Nepal: Six Years of “Transition”


Johan Galtung, 18 Feb 2013 - TRANSCEND Media Service

From Kathmandu, Nepal

Three huge revolts in Asia in the last decades came to an end: the anti-Confucian cultural revolution in China 1967-76, the anti Phnom Penh Khmer Rouge revolution in Cambodia 1975-79, and the anti-feudal monarchy anti-caste maoist People’s War in Nepal that lasted 10 years from 13 February 1996, followed by 18 days of effective nonviolence in the streets of Kathmandu in 6-24 April 2006.  The King abdicated.

Transcend mediated in May 2003, and identified, through dialogues with the parties, eleven deep faultline conflicts as roots of violence:

1 Humans/Nature depletion-pollution appropriate technology
2 Gender repression of women appropriate representation
3 Generation young people appropriate representation
4 Class: Political His Majesty’s Gov’t
absolute monarchy
parliamentary democracy
constitutional monarchy
5 Class: Military Royal Nepal Army parliament control of army
6 Class: Economic misery, inequality massive uplift from below
land reform
temple land reform
strong cooperatives,
public and private sectors
7 Class: Culture marginalization massive literacy campaign
sharing of culture
8 Class: Social dalits appropriate representation,
economic-cultural measures
9 Nationalities dominant culture mother tongue education
unitary state
identity federalism
10 Territories misery, inequality massive uplift from below
11 Others/Nepal intervention reconfirm panch shila

There was an Interim Constitution, a Constitutional Assembly, multi-party national elections, and demobilization and reintegration of maoist ex-combatants, also in the army: points 4 and 5 above.

Invited back for mediation in October 2006, the conclusion was:

“Only conflicts affecting elites /4-5/ are taken seriously: violence control and parliament-government-head of state legitimacy-not social inequity and massive deprivation, leading to process asynchrony.  Prognosis: This is a cease-fire process, not a peace process. A causal chain from unresolved conflicts-polarization-dehumanization to violence-trauma calls for a peace process with four components: mediation for conflict resolution, peace-building /with equity, harmony/–and conciliation for healing and closure.  Major dangers: cease-fire without conflict solution may reopen the violence; conciliation without conflict solution is only pacification. This may lead to massive instability, general strike, violence. Conflicts must be addressed creatively by a leadership suffering people’s daily suffering.”[i]

And mediating now, in February 2013, what is the situation?

There is negative peace: no direct violence, and control of weapons. One army is out, but the other keeps growing.  Teams from both could cooperate rebuilding what had been destroyed. However, the opportunity was lost as was negotiation of the maoist 40 points in early 1996.

There is no positive peace, no peace process.  The Comprehensive Peace Accord was not comprehensive.  There has been no reconciliation after the war trauma-18.000 killed-no Truth and Reconciliation process exchanging the 3Cs, Confession-Contrition-Compensation for A, Amnesty.  Social inequity is increasing. There is little compassion for those suffering in Nepal: dying young, the 25% below the poverty line–50%+ for the casteless dalits–those excluded as non-Nepali speaking, those in remote districts, the dalits again.  There is no provision for elections in the 14 regions, 75 districts or 4,000 villages, for referenda-initiatives.  Nepal is extremely top-heavy and centralized.  There is democracy by the people, voting, but not of, and not for.

Still worse: the multi-party system is blocked.  They make power deals among themselves, but consensus-action and majority-based action seem blocked or can be vetoed with street protests.  The armed forces keep increasing.  Key commissions are not functioning, still no Constitution, not even a clear budget.

A brief summary of the situation right now:

Diagnosis:  One conflict, between the center of political, economic, military and cultural power in Kathmandu, and the rest, powerless. In addition, the power center got stuck, incapable of enacting power.  The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is neither federal nor democratic; it is party-cratic, banko-cratic, occasionally India-cratic, possibly becoming technocratic with the Chief Justice as PM.

Prognosis:  Violence, from below against inequity; or from above to maintain the inequity status quo and-or against stagnation.

That raises the question of Therapy.  So much can be done to get a system that got stuck unstuck, for a real peace process, such as:

[1] Lift the bottom up: Identify the most miserable community in Nepal–maybe as measured by mortality/life expectancy and morbidity–   make some credit available for the most needy to work in basic needs oriented cooperatives, producing food by three-dimensional agriculture and aquaculture, and clean water; clothes and housing with mostly local materials; health by a dense network of polyclinics staffed by paramedics who can heal the 10+ diseases that account for 90%+ of the cases of illness, with helicopters for the heavier cases to top level regional hospitals; and education for all, not only the young;

[2] Politically, an identity-based federation, to better include the non-Nepalese and the remote parts of the country with names combining both identity and geography, like Limbuwan-Koshi.  Make them feel at home in Nepal by using their languages in street names, official documents, speeches in parliament.  Not easy, but hiding the identity is recipe for disaster; and provisions in the Constitution for local elections, at the region, district or community levels, and referenda;

[3] Economically, more local cooperatives, and not only agricultural, sales points directly to consumers, and more local savings banks committed to local investment and no speculation;

[4] Militarily, no Nepalese army will ever be a match for the giants to the north and the south-west; from the east unlikely.  The army is mainly for domestic use, for status quo (called “law and order”), and can also be used for coups.  Reduce it; substitute for law and order the police, and for defensive defense easily mobilized militias and nonmilitary defense, by non-cooperation and civil disobedience;

[5] Culturally, use the cultural diversity as an asset, including the Muslim minority as a bridge to the 57 Muslim countries. Create openings for cultural expression all over, for sculpture and painting, prose and poetry, music, building on the rich local traditions.

[6] Foreign policy: remind India of the panch shila, one of the principles being mutual non-interference in domestic affairs.

Play up to the best in the Big Powers in the world:

* India, by inviting them to give advice on identity federalism;

* China, by inviting them to give advice on lifting the bottom up;

* USA, by inviting them to give advice on creativity, NGOs.

[7] Human rights: both civil-political and social-economic rights.

China and Cambodia did better than Nepal against millennia of repression.  When violent conflicts come to an end attend to the conflict: the Chinese opened for more participation by women, the young, the countryside, the Western part of China; and Cambodia worked on the positive aspects of the Khmer Rouge, local uplift, land reform, etc.

Nepal lost the 2006 opportunity when the society was plastic and could be molded.  High time to catch up.


 [i].  The quotes are from Ch. 62 on the Nepal conflict in 50 Years: 100 Peace & Conflict Perspectives, TRANSCEND University Press, 2008–

For deep analysis of Nepal and also global politics in general see The Weekly Mirror,, Bishnu Pathak


Johan Galtung, a professor of peace studies, dr hc mult, is rector of the TRANSCEND Peace University-TPU. He is author of over 150 books on peace and related issues, including ‘50 Years-100 Peace and Conflict Perspectives,’ published by the TRANSCEND University Press-TUP.

Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgment and link to the source, TRANSCEND Media Service-TMS, is included. Thank you.

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 18 Feb 2013.

Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: Nepal: Six Years of “Transition”, is included. Thank you.

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12 Responses to “Nepal: Six Years of “Transition””

  1. […] Transcend mediated in May 2003, and identified, through dialogues with the parties, eleven deep faultline conflicts as roots of violence…Continue here […]

  2. Nepal first ruled by democracy, than party-ocracy, India-ocracy, Bank-ocracy and finally by techno-cracy which is learnt from the global experiences of Prof. Dr. Johan Galtung, the father of peace studies and principal founder of global conflict mediator. I am so happy to be working with him for Nepal’s first peace event (10-18, February) 2013.

    • I feel very much honored to have interaction with Prof. Johan Galtung during 2003, 2006 and 2013 in Kathmandu. So many issues can be raised only for ‘discussion for discussion’, but the summary he has given this time in 2013 is a brilliant analysis of political evolution, comprehensive peace accord, failure of leadership and danger of further conflicts in Nepal. I extend my heartfelt thanks for his kind efforts and suggestions for the future course of action.

      Side by side, I have very short comments on two distinct presentations:

      1. Mr. Tilak Shrestha seems very much one-sided on ideological grounds.The post-1848 world is divided into two camps -particularly on the study and applications of socio-economic, ethno -cultural and natural heritage systems. That is applied to all phases of bipolar world or Cold War period or uni- polar world or post-war period or today’s trend of multi-polar world and the rise of China as a world power. Therefore Prof. Galtumg’s analysis is empirical and not one sided like Mr. Shrestha’s observation.

      2. On Mr. Dirgha Raj Prasain’s paper, besides so many points liable to be severely argued, his statement that Nepalese people do not want communism is not closer to reality. The last Constituent Assembly(601 members) alone had sixty two per cent representatives from different communist parties.

      Kind Regards
      Dr. Bishnu Hari Nepal
      Former Ambassador of Nepal to Japan and vigya Member of the Foreign Policy Draft Sub-committee, dissolved Legislative Parliament of Nepal

  3. Tilak Shrestha says:

    This is a poorly conceptualized and misleading paper.
    It writes,” … Three huge revolts in Asia in the last decades came to an end: the anti-Confucian cultural revolution in China 1967-76, the anti Phnom Penh Khmer Rouge revolution in Cambodia 1975-79, and the anti-feudal monarchy anti-caste maoist People’s War in Nepal that lasted 10 years from 13 February 1996, followed by 18 days effective nonviolence in the streets of Kathmandu 6-24 April 2006. The King abdicated… ”
    It is not anti-Confucian revolution. It is the Maoist attack against every thing – Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, Entrepreneur, Chinese culture, etc. It is done to wipe out heritage so that Communism can be installed or brain washed into.
    It is not revolution against Phnom Penh government, but murderous Khmer Rouge practicing one of the most deadly genocide.
    It is not Nepalese Maoists fighting against caste or feudalism. It is the Maoists war against democracy and democratically elected government in 1996, to impose communism.

  4. Dirgha Raj Prasai says:

    The traitors’ regime in Nepal-since 2067

    The term of the Constituent Assembly ended at midnight of 27 May 2012, with failure to promulgate a constitution. This ended the relevance of Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai’s cabinet, the presidential apparatus and all elements formed under the interim constitution of 2006. The President and Prime Minister, without constitutional mandate, are legally debarred from exercising any constitutional right. The party leaders after 2006 have become unsuccessful. Many are calling for new mandate, which is again deceitful. The concern of the Nepalese people is complete democracy. The Nepalese people don’t want communism. Although the parliamentary systems in practice around the world vary in their nature, they are run adjusted into the nation’s situation. However, in Nepal the leaders of the so-called big parties- Congress, UML, Maoist have not shown any concern on the type of parliamentary
    system relevant for Nepal.People are so aggressive against the leaders of Maoist, Congress, and UML.Such leaders(traitors) should punished. The interim constitution of 2006 has automatically become obsolete in the case of failure of the CA to formulate a new constitution. As its legitimacy has been lost the President and Prime Minister, who are former in real sense, are only trying to turn the nation into systematic corruption. To give the nation a solution we must honor the unchangeable provisions of the 1990 constitution. There is no alternative to move ahead in consensus for change on foundation of the 1990 constitution. Nepal should operate under the authority of Narayanhiti Palace with monarchy.
    There will be no solution from the leadership of such confused and power-hunger Chief justice. It is totally unconstitutional. The chief
    justice of Supreme Court Kilraj Regmi is also a nonsense, week-minded person and sycophant. Actually, he has no knowledge to decide in the court. He is one of the corrupt judge that his wife is active to collect money from the clients.After 2006 foreign brokers have taken over Nepal government. What will happen if the Supreme Court chooses the same path?
    Constituent Assembly will not be more than 2 years. The 25 February, 2011 edition of Gorkhapatra (Nepalese Govt. Newspaper) has reported that the Supreme Court, after the constitution was not drafted in the stipulated time frame of 2 years, went on to change the definition by itself and gave a verdict, which was against constitutionalism and theory of natural justice, that the period of the Constituent Assembly would remain until the promulgation of the new constitution. Many constitutional and law experts have branded this a grave defect. Constitutional expert and advocate Bhimarjun Acharya writes-Supreme Court verdict is against the mandate of people. If an organization formed under the guidance of people’s mandate is to continue for eternity then it will bring anarchy. This is against the people’s right to vote. This proves that the SC is trying to make irresponsible broker CA members immortal. Although, that verdict may be decided by some party oriented corrupt judges but it will be precedent. All the political analysts, constitutional and legal experts have raised an opposition against this verdict. On 27 February, advocate and legal expert Bhimarjun Acharya in Kantipur, Anarsingh Karki in Annapurna Post, political analyst Badrinarsigh K.C in Rajdhani had published analytical article. In their article they have highlighted the importance of constitutionalism by attacking the character and intention of Supreme Court justices involved in political brokering. Due to the bad intentions harbored by SC justices it has instilled distrust among the people. So, to handover the political power to Chief Justice should be canceled.
    On 27 May 2008, the then Home Minister Krishna Sitaula, who was not even an MP having lost the election, stood inside Parliament to declared a republic. This was an unconstitutional act in itself. An individual having lost the election and not being a member of
    parliament has no right to participate at a parliament meeting. The Nepalese people have no wish to listen to or look at the faces of
    leaders from the Nepali Congress, UML, Maoists and the Madhesi parties. The 1990 constitution has regained full legitimacy; we must use it to form an inclusive cabinet that will resolve the current crisis.
    We must bring out a list of the names of Prime Ministers, ministers, secretaries, general directors, project chiefs, contractors and
    businessmen who embezzled huge amounts of money from the state treasury after 2006. The Commission for Investigation of Abuse of Authority (CIAA) must be directed to arrest them for appropriate action. The seized money should be nationalized. The Constituent Assembly Members including the irresponsible Speaker Subash Nembang should be punished for taking remuneration and using all facilities and benefits and failing to perform their duty; they must refund the money to the public fund. In Haiti, a strict form of punishment was introduced to discourage corruption when the nation plunged into excessive corruption.
    Hence some suggestions:
    (1) The state facilities given to parliament, Constituent Assembly, and cabinet, as per interim constitution 2006, must be returned to the state. The money collected from the sweat and blood of citizens was used for a certain purpose which went unfulfilled. It should be returned to the state, or in future it will be difficult to control the activities of criminals. (2) A law must be passed debarring the
    members of the parliament, Constituent Assembly and the cabinet from contesting the forthcoming general election, and for five years from any election. (3) All facilities, decisions, including Citizenship Act, that have been a burden on the nation and introduced after the implementation of the controversial interim constitution must be repealed. (4) Foreigners must be prohibited from spending or distributing excessive amount of money in the country. The state must take control of the international NGOs and their funds. The state must control such foreign economic support and spend it scrupulously, for management of which a separate body can be created at the Ministry for Local Development. In this way, foreign activities can be checked and their intervention stopped.

    Nepalese people do not want any kind of communist authoritarianism; they want full democracy, political stability, peace and good
    governance. Nepalese people no longer want the unconstitutional rule of the so called larger parties, Maoists, Congress, UML, Madhesi. With the demise of the Constituent Assembly, the constitution of 1990 constitution is restored automatically and Nepal’s royal institution, Nepal Army and people of Nepal are protectors of Nepal. The monarchy was pivotal in integrating Nepal, establishing democratic and equitable society at par with the modern world. The uprising of 2006 took place with direct Indian support and the fear instilled by the Maoists’ arms. India had given assurance to the leaders of Nepali Congress, UML and Maoist party that if they agreed the 12-point agreement, they would find the leadership of the new government. And Indian intelligence wing ‘RAW’ has played an active role in the uprising, providing the economic and other material support. In accordance to the 12-point understanding UNMIN was invited in Nepal. The 12-point agreement and the presence of UNMIN became a matter of crisis for Nepal. After coming to Nepal UNMIN started to develop a special relation with the Maoist in name of peace treaty. This cooperation was the result of policy based conspiracy of India and America.
    After the uprising the so called 12-point understanding and the activities of UNMIN and UN’s other Org. became the base of
    retrogression of this country. They contrived a design to weaken the national army and intentionally joined the hands with the Maoist army. This is the most dangerous subject faced by Nepal. However, the leaders of Nepali Congress, UML and Maoist do not utter a single word despite the nation’s perilous condition. They have already signed treaties under the protection of Indian intelligence agency and have become slavish with their dependency on India, America and the European nations.
    These broker-politicians and agents of foreigners will not make a new constitution. Since 2006 Nepalese people tolerated the worst political practice made by corrupt and culprit leaders. The nation achieved the climaxed height of the lawlessness, theft, robbery, ransom and murders. The corruption is out of control. A corrupt tendency has been institutionalizing as a system. The Nepalese justice system has failed in practice. In every criminal case, police have still refusing to register the criminal complaints, sometimes in the face of a court order to do so. Due to the culprit’s regime, the government has failed to reform laws that impede effective criminal investigations into past violations. There is no justice in Nepal, no rule of law and no government.
    The anarchist party leaders and senior most government officials cannot escape justice. The culprit leaders and security officials must be punished because they are not employed to kill citizens. The party leaders thought the movement for democracy was just to rise in power, earn money, loot the country and get more personal facilities. All the political and administrative mechanism has defunct. Experiences are the proofs to reveal that all the political traitors invested their time and energy just for power and to accumulate big chunk of money, land, home and expensive vehicles. Their amassed properties in the name of democracy are hidden in different banks, lands, big houses and business. Democracy has been abused as a ladder for power by the anti-nationalist political leaders. Hence, it is obligatory that we return to the 1990 constitution with the presence of King to stabilize the nation. There is no alternative for Nepali people than to unite under a common resolve to rid the nation of foreign intervention and corruption.

    Thank you

  5. Katherine Hughes-Fraitekh says:

    Hi Bishnu:

    Thanks so much for this study. Peace Brigades International has staff in Nepal and is monitoring the peace process and human rights. I think highly of Prof. Galtung as I’ve read his studies over the years and was lucky enough to be in a workshop with him last year in Washington, DC.

    Best wishes for your work.

  6. Dirgha Raj Prasai says:

    Indian Conspiracies- The Main Reason for Nepal’s Retrogression
    By Dirgha Raj Prasai
    Since 1950, Indian leadership started the conspiracy to bring Nepal under its umbrella. The 1950 Nepal India treaty and 1950’s Delhi agreement were the beginning of Indian retrogression. The 1950’s Delhi agreement and Constituent Assembly (CA) 1950 became the poisonous fruit for Nepal. The nationalist force in Nepal was against the Delhi agreement and CA. At that time communism in China was at its peak under Mao’s rule. India was aware of the strength of the nationalist force in Nepal and the CA would be the counterpart for India. The CA could not manipulate to its interest. This is why it back tracked on the agenda of CA and the CA was abolished. Then, in 1958 King Mahendra proclaimed the constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal under recommendation from the Constitution Drafting Commission. According to the 1959 constitution the general election was held on 12 February 1959. Nepali Congress (NC) rose to majority and formed a government headed by the leader of Nepali Congress-BP Koirala.
    In the time of elected government of NC, India attempted to exploit its old friendship with BP and tried to influence Nepal’s politics, water resources and natural heritage. After many incidents of conspiracy then came the event of 1960-step by king Mahendra. Due to the conspirator roles from Indian leaders, King Mahendra dissolved the parliament according to the constitution article-55, in 1960 and took the leadership of the country. Actually, the action was not directed against the NC but the Indian intervention. People say-‘If King Mahendra had not taken the step in 1960 India would have annexed Nepal before Sikkim’ Regardless, after 29 years, the multiparty system came back in 1989. But, due to the corrupt and culprit leadership of NC and UML, multiparty system could not move ahead. Then the Indians became active to retrograde Nepal with the help of Nepalese traitor the Maoist in the name of Loktantra (India’s Tantra)
    India played on with many conspiracies in the period between these events for democracy. In 1988 India initiated economic blockade on Nepal causing much suffering to the people. In the meantime, India reached out power hungry and demoralized political leaders to initiate uprising in Nepal. Indians had tried to threaten the then King Birendra through the India sponsored uprising and bring him under the Indian grip. India wanted to take over the Nepal’s defence and foreign policy by rendering it into such ranks as of a failed nation. But, King Birendra denied the demand of India and then, there happened Royal Palace. That massacre may be hatched by RAW- provoking Debyani to ready the Crown prince Dipendra to slaughter King Birendra and family. At that time, there was Chief PK Hormis Tharakan in Indian embassy who was promoted to the post of chief in the Indian intelligence ‘RAW’ after the palace massacre-2001. His Royal Highness Prince Gyanendra, according to the constitution, was proclaimed king of the Kingdom of Nepal.
    After the royal massacre when King Gyanendra was at the throne India tried to lure NC leader Girija and UML leader Madhav Nepal with attractive incentives. These leaders had been deprived of power during the King’s rule. On the other hand the Maoists’ rebellion had started against the corrupt rule of NC and UML. The Nepal chief of the Indian intelligence, P Harmish, and Maoists’ leader Baburam Bhattarai were on good terms. Through Baburam the Indian intelligence won the support of Prachanda and devised the 12 point deal in 2005. Since 2002, the India intelligence ‘RAW’ had trained these contractors from Maoist, NC and UML. They were herded single file into initiating the 2006 uprising. The Maoist party had become trustworthy warriors of India. In the other hand, NC leader Girija Koirala had hijacked a plane carrying Rs. 3 million with the support of RAW in 1973. So, Girija had already won the Indian confidence. Madhav Nepal was also under Indian influence for a long time.
    India felt that it could not benefit from the democracy established in Nepal and later looked to influence the Maoists’ that rebelled against the corrupt rule of NC and UML. P. Harmish became the chief of RAW. As Harmish and Baburam were both Christians, they maintained a cordial relation. Harmish was in search of contractors to end Nepal’s existence. He found Baburam and through Baburam Prachanda. SD Muni, the Guru of Baburam, weaved a net around the Congress and UML senior leaders and brought out the scheme of 12 point understanding in 2005. That determined the future course–a new constitution through a CA. The uprising started. An agreement was reached with the King. After the election of CA, the new constitution was not formulated. India could not manipulate as it had wanted. China increased its interest in Nepal in regards security point of view and anti-Indian sentiment was increasing. India feared. Baburam Bhattari became the PM under Indian support abolished the CA. The creator of all these conspiracies is India. The interim constitution also is dead with the dissolution of the CA. However, PM Baburam and president Rambaran are sticking to their post even after the expiry of their term.
    The traitors that came to power after 2006 are bathing in the blood of Nepalese people in name of the uprising. India had started a master plan in 1950 through the Delhi agreement to subjugate Nepal. India played on with many conspiracies in the period between these events for democracy. India was able to easily manipulate these leaders. So the uprising in 2006 was an Indian design to drag Nepal into its umbrella and destroy the country’s nationality and democratic values. The uprising came to an end after an agreement with the King on 24 April, 2006 based on the 1990 constitution. Gradually the agreement with the King was broken. Due to the points incorporated in the interim constitution that the nation cannot withstand, those involved in this are considered as traitors. Then, gradually the degradation of Nepalese nationality and identities started since 2006.
    In the name of people’s war and the uprising the contributions of the creator of the nation Prithvi Narayan Shah were disgraced. His statue was vandalized. The provision to mark the national unity day was abolished. The values of the martyrs that sacrificed themselves for democracy were attacked. King Tribhuvan who led the struggle for democracy was insulted. It is already disclosed that the Maoists’ rebellion was directed by Indian intelligence– a dangerous plan. Although the leaders in the NC and UML are well aware of the conspiracy of India and Maoists’ party they are still running after the 12 point agreement and the dead interim constitution. They will end up in a quagmire set up by India. They are betraying the Nepalese people in spite of such awareness. It could only mean that their end of days has arrived. Maoists are nothing more but Maoists. The leaders in NC and UML are even worse than Maoists for being nonsensical and selfish. The Congress and UML invited the virus of Maoist terrorism and they are called more criminal than the Maoists. China was also infuriated with the Maoists after coming to know that they were a herd of contractors directed by India. China has enlisted Baburam and Prachanda in its black list for selling the name of Mao in forming the Maoists’ party and disgracing communism.
    Now the war of Nepalese is with India. The Maoist rebellions are the agents of India. The reality is that India will not start an open war with Nepal in fear of loosing its good image in the world community. It will move its agents forward. The contractors are the leaders in Maoists’ party, Congress, UML and the Madhesi parties. The amount of the dirty attitude of the Indian leaders shown to Nepal is seen in the article of Arun Shrivastav, son of the late Prof. Dr. Upendra Narayan Singh of Trichandra College. If the reader searches in the >< the Indian conspiracy will become clear. The Indian plan to annex Nepal by using Baburam and calling Rambaran to India will be clear.
    If those culprits are thrown into prison India will lose and run away. In such a situation after loosing the backing of India and Maoists, NC and the UML may try to save their dignity by returning to the 1990 constitution. Then if we are successful in capturing the remnants of the Indian contractors and RAW agents there should impose the policy that was seen in Bangladesh in 1975 the sovereign Nepal will have no danger from anywhere else. In this war if we punish the Indian contractors India will never be able to attack Nepal. The parliamentary parties like Congress and UML, trapped in the Indian net, will again take the side of 1990 constitution for the reinstatement of the constitutional monarchy and multiparty democracy.
    In such a scenario India will loose automatically. Then India will never target Nepal again. Out of compulsion India will become Nepal’s good friend. China will also become satisfied. India, Nepal and China will be encouraged with the ideal of co-existence and they will learn to respect each other.
    The agendas of republic, secularism and federalism are the agendas of Indian intelligence RAW to show similarity of Nepal and India as they have open boarder and differences of religious autonomous monarchial system to republican, federal and secular state. It is only the design hatched by Sonia Congress regime of India. It is their agendas to end the sovereign existence of Nepal and turn it into a Christian state; to attack China in name of Free Tibet. But India has also understood that these agendas are tainting the image of India. After 2006, the parties, particularly the Maoists are disgracing Nepal’s nationalism. Now the country is governed by the corrupt leaders and traitors. There is no constitution, no parliament and no Constituent Assembly in Nepal. So, there is only one alternative and that is to return to the 1990 constitution to free the nation from traitors and find an outlet. Let us be determined on developing the country, coordinating and balancing the Nationality, Monarchy and Democracy together.

  7. Thank you very much for the situation updates. The contents you provided are really useful and fact based.

  8. Vidyadhar Mallik says:

    Thanks, Bishnu pathak ji for sharing such an important paper.

  9. […] “Sono stati presi in seria considerazione solo i conflitti riguardanti le élite (#4-5): controllo della violenza e legittimità di parlamento-governo-capo dello stato – non l’iniquità sociale e le privazioni di massa; il che comporta un’asincronia del processo transitorio. Prognosi: si tratta di un processo di tregua, non di pace. Una catena causale dai conflitti irrisolti-polarizzazione-disumanizzazione alla violenza-trauma richiede un processo di pace con quattro componenti: mediazione per la risoluzione del conflitto, peace-building (con equità, armonia) – e conciliazione per la guarigione e conclusione. Maggiori pericoli: unatregua senza soluzione del conflitto può riaprire la violenza; una conciliazione senza soluzione del conflitto è solo pacificazione. Ciò può condurre a un’instabilità diffusa, a scioperi generali, alla violenza. I conflitti devono essere affrontati creativamente da dirigenti che provino le sofferenze quotidiane della popolazione.”[i] […]

  10. […] “Sono stati presi in seria considerazione solo i conflitti riguardanti le élite (#4-5): controllo della violenza e legittimità di parlamento-governo-capo dello stato – non l’iniquità sociale e le privazioni di massa; il che comporta un’asincronia del processo transitorio. Prognosi: si tratta di un processo di tregua, non di pace. Una catena causale dai conflitti irrisolti-polarizzazione-disumanizzazione alla violenza-trauma richiede un processo di pace con quattro componenti: mediazione per la risoluzione del conflitto, peace-building (con equità, armonia) – e conciliazione per la guarigione e conclusione. Maggiori pericoli: unatregua senza soluzione del conflitto può riaprire la violenza; una conciliazione senza soluzione del conflitto è solo pacificazione. Ciò può condurre a un’instabilità diffusa, a scioperi generali, alla violenza. I conflitti devono essere affrontati creativamente da dirigenti che provino le sofferenze quotidiane della popolazione.”[i] […]

  11. Dear All
    I posted my comment to the reply column of Prof. Bishnu Pathak’s comment column inadvertently. Please go through it accordingly.
    Kind Regards
    Dr. Bishnu Hari Nepal