Global Evils Today (Part 1): Media Mis-Reporting Bias Generates Peace Disruption


Prof Hoosen Vawda – TRANSCEND Media Service

Please note that this publication contains graphic images which may be disturbing to some readers.  Reader discretion is advised. Parental guidance is recommended for minors, who may use this publication as a project, resource material.


 “The War On Gaza has unearthed numerous anomalies of The System and His Master’s Voice, which has penetrated far and deeply.  It even influences reputable Governments, Organisations, Institutes, and has a long lasting, profound influence on the slaves of The Master, globally.  This Dark, Evil and Covert Force of The Master encourages the development of conformity consensus in order to further the aims and goals of The System in its eternal quest for world dominance in which the Slaves, ultimately, do not matter.” [1]

Photographs of Gaza conflict bring accusations of media bias by Israeli Supporters – The Ongoing Genocidal Crimes Against Humanity committed by Israel in the War on Gaza, as shown in this 2012 image, which generated the ire of Israeli supporters in Washington, for which The Washington Post received dozens of complaints about a front-page photo of a BBC Arabic journalist named Jihad Misharawi cradling the shrouded body of his infant son. One caller accused The Post of being “Palestinian Sympathisers” for running the picture. However, In the midst of a brutal war, every photo tells a story. Just not the one you might think. The anguish is evident in his eyes and in the heavenward tilt of his head. He stands amid a semicircle of men, one of whom reaches out to console him.  (Majed Hamdan/AP)
Israel’s supporters generally reject any portrayal that depicts the nation as the aggressor, and its military as an indiscriminate force that kills civilians with impunity, which they do. This is a narrative they think is promoted by Arab factions. They say that images of Palestinian suffering do not convey a larger context: that Israel’s military response is in defense of its citizens, who have been deliberately targeted by militants firing piffling rockets from sites, within densely populated Gaza neighborhoods.

The week of 12th to 18th February 2024, apart from Valentine’s Day[2], whose relationship to St. Valentine, is uncertain[3], but remains a vestige of the ancient Roman Festival of Lupercalia[4], later Christianised the pagan festival, in the 5th century and celebrated annually, on the 14th February, was hallmarked by the “greatest feats” in global belligerence and anti-humanitarianism. While the list of human catastrophes, is indeed a litany of gross human rights violations and misdeeds, which nobody has uttered a word, against, from the Western bloc. A few, worthy of highlighting, include, the ongoing bombing of Iraq and Syria, by the United States[5], the storming of the Nasser Hospital by Israeli Defence Force. A doctor reports on bombing of Nasser Hospital, just before Israeli troops storm the complex.[6] This is the largest hospital in southern Gaza, on 15th February 2024, after days of besieging the complex, where thousands of displaced Palestinians have been taking shelter amongst hundreds of wounded. Israeli forces reportedly demolished the southern wall of the hospital before storming inside. Troops also targeted ambulances, tents of the displaced, and bulldozed mass graves inside the hospital. The assault came hours after Israeli forces bombed a wing of the hospital, killing one patient and wounding several others.[7]  Furthermore, the use of starvation as a weapon of war[8] resulting the 1.5 million Palestinians resorting to eating unwashed dirty herbs and literally grass, in the absence of clean water, according to a CNN report[9], hospitalised patients dying because Israel has bombed the electrical supply to life support systems[10] and on 15th , Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi consecrates a Mandir in the Islamic, Arab  State in Abu Dhabi, as the officiating priest, once again,[11], being the first and the largest Hindu temple in the region, at end of his two-day visit to the United Arab Emirates. The pink sandstone temple, known as the BAPS Hindu Mandir temple, sits on a 27-acre plot in Abu Dhabi, making it one of the largest in the Middle East[12]. while a Islamic mosque was demolished by the Indian government officials in Haldwani, leading to communal riots and deaths of at least five citizens[13], [14] The “Grand Finale”, while the week has not yet ended, on 16th February, is the death of the jailed, lawyer and opposition leader Alexei Navalny[15], in an Artic, penal colony, as was announced by Russia.[16] It is interesting and ironic to note that Biden[17] called this a “great tragedy “and his puppet, Blinken[18] confirmed, Navalny’s death underscores the “weakness and rot” of the Russian political system built by President Vladimir Putin, and laid the blame squarely at the door of the Kremlin.[19], which it is, but ironically, the genocidal killings of at least 29,170 Palestinians[20], as the latest death toll stands and about 1,139 people killed in Israel since October 7. This massive body count of Palestinians was not worthy any comments from both these guardians of democracy and supposed humanitarians.[21] This was refrained from uttering, in view of upsetting the Israelis, whose electoral votes, ageing Biden is dependent upon to win votes, in the November 2024 elections.[22]  This is, at the cost of Palestinian lives, which certainly does not matter, at all to the Biden Administration.[23] In Gaza, however, there is no end in sight to the ongoing ethnic cleansing and genocide by Israel of the Palestinians and Netanyahu has categorically dismissed the formation of a state of Palestine in the Middle East.[24]

In the midst of these major global peace disruptions, this paper, discusses the ever-increasing spectre of media reporting bias on global events to suit the agenda of a group, or a particular nation, to further its aims and objectives, to obfuscate the truth, by using unethical means of influencing public opinion, on a particular issue, in the various media formats, available in the 21st century. This is the basic strategy of how “The System” ensures, not only its survival, but also its propagation to the far corners of the globe. The current War On Gaza, since its commencement on the 07th October 2023, is a stark reminder of this phenomenon, increasing in magnitude, with fiendish nationalistic fervour, to the total detriment of “The Other”, who does not matter, in the grand scheme of things.  The wonderful, South African concept of Ubuntu is destroyed, forever, in the process, often accompanied by a massive loss innocent lives, of the helpless, including women, children, the disabled and the infirm.  The generation and dissemination of this manipulated information data is done, based on various motivations, as well as reasons, but the basic drive behind this intentional act of subverting the truth is dominated by the eternal quest of “The System” for global dominance, irrespective of the cost, in terms of human lives, compromised ethical conduct and total disrespect for the fellow human beings, perceived as “The Other”. “The System”, itself is aptly represented by the “Traditional Western Bloc” from the ancient era of imperialistic, western colonialism, subjugation various peace-loving nations, in Africa and the East.  Presently, the concept is further strengthened by the so-called Global North as it attempts to establish a new world order, by its self-appointed ethos of fighting for the establishment of “Pseudo Democracy”. This objective is achieved by waging Proxy Wars all around the world.  This belligerence has a double benefit for the Western Bloc and the Global North.  Firstly, these peace disruptors ensure the economic survival of its military industries, as well as the national economy of the countries constituting the collective System.  Post World War II, The System was involved in fighting the spread of Communism, by waging wars in Vietnam, Afghanistan, deep surveillance of Cuba and bombing Cambodia.  Secondly, in the present era, The System has changed its strategy by selective sanctions, against non-compliant nations, while brazenly supporting its puppets in their quest for oppression, human suffering, genocidal activities and ethnic cleansing. In return the dominance of “The System” and propagation of its belligerent philosophy is guaranteed, in the future.

While the author has written about such atrocities, extensively and related, covert governmental strategies of Western Bloc [25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33],[34],[35],[36], the present publication examines the scenario to discredit the Palestinians by a barrage of misinformation, disinformation, as well as carefully orchestrated, media bias in reporting important events, to distract from the atrocities actually committed by the oppressive regimes of the puppets of The System, controlled by the supreme conductor of global belligerence, “His Master’s Voice.  This strategic operates in tandem with the mass internal displacement of nearly 1.5 million Palestinians in Gaza, the indiscriminate American drone bombings of civilians, including those housed in refugee camps, in makeshift tents, attacking hospitals by masquerading as incapacitated patients[37], using mass starvation as a weapon of war and incarcerating thousands in prisons, under brutal conditions, without trial.  In the interim, “The System” grants inordinate sums of funds to the puppets, as military aid, to wage a war against the very individuals who are fighting to regain the land which originally belonged to the Palestinians, by classifying them as terrorists.  The end point of tis entire War On Gaza is to ensure that the Palestinians are totally removed from the Gaza Strip, as well as the Occupied Territories, in an analogous manner as the Third Reich of Hitler[38], did with the Jews in Europe, engaging the principles of the “Final Solution” in pursuit of this anti-humanistic strategy.

The author, presents cases of media disinformation and bias in reporting some of the events related to the War On Gaza, in an attempt by “The System” to solicit global sympathy, for the Israelis, who have been ordered to subscribe to the rulings of the International Court of Justice, on the very day the ICJ rulings were made in a widely televised verdict, which Israel has elected to totally ignore, in direct violation of international laws[39].

Definitions of Terminology

Misinformation and disinformation are related concepts, but they have distinct meanings:


  • Definition: Misinformation refers to the spread or dissemination of inaccurate or misleading information, often without the intent to deceive. It can result from errors, misunderstandings, or the sharing of outdated information.
    • Characteristics: Misinformation may be spread unintentionally and can be generated by well-meaning individuals who are not aware that the information they are sharing is inaccurate. It is not necessarily driven by a deliberate attempt to deceive or manipulate.


  • Definition: Disinformation involves the intentional creation and dissemination of false or misleading information with the purpose of deceiving and influencing public opinion or behaviour. It is a deliberate attempt to spread false narratives or manipulate perceptions.
    • Characteristics: Disinformation is characterized by an intent to deceive. It is often strategically crafted and disseminated to achieve specific goals, such as influencing elections, undermining trust in institutions, or promoting a particular agenda.

In summary, the key distinction between misinformation and disinformation lies in the intent:

  • Misinformation is the sharing of inaccurate information, whether intentionally or unintentionally, without a clear intent to deceive.
  • Disinformation is the deliberate creation and dissemination of false or misleading information with the specific goal of deceiving and influencing public perception.

Both misinformation and disinformation can have significant consequences, contributing to the spread of false beliefs, influencing public discourse, and undermining trust in information sources. Combatting both involves promoting media literacy, fact-checking, and critical thinking skills among the public.

The Strategic design of the logo: “His Masters Voice” by the Colonial imperialists, in the early 1900s. to enhance their dominance even while their subjects are entertaining themselves[42]

One such logo which needs to be analysed for a subtle and often hidden message, almost a warning, which is not evident at all when the logo is looked at initially, is the age old “His Master’s Voice” emblem.   Recently, this logo wording, without the famous graphic, has been copied, in a slightly modified form as, “His Master Voice”, by Himabrata Das.  It is the new Advance Online Publication of the Open Journal of Psychiatry & Allied Sciences (OJPAS®)[43]As noted, the key elements in the logo, are Nipper, the dog, lending a ear to the horn of the gramophone and listening to his Master, who is not there, but Nipper is still attentive, albeit doing so, remotely.  The emblem was used by the British in the early 20th century when colonisation was the main thrust of the British foreign policy.  The logo was used on all records distributed in the British colonies from Africa to the Indian peninsula and the east.

The Logo in Musical Entertainment of His Master’s Voice found originally on Bakelite records, sold to the colonies, as a reminder of “His Master”, far away in Britain.

 It is important to know the history of the “His Master’s Voice” logo and the period when it was released, to fully comprehend the covert message behind the design of this century old and iconic, easily recognizable emblem. It was used for personal musical entertainment, on long playing, Bakelite musical records, containing music from the east to the west and every type of music, in between, for worldwide distribution in the 20th century. His Master’s Voice (HMV) was the name of a major British record label created in 1901 by The Gramophone Co. Ltd.[44] The phrase was first coined in the late 1890s as the title of a painting depicting a terrier-mix dog named Nipper listening to a wind-up disc gramophone. In the original 1898 painting, the dog is listening to a cylinder phonograph. It was a famous trademark and logo of the RCA Victor record label.  As noted, the key elements in the logo, are Nipper, the dog, lending a ear to the horn of the gramophone and listening to his Master, who is not there, but Nipper is still attentive, albeit doing so, remotely.  The emblem was used by the British in the early 20th century when colonisation was the main thrust of the British foreign policy.  The logo was used on all records distributed in the British colonies from Africa to the Indian peninsula and the east.  This was the essence of the logo during colonialism by the super power, Britain, at the time of supreme English imperialism. This philosophy of “His Master’s Voice still persists even in the 21st century, globally, which you have to obey or run the risk of incarceration, by sanctions, bombings, belligerence and subjugation, by His Master through the tenets of “The System”

Media Bias:  Israel vs Hamas: UNRWA, Decapitation, Molestation, Deflection and Deception[45]

Israeli intelligence accuses a UN refugee agency of collusion with Hamas, and the western media take it at face value. Israel has for years been claiming that the United Nations refugee agency (UNRWA[46]) is in cahoots with Hamas. It was alleged that 12 members of UNRWA took part in the Hamas attack on Israel on 07th October 2023. The latest allegations, which coincided with the International Court of Justice’s order for Israel to prevent genocide, bear the hallmarks of a distraction tactic. So far, the media have taken the bait. This report was relayed by New York Times, ABC News during prime time, The Guardian and The Economist. An American Journalist, Carrie Keller-Lynn[47] who co-authored that story turn out to be a former Israeli soldier who claimed that 10% of the 12000 staff of UNRWA are Hamas operatives. This narrative was used by the reputable, Wall Street Journal to smear UNRWA, achieving the ultimate goal of Israel to defund, by numerous countries, subsequently.  The disinformation strategy orchestrated by the collective intelligence agency of Israel was most effective and the gullible nations fell for this bait, depriving the Palestinians of this vitally needed lifeline aid, during the War On Gaza, by Israel.  Subsequently, it was also reported, as an effective disinformation campaign, that Hamas beheaded Israeli babies in the attack.  President Biden and Blinken[48] then went public, as they did with the disinformation, narrative of sexual molestation of Israeli women taken hostage by Hamas, as well as using hospitals in Gaza as Hamas command posts. These allegations were subsequently refuted and Hamas was exonerated by Israeli captives.  Puppet media of the Western Bloc, including so called reputable sources, have proudly announced this orchestrated report of collusion at face value, without further investigations and verification of these allegations.  The problem with these types of disinformation allegations, according to Diana Buttu[49], a Palestinian-Canadian lawyer and a former spokesperson for the Palestine Liberation Organization[50], best known for her work as a legal adviser, is that they are taken at face value and the western bloc uses them to support the ultimate goals of Israel.  Clearly, these narratives, released by Israeli intelligence agency Mossad, were a feeble attempt to distract from the clear rulings of the International Court of Justice on Friday, 26th January 2024.  However, the rulings by ICJ were a serious indictment and a confirmation of the atrocities committed by Israel against the Palestinians.[51]

Food Relief for Starving Palestinian by UNRWA aided Soup Kitchens, for which funding was cut off by many countries, including New Zealand, Austria and Japan, following the disinformation campaign orchestrated in US media by the collective intelligence apparatus of Israel, with unequivocal support from Biden and his entire administration, to coincide with the 26th January rulings of ICJ, against Israel.
Photo Credit: Al Jazeera, The Listening Post, Richard Gizbert 3 Feb 2024

Historical Background on Media Bias and Disinformation [52]

At this point, the author considers it pertinent to present a historical background on media bias from antiquity to the present era. The use of media for propaganda and the presence of bias in information dissemination have a long and complex history, spanning from antiquity to modern times. The invention of the Gutenberg printing press in 1493 dramatically amplified the dissemination of disinformation and misinformation, and it ultimately delivered the first-large scale news hoax,’The Great Moon Hoax’ of 1835.[53] Publishing unsubstantiated claims, telling only one side of the story, and painting Palestinians as nothing more than objects in Hamas’s hands are all unprofessional mistakes Western media makes while covering the conflict between Israel and Hamas, media experts and Arab journalists say.  Experts and journalists who spoke to Al Jazeera said the systemic “bias in favour of Israel” is “irreparably damaging” the credibility of news agencies considered “mainstream” in the eyes of Arabs and others.[54]  A brief historical overview is :


  • Ancient Greece and Rome (5th century BCE – 5th century CE): In ancient times, political leaders and philosophers recognized the power of persuasive communication. Public speeches, plays, and written works were employed to sway public opinion. For instance, orators like Demosthenes in Athens[55] used rhetoric to influence citizens.
  • Roman Empire (1st century BCE – 5th century CE): The Roman government utilized various forms of communication, such as official proclamations and the distribution of news sheets called “Acta Diurna,”[56] to influence public perception. Propaganda was used for political purposes, to celebrate military victories or to portray rulers in a positive light.

Medieval and Renaissance Periods:

  • Middle Ages (5th century – 15th century): The dominance of the Catholic Church during this period meant that information flow was heavily controlled by religious authorities. Manuscripts and religious texts were used to convey a particular worldview.
  • Renaissance (14th century – 17th century): The invention of the printing press in the 15th century revolutionized the dissemination of information. However, the content often reflected the biases and perspectives of those in power.

Early Modern Period:

  • 17th – 18th centuries: The development of newspapers and pamphlets marked a significant shift in the way information was spread. Political and religious biases were evident, as newspapers often served the interests of specific political factions.

19th Century:

  • The advent of mass media, including newspapers and magazines, further increased the impact of propaganda. The rise of nationalism and imperialism saw governments using media to promote their agendas and control public opinion.

20th Century:

  • World War I and II: Propaganda played a crucial role in shaping public opinion during both wars. Governments used posters, films, and radio broadcasts to influence perceptions of the enemy and bolster national morale.
  • Cold War Era: The ideological conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union led to extensive propaganda efforts on both sides. Media was used to depict each side as superior while demonizing the other.

Contemporary Times:

  • Post-Cold War Era to Present: The advent of television, followed by the internet and social media, has transformed the landscape of media propaganda and bias. Governments, political groups, and corporations use various platforms to shape narratives, spread information, and influence public opinion.
  • Filter Bubbles and Echo Chambers: In the digital age, individuals are increasingly exposed to information that aligns with their existing beliefs, leading to the reinforcement of pre-existing biases.

Understanding the historical context of media propaganda and bias provides insight into the challenges and complexities of information dissemination throughout the ages. It highlights the recurring patterns of manipulation and persuasion employed by those in power to shape public perception.

Current use of Media Propaganda in Non-War scenarios by Major Corporations, globally

Major, multinational corporates use media propaganda to further their business enterprises. Examples of these are the chocolate companies, using deforestation in Brazilian Amazon Forest to grow cocoa, Oil companies drilling in Alaska, deep sea mining for rare minerals and deep mountain tunneling on the pretext of making civilian roads and mass transport systems, in different parts of the world.  Major corporations have been known to use various strategies, including media manipulation, to further their business interests. Some examples related to the industries mentioned are:

Chocolate Companies and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon:

  • Some chocolate companies have faced criticism for sourcing cocoa from regions associated with deforestation, particularly in the Brazilian Amazon. The expansion of cocoa plantations often leads to the clearing of large areas of rainforest, which contributes to environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity.
  • Corporations might attempt to downplay their role in deforestation or employ greenwashing tactics, using public relations campaigns that emphasize sustainability initiatives while not effectively addressing the core issues.

Oil Companies and Drilling in Alaska:

  • Oil companies operating in Alaska, such as those involved in the extraction of oil from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), have faced controversies regarding the environmental impact of their activities.
  • These companies may engage in lobbying efforts and public relations campaigns to influence public opinion and policymakers. They might emphasize economic benefits, job creation, and energy independence while downplaying potential environmental risks.

Deep Sea Mining for Rare Minerals:

  • Companies involved in deep-sea mining for rare minerals face concerns about the potential ecological consequences for deep-sea ecosystems. The extraction of minerals from the ocean floor can have significant environmental impacts.
  • These corporations may employ public relations strategies to portray deep-sea mining as necessary for technological advancements, economic development, and reducing dependency on terrestrial mining. However, environmentalists argue that the risks and uncertainties associated with deep-sea mining outweigh potential benefits.

Deep Mountain Tunnelling for Infrastructure Projects:

  • Corporations involved in large-scale infrastructure projects, such as deep mountain tunnelling for roads and mass transport systems, may use media to promote the supposed benefits of their initiatives.
  • They might highlight improved connectivity, economic development, and job creation while downplaying or overlooking potential environmental disruptions, displacement of communities, or long-term sustainability concerns.

In these examples, corporate strategies often involve shaping public opinion through media channels, including advertising, press releases, and public relations campaigns. Additionally, some companies might engage in partnerships with environmental organizations or initiatives to create an image of environmental responsibility, even when their actual practices may be environmentally damaging. It is essential for consumers, activists, and policymakers to critically evaluate information presented by corporations and advocate for transparency, sustainable practices, and responsible resource management.

Undermining of the efforts of “Peace Propagators” by media bias and disinformation

Media control by government and bias in a particular global political “hotspot” such as communal riots in India, based on religious differences between Hindus and Muslims, have pronounced effects on the work conducted by peace propagators, trying to achieve national cohesion.

Efforts of “Peace Propagators” aiming to promote harmony and reduce tensions in a politically charged environment like communal riots in India, where religious differences are a key factor, can be undermined by media bias in several ways. Media bias can play a significant role in shaping public perceptions and influencing the narrative surrounding such conflicts. Here are some mechanisms through which media bias can impact peace efforts:

Selective Reporting:

  • Media outlets may selectively report incidents or present them in a way that reinforces existing biases. This can lead to a distorted view of events, focusing on specific incidents that contribute to a particular narrative, while ignoring efforts towards peace.


  • Sensationalizing events for higher viewership or readership can amplify the divisive aspects of the conflict. Media may prioritize dramatic or inflammatory stories over those promoting reconciliation, making it challenging for peace propagators to gain visibility for their initiatives.

Framing and Language:

  • The way a story is framed and the language used can influence public opinion. Biased framing can perpetuate stereotypes, fuelling animosity between religious or ethnic groups. Peace propagators may find it difficult to counteract negative perceptions if the media consistently frames the conflict in a divisive manner.

False Equivalency:

  • Media bias can sometimes create a false sense of equivalence between conflicting parties. If both sides are portrayed as equally responsible for the tensions, efforts to address the root causes and promote reconciliation may be undermined.

Social Media Amplification:

  • In the age of social media, biased information can spread rapidly. False or exaggerated narratives can gain traction, making it challenging for peace propagators to counteract misinformation and present a more nuanced perspective.

Underrepresentation of Peace Initiatives:

  • Media bias may result in the underrepresentation or neglect of peace initiatives and stories that focus on interfaith dialogue, community-building, or efforts to bridge divides. Positive developments may receive less coverage compared to incidents that contribute to sensationalism.

Political Interference:

  • Political interests can influence media coverage. If political leaders or parties have a stake in perpetuating division for their own gains, media outlets aligned with those interests may contribute to biased reporting that undermines peace efforts.

To counteract these challenges, peace propagators may need to employ strategic communication tactics, engage with diverse media outlets, and leverage social media to share their narratives directly with the public. Building alliances with journalists and media organizations committed to unbiased reporting can also be crucial in ensuring that peacebuilding initiatives receive fair and accurate coverage. Additionally, advocacy for media literacy and responsible journalism can contribute to a more informed public that is less susceptible to biased narratives.

Building alliances with journalist is impossible, when there are media conglomerates in India or US and any non-conformist journalists are blacklisted. Even in Germany, the large media conglomerates have stipulated conditions of service for their journalist to subscribe to a particular viewpoint on certain global issues.

Building alliances with journalists in environments where media conglomerates dominate and non-conformist voices may be marginalized can indeed be challenging, but it is not impossible. Here are some strategies that individuals or organizations advocating for peace and unbiased reporting can consider:

Identify Independent Media Outlets:

  • Look for independent media outlets that are not tied to major conglomerates and may have more flexibility in their editorial policies. These outlets may be more open to diverse perspectives and less influenced by corporate or political interests.

Support Alternative Platforms:

  • Support and engage with alternative platforms, including online publications, community radio, and independent blogs. Journalists on these platforms may have more freedom to explore unconventional viewpoints and stories.

Connect with Freelancers:

  • Freelance journalists may have more independence than those employed by large conglomerates. Building relationships with freelance journalists can provide access to alternative perspectives and stories.

Engage with International Media:

  • Collaborate with international media outlets that have a more global perspective and may be less influenced by local political or corporate pressures. International journalists may provide a different lens on local issues.

Networking with Journalism Associations:

  • Connect with journalism associations and groups that advocate for press freedom and unbiased reporting. These associations can provide support to journalists facing challenges and may offer platforms for alternative voices.

Use Social Media and Online Platforms:

  • Leverage social media and online platforms to directly communicate with journalists and share your perspectives. Many journalists use social media to engage with their audience, and this can be an avenue for building connections.

Promote Media Literacy:

  • Work on promoting media literacy within the general public. Educate people on how to critically evaluate news sources, identify bias, and understand the importance of diverse perspectives in reporting.

Encourage Investigative Journalism:

  • Advocate for investigative journalism that goes beyond mainstream narratives. Support journalists who are committed to in-depth reporting and uncovering facts that might be overlooked.

International Collaboration:

  • Collaborate with international media organizations and advocacy groups that focus on press freedom and unbiased reporting. International support and attention can sometimes provide a protective shield for journalists facing pressure in their home countries.

Legal Support and Protection:

  • Provide legal support and protection for journalists who face threats or harassment for their work. This may involve collaborating with organizations dedicated to defending press freedom.

It is important to acknowledge that building alliances in such environments is a gradual and often challenging process. Persistence, transparency, and a commitment to shared values of press freedom and unbiased reporting are key elements in fostering these alliances. Additionally, raising awareness about the importance of diverse voices and independent journalism within the broader community can contribute to a more receptive environment for non-conformist journalists.

Public Perspectives on the Israeli War On Gaza, since 07th October 2023.
Protesters supporting Israel during a rally for the release of Israeli hostages in Gaza in Times Square, New York City, the United States, on Thursday, 19th October, 2023. Media experts say some agencies are ‘legitimising Israeli war crimes’ in Gaza. 
Photo Credit: Stephanie Keith, Bloomberg via Getty Images from Al Jazeera Media

 Some of the major media groups in Germany, the UK, and the USA:


  1. Bertelsmann SE & Co. KGaA: A multinational media conglomerate with interests in publishing, broadcasting, and services. It owns major publishing houses and media outlets.  he largest media group in Germany is Bertelsmann SE & Co. KGaA. Bertelsmann is a multinational conglomerate with a diverse range of interests, including media, services, and education. It owns and operates various subsidiaries and divisions involved in publishing, television, music, and other media-related activities. Bertelsmann’s media portfolio includes major publishing houses, television production companies, and digital media ventures. However, please note that the landscape of media ownership can change, and it’s advisable to check more recent sources for the latest information on the largest media group in Germany
  2. Axel Springer SE: One of the largest digital publishing houses in Europe, with a focus on newspapers and magazines. It owns prominent media brands in Germany. Axel Springer SE is a major German media company headquartered in Berlin, Germany. It is one of the largest digital publishing houses in Europe and has a significant presence in the media industry. The company was founded in 1946 by Axel Springer and has grown to become a diversified media conglomerate. Axel Springer SE is known for its involvement in newspapers, magazines, digital media, and other publishing ventures. Some of the notable publications owned by Axel Springer include “Bild,” Germany’s largest tabloid newspaper, and “Die Welt,” a leading German daily newspaper. The company has adapted to the digital age and has expanded its reach into various online platforms and digital media ventures. Axel Springer SE has been involved in mergers and acquisitions, further strengthening its position in the media landscape. It’s important to note that Axel Springer, the founder, passed away in 1985, but the company continues to bear his name.  The journalists working for this group, have to subscribe to the overall company policy and consensus conformity, in reporting on all local as well as global events, as a rule.  Some general observations in relevant global and national issues are:

Migration and Integration:

“Bild,” one of Axel Springer’s flagship publications, has been known for its influential role in shaping public opinion in Germany. The newspaper’s coverage of migration and integration has, at times, been criticized for being sensationalist or contributing to divisive narratives. However, “Bild” has also published articles emphasizing the importance of integration and understanding.

Ethnophobia and Xenophobia:

Media outlets under Axel Springer, like any large conglomerate, can influence public opinion on issues related to ethnicity and xenophobia. Criticism has been directed at certain publications for coverage that may be perceived as reinforcing negative stereotypes or contributing to a climate of mistrust.


Axel Springer’s media outlets cover a wide range of topics related to religion, and perspectives can vary across different publications. It’s advisable to consider individual articles and editorial stances rather than making broad generalizations about the entire conglomerate.

German Nationalism:

The stance of Axel Springer’s media outlets on German nationalism is nuanced and can vary. Some of the conglomerate’s publications have been associated with patriotism, while others may take a more centrist or internationalist perspective.

Public opinion on Axel Springer and its publications is diverse, and views on the conglomerate’s coverage of various issues depend on individual perspectives. It is advisable for readers to critically evaluate content, consider multiple sources, and be aware of potential biases in media reporting.

  1. ProSiebenSat.1 Media SE: A leading German entertainment company with a strong presence in television broadcasting and digital platforms.
  2. ZDF (Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen): A major public-service television broadcaster in Germany.
  3. ARD (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland): A consortium of public broadcasters in Germany, providing television and radio services.

United Kingdom:

  1. BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation): The UK’s public service broadcaster, providing television, radio, and online content.
  2. ITV (Independent Television): A major commercial television network in the UK, consisting of regional franchises.
  3. Sky Group: An entertainment and telecommunications company that operates in the UK and other European countries.
  4. News UK: A subsidiary of News Corp, owning several major newspapers in the UK, including The Times and The Sun.
  5. The Guardian Media Group: Owns The Guardian newspaper and related digital platforms.

United States:

  1. The Walt Disney Company: A global entertainment conglomerate with interests in film, television, theme parks, and media networks. It owns ABC and ESPN.
  2. Comcast Corporation: The largest cable television and broadcasting company in the U.S., owning NBCUniversal.
  3. News Corporation: Owned by Rupert Murdoch, it includes media assets such as Fox News, The Wall Street Journal, and New York Post.
  4. AT&T Inc.: Through its acquisition of Time Warner, AT&T owns WarnerMedia, which includes CNN, HBO, and Warner Bros.
  5. CBS Corporation: Now part of ViacomCBS, it operates the CBS television network, Showtime, and other media properties.

The media landscape is dynamic, and ownership structures may change over time due to mergers, acquisitions, or divestitures. However, in India, 95% of the media is controlled by BJP and they conform to the tunes of His Master’s Voice, fully, or they run the risk of being marginalised, blacklisted, physically harassed and even murdered.  Another example of mega media, is Rupert Murdoch, an Australian-born media mogul and business magnate. He is the founder and executive chairman of News Corporation, one of the world’s largest and most influential media conglomerates. News Corporation has holdings in newspapers, television networks, publishing, and various other media outlets. Rupert Murdoch has played a significant role in shaping the global media landscape. Some of the major assets owned by Murdoch’s companies include Fox News, The Wall Street Journal, New York Post, The Times, The Sunday Times, and The Sun.  It is worth noting that Rupert Murdoch’s influence extends beyond the media industry, and he has been involved in various business ventures throughout his career. Murdoch has dual citizenship, being both an Australian and American citizen. He primarily resides in the United States. Rupert Murdoch, has been associated with conservative and right-leaning political views. His media outlets, including Fox News in the United States and several newspapers in the United Kingdom and Australia, are known for their conservative editorial stances.  Rupert Murdoch’s media outlets have been known to have significant influence on public opinion, and there are instances where they were believed to have played a role in shaping political outcomes and influencing public perceptions on various issues. However, it’s essential to note that media influence is just one factor among many that contribute to electoral outcomes and public discourse.

A few examples are:


  • In the United Kingdom, some critics argue that Murdoch-owned newspapers, such as The Sun and The Times, have had an impact on election results through their endorsements and coverage. Similar discussions have taken place regarding Murdoch’s influence on elections in Australia and the United States.

Climate Change and Global Warming:

  • Murdoch-owned media outlets, particularly Fox News in the United States, have faced criticism for downplaying the severity of climate change and spreading scepticism about the scientific consensus on global warming. This has influenced public perception and policy discussions on environmental issues.

COVID Vaccination:

  • During the COVID-19 pandemic, certain media outlets associated with Murdoch faced criticism for promoting misinformation and vaccine scepticism, potentially impacting public attitudes toward vaccination efforts.

Cuban Missile Crisis:

  • Murdoch’s media influence during the Cuban Missile Crisis specifically is not widely documented. However, media outlets, in general, played a crucial role in shaping public understanding and government responses during the crisis.

Civil Rights Movements (e.g., Black Rights):

  • Murdoch-owned media entities have faced scrutiny for their coverage of civil rights issues. Critics argue that some outlets have taken positions that could contribute to divisive narratives rather than promoting unity or understanding.

Aboriginal Issues:

  • In Australia, where Murdoch has a significant media presence, coverage of Aboriginal issues has been a topic of debate. Some argue that media outlets may influence public perceptions on Indigenous rights and social issues.

It is important to recognise that media influence is complex, and the impact of any single media entity on public opinion or political outcomes cannot be isolated from other factors. Public opinion is shaped by a multitude of sources, and media ownership is just one element in this intricate process. Additionally, discussions about media influence often involve differing perspectives and interpretations.

The Biggest Threat to Sustainable, True Democracy in the 21st century

Identifying the single biggest threat to sustainable true democracy in the 21st century is complex and subjective, as multiple challenges can impact democratic systems. Different regions may face distinct threats, and the evolving nature of global politics introduces a range of issues. However, some commonly cited challenges include:

Erosion of Trust in Institutions:

  • A significant threat to democracy is the declining trust in political institutions, governments, and traditional media. If citizens lose faith in the institutions that underpin democracy, it can weaken the democratic process and make it susceptible to populist or authoritarian alternatives.

Rise of Authoritarianism and Populism:

  • The resurgence of authoritarian leaders and populist movements in various parts of the world poses a threat to democratic norms and principles. Leaders who undermine democratic institutions, suppress opposition, and centralize power can erode the foundations of democracy.

Information Manipulation and Disinformation:

  • The spread of misinformation, disinformation, and manipulation of information through social media and other platforms can influence public opinion and elections. These tactics can undermine the informed decision-making essential for a functioning democracy.

Technological Threats to Privacy and Security:

  • Advances in technology bring both opportunities and challenges. Threats to privacy, cyberattacks, and the potential manipulation of digital systems can compromise the integrity of democratic processes and institutions.

Inequality and Economic Disparities:

  • Growing economic inequalities can lead to social unrest and undermine the idea of equal representation and opportunity in a democracy. Wealth concentration may result in disproportionate political influence, affecting the fairness of democratic outcomes.

Political Polarization:

  • Increased polarization and deepening ideological divisions within societies can hinder cooperation and compromise, essential elements for a healthy democracy. Extreme polarization can lead to gridlock, making it challenging to address complex issues effectively.

Global Challenges (e.g., Climate Change, Pandemics):

  • Global issues such as climate change and pandemics require coordinated international efforts. Inability or unwillingness to address these challenges collectively can strain democratic governance and reinforce nationalistic tendencies.

Undermining of Rule of Law:

  • Threats to the rule of law, including attacks on the independence of the judiciary, can weaken the checks and balances crucial for a well-functioning democracy. Rule of law safeguards individual rights and ensures accountability.

Voter Suppression and Electoral Manipulation:

  • Efforts to suppress voter participation and manipulate electoral processes undermine the fundamental principles of democracy. Ensuring free and fair elections is essential for the legitimacy of democratic governance.

Environmental and Resource Challenges:

  • Environmental degradation and resource scarcity can lead to conflicts and displacement, creating social and political instability that may challenge democratic institutions.

Addressing these challenges requires a comprehensive and collaborative approach involving governments, civil society, the private sector, and international organisations. Sustaining true democracy in the 21st century involves adapting to evolving global dynamics while upholding core democratic principles and values.

How can Conformity Consensus be Prevented amongst a Radicalised Nation or Group?

Preventing conformity consensus among radicalized states and countering misguided public opinions influenced by mega media conglomerates involves a multifaceted approach that combines individual actions, civil society efforts, and policy measures. Several strategies that can be employed to prevent this phenomenon:

Media Literacy Education:

  • Promote media literacy education to help individuals critically analyse and assess information. Equip people with the skills to distinguish between reliable and unreliable sources, identify bias, and understand how media messages can shape opinions.

Diverse Media Consumption:

  • Encourage people to diversify their media consumption by seeking information from a variety of sources with different perspectives. Exposure to diverse viewpoints can contribute to a more well-rounded understanding of complex issues.

Support Independent Journalism:

  • Support independent and reputable journalism that adheres to ethical standards. Independent media outlets are less likely to be influenced by political or corporate agendas, providing a more balanced view of events.

Fact-Checking Initiatives:

  • Promote fact-checking initiatives and organizations that verify information and debunk misinformation. Fact-checking can be an effective tool to counter false narratives and correct inaccuracies.

Community Dialogues:

  • Facilitate community dialogues and discussions that foster understanding and collaboration. Open conversations allow individuals to share diverse perspectives, challenge stereotypes, and work towards common ground.

Regulation and Oversight:

  • Advocate for transparent and effective media regulations that ensure accountability and prevent the spread of harmful content. Independent regulatory bodies can play a role in holding media conglomerates accountable for ethical standards.

Promote Digital Literacy:

  • Enhance digital literacy to empower individuals to navigate online spaces responsibly. This includes understanding social media dynamics, recognizing online manipulation tactics, and protecting personal information.

Counter Extremist Narratives:

  • Develop and promote counter-narratives to extremist ideologies. Governments, civil society organizations, and communities can collaborate to challenge radicalizing messages and offer alternative perspectives.

International Collaboration:

  • Encourage international collaboration to address cross-border issues related to media influence. Cooperation between countries, NGOs, and international organizations can strengthen efforts to combat misinformation and radicalization.

Protect Press Freedom:

  • Defend and protect press freedom to ensure that journalists can operate without fear of censorship or reprisal. A free and independent media is crucial for holding power accountable and providing accurate information to the public.

Social Media Responsibility:

  • Hold social media platforms accountable for their role in disseminating information. Advocate for responsible platform policies, transparency in algorithms, and efforts to combat the spread of misinformation and hate speech.

Civil Society Engagement:

  • Engage civil society organizations to monitor media practices, promote accountability, and advocate for democratic values. Grassroots movements and NGOs can play a pivotal role in challenging narratives that promote division and radicalization.

It is important to recognize that addressing the influence of mega media conglomerates on public opinion is a complex and ongoing process. A combination of education, advocacy, regulatory measures, and community engagement is necessary to promote informed and critical citizenship while safeguarding democratic values.

The Bottom Line in true democratic systems, in preventing media misinformation and disinformation, as well as media bias in obviating misguided public opinion on critical issues of serious public concern are:

involves a combination of individual responsibility, media literacy, regulatory measures, and a commitment to journalistic ethics. Here are key components to consider:

Media Literacy and Education:

  • Prioritize media literacy education to empower individuals with the skills to critically evaluate information sources, recognize misinformation, and understand the consequences of biased reporting.

Fact-Checking and Verification:

  • Encourage and support fact-checking initiatives that independently verify information and correct inaccuracies. Fact-checkers play a crucial role in holding media outlets accountable for the accuracy of their content.

Promotion of Diverse Media Consumption:

  • Advocate for diverse media consumption and the exploration of various perspectives. Encourage citizens to seek information from multiple sources, including those with differing viewpoints, to foster a more nuanced understanding of issues.

Independent Journalism and Editorial Integrity:

  • Support and protect independent journalism that adheres to high ethical standards. Journalists should maintain editorial integrity, providing accurate and unbiased information to the public.

Media Accountability and Transparency:

  • Advocate for transparent media practices and accountability mechanisms. Media outlets should disclose ownership, conflicts of interest, and adhere to ethical guidelines. Transparent reporting builds trust with the public.

Regulatory Frameworks:

  • Establish and strengthen regulatory frameworks that ensure media outlets adhere to ethical standards. Independent regulatory bodies can play a role in addressing issues related to misinformation, disinformation, and bias.

Protection of Press Freedom:

  • Safeguard press freedom as a fundamental pillar of democracy. Governments should protect journalists from censorship, harassment, and undue influence, allowing them to operate independently and hold power accountable.

Social Media Responsibility:

  • Hold social media platforms accountable for the dissemination of information. Encourage platforms to implement transparent algorithms, combat the spread of misinformation, and address issues related to echo chambers and filter bubbles.

Public Awareness Campaigns:

  • Implement public awareness campaigns to educate citizens about the impact of misinformation on democracy. These campaigns can emphasize the importance of critical thinking and responsible sharing of information.

International Cooperation:

  • Promote international cooperation to address global challenges related to misinformation. Collaboration between countries, organizations, and platforms is essential to combat cross-border issues effectively.

Whistleblower Protection:

  • Implement and strengthen whistleblower protection mechanisms to encourage individuals within media organizations to come forward with information about unethical practices or editorial bias.

Community Engagement and Dialogues:

  • Foster community engagement through open dialogues and discussions. Community-based initiatives can promote understanding, challenge divisive narratives, and counteract the influence of misinformation.

Regulatory laws regarding media mergers and the formation of mega media conglomerates vary across different regions, and while they are enforced in US, UK and EU, in most countries the governments do not enforce them, or simply deny the existence these mergers, for propagating their personal party politics, or agenda.  Countries and regions with more developed regulatory bodies tend to have specific criteria for evaluating media mergers, considering factors such as market concentration, potential impact on competition, and the preservation of diverse media voices. However, the degree of regulatory stringency can differ, and some regions may face challenges related to regulatory enforcement and transparent.  Preventing misinformation and bias in the media is an ongoing and collective effort that involves individuals, media organizations, regulators, and the broader society. True democratic systems thrive when citizens are informed, critical, and have access to reliable, diverse, and unbiased information. India’s media landscape has faced scrutiny for issues related to ownership concentration, political influence, and concerns about journalistic independence. While there isn’t a single regulatory body overseeing media mergers in India, media ownership is subject to regulations and guidelines. Here are some key points regarding media ownership and regulatory aspects in India:

Media Ownership and Concentration:

  • Concerns have been raised about the concentration of media ownership in India, with some media conglomerates having influence across different platforms, including television, print, and digital media.

Regulatory Framework:

  • The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) oversees the broadcast sector, including television and radio. The Press Council of India is responsible for maintaining the freedom of the press and ensuring ethical standards in print media.

Competition Commission of India (CCI):

  • The CCI is an antitrust regulatory body that examines issues related to competition and market dominance, including those in the media sector. However, its focus is on preventing anti-competitive practices rather than specifically regulating media ownership.

Political Influence and Editorial Independence:

  • Concerns have been raised about political influence on certain media outlets, with allegations that some outlets align closely with specific political parties. This can impact editorial independence and contribute to perceptions of biased reporting.

Blacklisting and Intimidation:

  • There have been reports of journalists facing challenges, including blacklisting, intimidation, and threats, particularly when reporting on sensitive issues or expressing dissenting views. Such incidents can have a chilling effect on journalistic freedom.

Media Pluralism and Diversity:

  • Maintaining media pluralism and diversity is crucial for a healthy democracy. However, challenges related to ownership patterns and editorial independence have led to discussions about the need for safeguards to ensure a diversity of voices in the media landscape.

It is essential to recognize that media dynamics in India are complex, and the media environment can vary widely. The issues you mentioned, including concerns about a predominant political influence and challenges faced by dissenting voices, are subjects of ongoing debate and discussion within the country.  Efforts to address these concerns involve a combination of regulatory reforms, advocacy for press freedom, and initiatives promoting media literacy. Civil society organizations, journalists, and concerned citizens play roles in raising awareness, advocating for transparent media practices, and defending the principles of a free and independent press

However, when a matter refers to Palestine, the above proposed measures are simply overlooked or denied.  Even the Biden administration[57] and its smug surrogates[58], puppets and supportive regimes, remain determined to disfigure reality to obscure their complicity in Israel’s crimes against Palestinians for the past 76 years[59] and in particular since the 07th October 2023, Israel’s War On Gaza.[60], [61]. The tentacles of obfuscation have even reached the highest court on planet, Earth, The World Court, which did not order an immediate ceasefire as requested by the South African Minister of International Relations and Cooperation, since 2019, the Honourable, Grace Naledi Pandor[62], representing the government of the African National Congress[63], of the late, humanitarian President Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela[64], of South Africa, post, bloodless liberation in 1994[65].  Furthermore, the International Court of Justice’s[66] specific orders are blatantly and arrogantly ignored by the proud, belligerent and defiant Prime Minister of Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu[67] and his war cabinet, knowing fully well that His Master’s Voice is supporting the ethnic cleansing and ongoing genocide against the defenceless, starving Palestinians not only in Gaza, but also the occupied territories, In addition to verbal support of Israeli atrocities and ongoing brutalities, as well as heinous war crimes, against the Palestinians, the United States is giving an additional 14.5 billion US dollars in emergency military aid to Israel[68], so that the Palestinians can be totally removed from the Middle East, by the sustained military and starvation strategies, in its continued and persistent efforts to annihilate them[69]. In this regard, the stance taken by South Africa, as well as its subsequent further follow up submissions, at ICJ, are indeed commendable, noting that the top United Nations court said that it notes the “perilous” situation in the southern Gaza city of Rafah, but has declined South Africa’s request for urgent measures to safeguard Palestinians being threatened by an Israeli ground assault there.[70]  It said the situation in Rafah “demands immediate and effective implementation of the provisional measures indicated by the Court in its Order of 26th  January 2024”, when it ordered Israel to take all steps within its power to ensure genocidal acts are not being committed in its war on Gaza. However, the court “does not demand the indication of additional provisional measures”, its statement added.[71] The final port of call now remains the Divine, whose justice knows no bounds and is unbridled, when it is finally dispensed. That is the Bottom Line, not the biased media reporting, the billions in military aid, the misinformation, disinformation campaigns, crusades and the lack of support for the Palestinians from the hypocritical and materialistic Arab League, the overt support from the US, UK, Germany and the covert support from the puppet countries of United States.  Nor is it the orders of the International Court of Justice, which has demonstrated double standards in its issue of warrant of arrest for President Putin, most expediently and a negative response referring to the Palestinian annihilation by the Israelis.[72]  The following is the reality of the stark statistics with reference to the ongoing brutal Israel War On Gaza, in total defiance of ICJ rulings, actively, proudly and openly supported by the Biden Administration, UK, Germany and  other surrogates as at 16th February 2024, since 07th October 2023[73].  Israel has continued its attacks across the Gaza Strip, including near hospitals and in the south of the besieged enclave, where ground operations are intensifying. Here are the latest casualty figures as of February 16 at 1pm in Gaza (11:00 GMT):


  • Killed: at least 28,775 people, including more than:
    • 12,300 children
    • 8,400 women
  • Injured: more than 68,552, including at least:
    • 8,663 children
    • 6,327 women
  • Missing: more than 7,000

The latest figures from the Palestinian Ministry of Health in the occupied West Bank are as follows:

Occupied West Bank

  • Killed: at least 395 people, including more than:
    • 105 children
  • Injured: more than 4,450

In Israel, officials revised the death toll down from 1,405 to 1,139.


  • Killed: about 1,139 people
  • Injured: at least 8,730

Top Chart: A Heinous War Crime: The Genocidal killings of Palestinian Civilians in Gaza by Israel during the War on Gaza, since 07th October 2023. 
Bottom Chart:  Infrastructural Damage caused by Targeted Aerial Bombings using US and EU fighter Jets as well as US Drones to attack civilian structures, safe centres and places of worship, by Israel since the 07th October 2023 and ongoing.
Photo Credit: Al Jazeera Media Service


[1] Personal quote by author, February 2024











































[44] “His Master’s Voice (Multinational label)”.































READ Part 2

Professor G. Hoosen M. Vawda (Bsc; MBChB; PhD.Wits) is a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace Development Environment.
Director: Glastonbury Medical Research Centre; Community Health and Indigent Programme Services; Body Donor Foundation SA.

Principal Investigator: Multinational Clinical Trials
Consultant: Medical and General Research Ethics; Internal Medicine and Clinical Psychiatry:UKZN, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine
Executive Member: Inter Religious Council KZN SA
Public Liaison: Medical Misadventures
Activism: Justice for All

Tags: , , , , , , , ,

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 19 Feb 2024.

Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: Global Evils Today (Part 1): Media Mis-Reporting Bias Generates Peace Disruption, is included. Thank you.

If you enjoyed this article, please donate to TMS to join the growing list of TMS Supporters.

Share this article:

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a CC BY-NC 4.0 License.

There are no comments so far.

Join the discussion!

We welcome debate and dissent, but personal — ad hominem — attacks (on authors, other users or any individual), abuse and defamatory language will not be tolerated. Nor will we tolerate attempts to deliberately disrupt discussions. We aim to maintain an inviting space to focus on intelligent interactions and debates.

52 + = 61

Note: we try to save your comment in your browser when there are technical problems. Still, for long comments we recommend that you copy them somewhere else as a backup before you submit them.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.