underscores the fact that migration is a natural and enduring part of the human story, as well as the odyssey of all biological creations.  The basic difference is that human migration causes mainly peace disruption by disturbing the different microcosms, which the migration of animal, birds, fishes and even microorganism, does not.

 

As the author concludes this paper, the breaking news on various international media has been inundated with the combined attack on the oppressive regime of Israel by the oppressed Palestinians.[69]  It is indeed the 7th decade of this long process of subjugation, oppression, discrimination, occupation of indigenous land by migrant Israeli settlers, aided and abetted by the western block in a combined and orchestrated manner.  The differential reporting of the deaths in Israel is blatantly biased by western media such as the so-called reputable BBC [70]and other American and European television channels.  It is however, important to realise that no oppressive regime and tyranny lasts for ever and the end is inevitable.  The Palestinians are indeed commended for their persistence, resilience and humility by which they have regained parts of their occupied land from the illegal migrant, Israeli settlers[71], while the death and destruction is indeed mourned and regrettable.  It is the west that the collective blame must be totally apportioned, to for the Israeli tyranny.[72]

Israeli Migrants: Since 1967 Israeli settlers have been usurping Palestinian lands as Israel continues to build Jewish settlements on Palestinian territories, which it has occupied since 1967, against international convention, but the west has ignored the oppression and killings of the Palestinians.  A total of 198 Palestinian killed on Saturday, 07th October 2023, since Hamas launched a surprise attack on Israel.

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[42] https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-40643413

[43] https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/what-is-the-syrian-refugee-crisis.html

[44] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2015_Rohingya_refugee_crisis

[45] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongol_invasion_of_Europe

[46] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Mongol_invasion_of_Poland

[47] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Mohi

[48] https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/out-africa-hypothesis

[49] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Eurasia

[50] https://www.thoughtco.com/how-were-the-americas-populated-171425

[51] https://www.pacificislandernetwork.org.au/reading-about-the-pacific/our-pacific-peoples-migration-to-and-through-australia/

[52] https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-81058-0_5

[53] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Models_of_migration_to_the_Philippines

[54] https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Artem-Lukyanets/publication/322726151_Migration_from_central_Asian_countries_to_Russia_and_Kazakhstan_in_the_context_of_integration_processes_in_the_Eurasian_economic_union_format/links/5ea3647945851553faacd029/Migration-from-central-Asian-countries-to-Russia-and-Kazakhstan-in-the-context-of-integration-processes-in-the-Eurasian-economic-union-format.pdf

[55] https://www.bing.com/news/search?q=Crossing+The+Dari%c3%a9n+Gap+In+Early+Human+Migration&qpvt=crossing+the+dari%c3%a9n+gap+in+early+human+migration&FORM=EWRE

[56] https://www.newsweek.com/humans-crossed-mediterranean-sea-tens-thousands-years-earlier-previously-thought-says-study-1466782#:~:text=An%20international%20team%20of%20researchers%20has%20found%20evidence,of%20thousands%20of%20years%20earlier%20than%20previous%20estimates.

[57] https://www.nps.gov/bela/learn/historyculture/the-bering-land-bridge-theory.htm

[58] https://www.thoughtco.com/pacific-coast-migration-model-prehistoric-highway-172063

[59] https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.1114898

[60] https://www.britannica.com/topic/Aryan#:~:text=Members%20of%20that%20so-called%20race%20spoke%20Indo-European%20languages%2C,peoples%20as%20the%20purest%20members%20of%20the%20%E2%80%9Crace.%E2%80%9D

[61] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_human_migrations

[62] https://www.ipl.org/essay/How-Did-The-Agricultural-Revolution-Affect-Human-PJA8RB5TZV

[63] https://www.studysmarter.us/explanations/geography/migration-and-identity/global-migration/

[64] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hominidae

[65] https://spaceimpulse.com/2023/02/23/colonizing-the-moon/

[66] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interplanetary_spaceflight

[67] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260124283_Subterranean_Habitats

[68] https://geo.libretexts.org/Courses/Lumen_Learning/Book%3A_Earth_Science_(Lumen)/08%3A_The_Ocean/8.05%3A_Oceans_and_Coastal_Environments

[69] https://www.bing.com/news/search?q=Al+Jazaaera+Palestine+Attacks+Israel&qpvt=al+jazaaera+palestine+attacks+israel&FORM=EWRE

[70] https://surface.syr.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1296&context=honors_capstone

[71] https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/6/25/un-urges-israel-to-halt-building-of-settlements-immediately#:~:text=Settlements%20in%20the%20occupied%20Palestinian%20territories%20are%20regarded,Palestinian%20territories.%20Israel%20disputes%20its%20settlements%20are%20illegal.

[72] https://merionwest.com/2019/08/10/getting-consistent-on-collective-blame/

______________________________________________

READ PART 1

Professor G. Hoosen M. Vawda (Bsc; MBChB; PhD.Wits) is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment.
Director: Glastonbury Medical Research Centre; Community Health and Indigent Programme Services; Body Donor Foundation SA.

Principal Investigator: Multinational Clinical Trials
Consultant: Medical and General Research Ethics; Internal Medicine and Clinical Psychiatry:UKZN, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine
Executive Member: Inter Religious Council KZN SA
Public Liaison: Medical Misadventures
Activism: Justice for All
Email: vawda@ukzn.ac.za


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This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 9 Oct 2023.

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