This Week in History

HISTORY, 14 Sep 2015

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

TWH logo history

Sep 14-20


Whatever you do, do with deep alertness, then even small things become sacred.” – Osho


2007  Late-2000s financial crisis: The Northern Rock bank experiences the first bank run in the United Kingdom in 150 years.

2003  In a referendum, Estonia approves joining the European Union.


Estonia and the European Union:

History of Estonia:

Foreign Relations of Estonia:

2001  Historic National Prayer Service held at Washington National Cathedral for victims of the September 11 attacks. A similar service is held in Canada on Parliament Hill, the largest vigil ever held in the nation’s capital.

2000  Microsoft releases Windows ME.

1999  Kiribati, Nauru and Tonga join the United Nations.


History of Kiribati:


History of Nauru:


History of Tonga:

1998  Telecommunications companies MCI Communications and WorldCom complete their $37 billion merger to form MCI WorldCom.

1992  The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina declares the breakaway Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia to be illegal.

1982  President-elect of Lebanon, Bachir Gemayel, is assassinated.

1979  Afghan President Nur Muhammad Taraki is assassinated upon the order of Hafizullah Amin, who becomes the new president.

1975  The first American saint, Elizabeth Ann Seton, is canonized by Pope Paul VI.

1960  Congo Crisis: With CIA help, Mobutu Sese Seko seizes power in a military coup, suspending parliament and the constitution.

1960  The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is founded.

1959  The Soviet probe Luna 2 crashes onto the Moon, becoming the first man-made object to reach it.

1958  The first two German post-war rockets, designed by the German engineer Ernst Mohr, reach the upper atmosphere.

1954  In a top secret nuclear test, a Soviet Tu-4 bomber drops a 40 kiloton atomic weapon just north of Totskoye village.

1944  World War II: Maastricht becomes the first Dutch city to be liberated by allied forces.

1943  World War II: The Wehrmacht starts a three-day retaliatory operation targeting several Greek villages in Viannos, whose death toll would exceeded 500 persons.

1940  Ip massacre: The Hungarian Army, supported by local Hungarians, kill 158 Romanian civilians in Ip, Sălaj, a village in Northern Transylvania, an act of ethnic cleansing.

1939  World War II: The Estonian military boards the Polish submarine ORP Orzeł in Tallinn, sparking a diplomatic incident that the Soviet Union will later use to justify the annexation of Estonia.

1917  Russia is officially proclaimed a republic.

1914  HMAS AE1, the Royal Australian Navy‘s first submarine, was lost at sea with all hands near East New Britain, Papua New Guinea.

1901  US President William McKinley dies after an assassination attempt on September 6, and is succeeded by Vice President Theodore Roosevelt.

1847  Mexican–American War: Winfield Scott captures Mexico City.

1846  Jang Bahadur and his brothers massacre about 40 members of the Nepalese palace court.

1829  The Ottoman Empire signs the Treaty of Adrianople with Russia, thus ending the Russo-Turkish War.

1812  Napoleonic Wars: The French Grande Armée enters Moscow. The Fire of Moscow begins as soon as Russian troops leave the city.

1808  Finnish War: Russians defeat the Swedes in the bloody Battle of Oravais.

1791  The Papal States lose Avignon to the French Empire.

1763  Seneca warriors defeat British forces at the Battle of Devil’s Hole during Pontiac’s War.

1752  The British Empire adopts the Gregorian calendar, skipping eleven days (the previous day was September 2).




2008  Lehman Brothers files for Chapter 1 bankruptcy, the largest bankruptcy filing in U.S. history.

2000  The Games of the XXVII Olympiad begin in Sydney, Australia.

1998  With the landmark merger of WorldCom and MCI Communications completed the day prior, the new MCI WorldCom opens its doors for business.

1993  Liechtenstein Prince Hans-Adam II disbands Parliament

1990  France announces it will send 4,000 troops to the Persian Gulf.

1987  United States Secretary of State George Shultz and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze sign a treaty to establish centers to reduce the risk of nuclear war.

1984  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1983  Israeli premier Menachem Begin resigns.

1981  Vanuatu becomes a member of the United Nations.


History of Vanuatu:

1981  The John Bull becomes the oldest operable steam locomotive in the world when the Smithsonian Institution operates it under its own power outside Washington, D.C.

1981  The Senate Judiciary Committee unanimously approves Sandra Day O’Connor to become the first female justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

1979  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1978  Muhammad Ali outpointed Leon Spinks in a rematch to become the first boxer to win the world heavyweight title three times at the Superdome in New Orleans.

1977  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1975  The French department of “Corse” (the entire island of Corsica) is divided into two: Haute-Corse (Upper Corsica) and Corse-du-Sud (Southern Corsica)

1966  US President Lyndon B. Johnson, responding to a sniper attack at the University of Texas at Austin, writes a letter to Congress urging the enactment of gun control legislation.

1962  The Soviet ship Poltava heads toward Cuba, one of the events that sets into motion the Cuban Missile Crisis.

1962  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

1959  Nikita Khrushchev becomes the first Soviet leader to visit the United States.

1952  The United Nations cedes Eritrea to Ethiopia.

1950  Korean War: United States forces land at Inchon

1948  The F-86 Sabre sets the world aircraft speed record at 671 miles per hour (1,080 km/h).

1947  RCA releases the 12AX7 vacuum tube.

1945  A hurricane in southern Florida and the Bahamas destroys 366 planes and 25 blimps at NAS Richmond.

1944  Battle of Peleliu begins as the United States Marine Corps1st Marine Division and the United States Army‘s 81st Infantry Division hit White and Orange beaches under heavy fire from Japanese infantry and artillery.

1944  Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meet in Quebec as part of the Octagon Conference to discuss strategy.

1942  World War II: US Navy aircraft carrier USS Wasp is sunk by a Japanese torpedo at Guadalcanal.

1940  World War II: The climax of the Battle of Britain, when the Royal Air Force shoots down large numbers of Luftwaffe aircraft.

1935  Nazi Germany adopts a new national flag bearing the swastika.

1935  The Nuremberg Laws deprive German Jews of citizenship.

1916  World War I: Tanks are used for the first time in battle, at the Battle of the Somme.

1894  First Sino-Japanese War: Japan defeats Qing dynasty China in the Battle of Pyongyang.

1873  Franco-Prussian War: The last German troops leave France upon completion of payment of indemnity.

1835  HMS Beagle, with Charles Darwin aboard, reaches the Galápagos Islands. The ship lands at Chatham or San Cristobal, the easternmost of the archipelago.

1821  Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica jointly declare independence from Spain.

1820  Constitutionalist revolution in Lisbon, Portugal.

1816  HMS Whiting runs aground on the Doom Bar

1812  War of 1812: A second supply train sent to relieve Fort Harrison is ambushed in the Attack at the Narrows.

1812  The French army under Napoleon reaches the Kremlin in Moscow.

1789  The United States “Department of Foreign Affairs”, established by law in July, is renamed the Department of State and given a variety of domestic duties.

1762  Seven Years’ War: Battle of Signal Hill.

1616  The first non-aristocratic, free public school in Europe is opened in Frascati, Italy.




2014  The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant launches its Kobane offensive against Syrian–Kurdish forces.

2007  Mercenaries working for Blackwater Worldwide shoot and kill 17 Iraqis in Nisour Square, Baghdad; all criminal charges against them are later dismissed, however they are later tried and convicted of the crime.

2005  The Camorra organized crime boss Paolo Di Lauro is arrested in Naples, Italy.

1994  The British government lifts the broadcasting ban imposed against members of Sinn Féin and Irish paramilitary groups in 1988.

1992  Black Wednesday: The pound is forced out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism by currency speculators and is forced to devalue against the German mark.

1992  The trial of the deposed Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega ends in the United States with a 40-year sentence for drug trafficking and money laundering.

1990  The railroad between the People’s Republic of China and Kazakhstan is completed at Dostyk, adding a sizable link to the concept of the Eurasian Land Bridge.

1987  The Montreal Protocol is signed to protect the ozone layer from depletion.

1987  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1982  1982 Lebanon war: the Sabra and Shatila massacre in Lebanon takes place.

1980  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines join the United Nations.

1979  USSR performs underground nuclear test at Donesk, Ukraine, USSR.

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1976  Shavarsh Karapetyan saves 20 people from the trolleybus that had fallen into Yerevan reservoir.

1975  The first prototype of the Mikoyan MiG-31 interceptor makes its maiden flight.

1975  The Cape Verde Islands, Mozambique, and São Tomé and Príncipe join the United Nations.

1975  Papua New Guinea gains independence from Australia.

Papua New Guinea:

History of Papua New Guinea:

1970  King Hussein of Jordan declares military rule following the hijacking of four civilian airliners by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). This results in the formation of the Black September Palestinian paramilitary unit.

Jordan in September 1970:


History of Jordan:

1967  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1963  Malaysia is formed from the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo (Sabah) and Sarawak. However, Singapore soon leaves this new country.


History of Malaysia:

1962  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

1961  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

For more pertinent information, see1962 USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR”, mentioned above.

1959  The first successful photocopier, the Xerox 914, is introduced in a demonstration on live television from New York City.

1955  A Soviet Navy Zulu-class submarine becomes the first submarine to launch a ballistic missile.

1955  The military coup to unseat President Juan Perón of Argentina is launched at midnight.

1945  World War II: The surrender of the Japanese troops in Hong Kong is accepted by Royal Navy Admiral Sir Cecil Harcourt.

1943  World War II: The Allied invasion of Italy concludes when Heinrich von Vietinghoff, commander of the German Tenth Army, orders his troops to withdraw from Salerno.

1941  World War II: Concerned that Reza Shah Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran, was about to ally his petroleum-rich empire with Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union invade Iran in late August and force the Shah to abdicate in favor of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

1940  World War II: Italian troops conquer Sidi Barrani.

1920  The Wall Street bombing: A bomb in a horse wagon explodes in front of the J. P. Morgan building in New York City killing 38 and injuring 400.

1919  The American Legion is incorporated.

1908  The General Motors Corporation is founded.

1880  The Cornell Daily Sun prints its first issue in Ithaca, New York. The Sun is the nation’s oldest, continuously-independent college daily.

1863  Robert College of IstanbulTurkey, the first American educational institution outside the United States, is founded by Christopher Robert, an American philanthropist.

1812  The Fire of Moscow begins shortly after midnight and destroys three quarters of the city days later.

1810  With the Grito de Dolores, Father Miguel Hidalgo begins Mexico’s fight for independence from Spain.

1795  The first occupation by United Kingdom of Cape Colony, South Africa with the Battle of Hout Bay, after successive victories at the Battle of Muizenberg and Wynberg, after William V requested protection against revolutionary France’s occupation of the Netherlands.




2011  Occupy Wall Street movement begins in Zuccotti Park, New York City.

2006  An audio tape of a private speech by Hungarian Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány is leaked to the public, in which he confessed that his Hungarian Socialist Party had lied to win the 2006 election, sparking widespread protests across the country.

2006  Fourpeaked Mountain in Alaska erupts, marking the first eruption for the long-dormant volcano in at least 10,000 years.

2001  The New York Stock Exchange reopens for trading after the September 11 attacks, the longest closure since the Great Depression.

1992  An Iranian Kurdish leader and his two joiners are assassinated by political militants in Berlin, Germany.

1991  The first version of the Linux kernel (0.01) is released to the Internet.

1991  Estonia, North Korea, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands and Micronesia join the United Nations.

1984  USSR performs underground nuclear test at Kemorovo, Russia.

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1983  Vanessa Williams becomes the first black Miss America.

Vanessa Williams:

Beauty Contest and Racism:

American Anthropological Association’s Statement on “Race” and Relevant Issues:

1980  Former Nicaraguan President Anastasio Somoza Debayle is killed in Asunción, Paraguay.

1980  After weeks of strikes at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk, Poland, the nationwide independent trade union Solidarity is established.

1978  The Camp David Accords are signed by Israel and Egypt.

1976  The first Space Shuttle, Enterprise, is unveiled by NASA.

1974  Bangladesh, Grenada and Guinea-Bissau join the United Nations.

1965  The Battle of Chawinda is fought between Pakistan and India.

1961  The world’s first retractable-dome stadium, the Civic Arena, opens in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

1958  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1957  Malaysia joins the United Nations.


History of Malaysia:

1948  The Nizam of Hyderabad surrenders his sovereignty over the Hyderabad State and joins the Indian Union.

1948  The Lehi (also known as the Stern gang) assassinates Count Folke Bernadotte, who was appointed by the United Nations to mediate between the Arab nations and Israel.

1944  World War II: Soviet troops launch the Tallinn Offensive against Germany and pro independence Estonian units.

1944  World War II: Allied Airborne troops parachute into the Netherlands as the “Market” half of Operation Market Garden.

1943  World War II: The Russian city of Bryansk is liberated from Germans.

1941  World War II: Soviet forces enter Teheran marking the end of the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran.

1941  World War II: A decree of the Soviet State Committee of Defense, restoring Vsevobuch in the face of the Great Patriotic War, is issued.

1940  World War II: Following the German defeat in the Battle of Britain, Hitler postpones Operation Sea Lion indefinitely.

1939  World War II: A German U-boat U 29 sinks the British aircraft carrier HMS Courageous.

1939  World War II: The Soviet Union joins Nazi Germany‘s invasion of Poland during the Polish Defensive War of 1939.

1932  A speech by Laureano Gómez leads to the escalation of the Leticia Incident.

1930  The Ararat rebellion is suppressed.

1924  The Church of Central Africa, Presbyterian is formed.

1924  The Border Defence Corps is established in the Second Polish Republic for the defence of the eastern border against armed Soviet raids and local bandits.

1916  World War I: Manfred von Richthofen (“The Red Baron”), a flying ace of the German Luftstreitkräfte, wins his first aerial combat near Cambrai, France.

1914  World War I:The Race to the Sea begins.

1908  The Wright Flyer flown by Orville Wright, with Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge as passenger, crashes, killing Selfridge. He becomes the first airplane fatality.

1901  The Battle of Elands River is fought.

1901  The Battle of Blood River Poort is fought.

1900  Philippine–American War: Filipinos under Juan Cailles defeat Americans under Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham at Mabitac.

1894  Battle of Yalu River, the largest naval engagement of the First Sino-Japanese War.

1861  Battle of Pavón is fought.

1849  American abolitionist Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery.

1814  Francis Scott Key finishes his poem “Defence of Fort McHenry“, later to be the lyrics of “The Star-Spangled Banner”.

1813  The Second Battle of Kulm is fought.

1809  Peace between Sweden and Russia in the Finnish War. The territory to become Finland is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn.

1794  The Battle of Peyrestortes is fought.

1798  The Battle of Peyrestortes is fought.

1787  The United States Constitution is signed in Philadelphia.

1778  The Treaty of Fort Pitt is signed. It is the first formal treaty between the United States and a Native American tribe (the Lenape or Delaware Indians).




2014  Scotland votes against independence from the United Kingdom.


History, Culture, and Tradition of Scotland:

Independence Movement of Scotland:

2013  Cygnus Orb-D1 is launched into space.

2011  2011 Sikkim earthquake was felt across northeastern India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and southern Tibet.

2009  The 72-year run of the soap opera The Guiding Light ends as its final episode is broadcast.

2007  Buddhist monks join anti-government protesters in Myanmar, starting what some call the Saffron Revolution.

2007  Pervez Musharraf announces that he will step down as army chief and restore civilian rule to Pakistan, but only after he is re-elected president.

2001  First mailing of anthrax letters from Trenton, New Jersey in the 2001 anthrax attacks.

1998  ICANN is formed.

1997  Al-Qaeda carried out a terrorist attack in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

1992  An explosion rocks Giant Mine at the height of a labor dispute, killing nine replacement workers.

1991  Yugoslavia begins a naval blockade of seven Adriatic port cities.

Naval Blockade in the Adriatic Sea Area in 1991:

War in the Balkans in the 1990s/Yugoslav War:

1990  Liechtenstein becomes a member of the United Nations.


History and Culture of Liechtenstein:

1988  End of pro-democracy uprisings in Myanmar after a bloody military coup by the State Law and Order Restoration Council. Thousands, mostly monks and civilians (primarily students), are killed by the Tatmadaw.


History of Myanmar:

Pro-Democracy Uprising, Ethnic Cleansing and Other Pertinent Issues:

1987  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1982  Christian militia begin killing six-hundred Palestinians in Lebanon.

1981  Assemblée Nationale votes to abolish capital punishment in France.

1977  Voyager I takes first photograph of the Earth and the Moon together.

1975  Patty Hearst is arrested after a year on the FBI Most Wanted List.

1973  The Bahamas, East Germany and West Germany are admitted to the United Nations.

1964  North Vietnamese Army begins infiltration of South Vietnam.

1964  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

1962 Burundi, Jamaica, Rwanda and Trinidad and Tobago are admitted to the United Nations.

1962  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

For more pertinent information, see1964  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR”, mentioned above.

1961  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

For more pertinent information, see1964  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR”, mentioned above.

1961  UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld dies in a plane crash while attempting to negotiate peace in the war-torn Katanga region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

1960  Fidel Castro arrives in New York City as the head of the Cuban delegation to the United Nations.

1959  Vanguard 3 is launched into Earth orbit.

1948  Margaret Chase Smith of Maine becomes the first woman elected to the United States Senate without completing another senator‘s term, when she defeats Democratic opponent Adrian Scolten.

1948  Communist Madiun uprising in Dutch Indies.

1948  Operation Polo is terminated after the Indian Army accepts the surrender of Nizam‘s Army.

1947  The National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency are established in the United States under the National Security Act.

1947  US Department of Defense (DOD) is formed.

US Department of Defense (DOD):

History of the Department of Defense:

1947  The United States Air Force becomes an independent branch of the United States armed forces.

US Air Force:

History of the US Air Force:

1945  General Douglas MacArthur moves his command headquarters to Tokyo.

1944  World War II: The British submarine HMS Tradewind torpedoes Jun’yō Maru, 5,600 killed.

1943  World War II: Adolf Hitler orders the deportation of Danish Jews.

1943  World War II: The Jews of Minsk are massacred at Sobibór.

1940  The British liner SS City of Benares is sunk by German submarine U-48; those killed include 77 child refugees.

1939  The Nazi propaganda broadcaster known as Lord Haw-Haw begins transmitting.

1939  World War II: Polish government of Ignacy Mościcki flees to Romania.

1934  The USSR is admitted to the League of Nations.

League of Nations:

USSR and the League of Nations:

1931  The Mukden Incident gives Japan the pretext to invade and occupy Manchuria.

1928  Juan de la Cierva makes the first autogyro crossing of the English Channel.

1927  The Columbia Broadcasting System goes on the air.

1922  Hungary is admitted to the League of Nations.

For some more information on the League of Nations, see1934      The USSR is admitted to the League of Nations”, as mentioned above.

1919  The Netherlands gives women the right to vote.

1914  World War I: South African troops land in German South West Africa.

1914  The Irish Home Rule Act becomes law, but is delayed until after World War I.

1911  Russian Premier Pyotr Stolypin is shot at the Kiev Opera House.

1910  In Amsterdam, 25,000 demonstrate for general suffrage.

1906  A typhoon with tsunami kills an estimated 10,000 people in Hong Kong.

1898  Fashoda Incident: Lord Kitchener’s ships reach Fashoda, Sudan.

1895  Daniel David Palmer gives the first chiropractic adjustment.

1895  Booker T. Washington delivers the “Atlanta compromise” address.

1882  The Pacific Stock Exchange opens.

1873  Panic of 1873: The U.S. bank Jay Cooke & Company declares bankruptcy, triggering a series of bank failures.

1850  The U.S. Congress passes the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850.

1833  The Anti-Corn Law League is established by Richard Cobden.

1812  The 1812 Fire of Moscow dies down after destroying more than three-quarters of the city. Napoleon returns from the Petrovsky Palace to the Moscow Kremlin, spared from the fire.

1810  First Government Junta in Chile. Though supposed to rule only in the absence of the king, it is in fact the first step towards independence from Spain, and is commemorated as such.

1759  Seven Years’ War: The British capture Quebec City.

1739  The Treaty of Belgrade is signed, ceding Belgrade to the Ottoman Empire.

1635  Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II of Austria declares war on France.




2010  The leaking oil well in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill is sealed.

2006  The Thai military stages a coup in Bangkok. The Constitution is and martial law is declared.

1997  Guelb El-Kebir massacre in Algeria where 53 people are killed.

1991  Ötzi the Iceman is discovered by German tourists.

1989  A terrorist bomb explodes UTA Flight 772 in mid-air above the Tùnùrù Desert, Niger, killing 171.

1983  Saint Kitts and Nevis gains its independence.

Saint Kitts and Nevis:

History of Saint Kitts and Nevis:

1982  Scott Fahlman posts the first documented emoticons :-) and :-( on the Carnegie Mellon University Bulletin Board System.

1978  The Solomon Islands join the United Nations.

Solomon Islands:

History and Culture of the Solomon Islands:

1976  Two Imperial Iranian Air Force F-4 Phantom II jets fly out to investigate an unidentified flying object when both independently lose instrumentation and communications as they approach, only to have them restored upon withdrawal.

1973  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1972  A parcel bomb sent to Israeli Embassy in London kills one diplomat.

1971  Montagnard troops of South Vietnam revolt against the rule of Nguyễn Khánh, killing 70 ethnic Vietnamese soldiers.

1970  Kostas Georgakis, a Greek student of geology, sets himself ablaze in Matteotti Square in Genoa, Italy, as a protest against the dictatorial regime of Georgios Papadopoulos.

1970  The first Glastonbury Festival is held at Michael Eavis‘s farm in Glastonbury, United Kingdom.

1962  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

1959  Nikita Khrushchev is barred from visiting Disneyland due to security concerns.

1957  First American underground nuclear bomb test (part of Operation Plumbbob).

1952  The United States bars Charlie Chaplin from re-entering the country after a trip to England.

1946  The Council of Europe is founded following a speech by Winston Churchill at the University of Zurich.

1945  Lord Haw-Haw (William Joyce) is sentenced to death in London.

1944  Battle of Hürtgen Forest between United States and Nazi Germany begins.

1944  Armistice between Finland and Soviet Union is signed. (End of the Continuation War).

1940  Witold Pilecki is voluntarily captured and sent to Auschwitz in order to smuggle out information and start a resistance.

1936  World War II: The Battle of Kępa Oksywska concludes, with Polish losses reaching roughly 14% of all the forces engaged.

1934  Bruno Hauptmann is arrested for the kidnapping and murder of Charles Lindbergh, Jr..

1916  During the East African Campaign of World War I, colonial armed forces of the Belgian Congo (Force Publique) under the command of General Charles Tombeur captured the town of Tabora after heavy fighting.

1893  Women’s suffrage: In New Zealand, the Electoral Act of 1893 is consented to by the governor giving all women in New Zealand the right to vote.

1881  U.S. President James A. Garfield dies of wounds suffered in a July 2 shooting. Vice President Chester A. Arthur, becomes President upon Garfield’s death.

1870  Having invaded the Papal States a week earlier, the Italian Army lays siege to Rome, entering the city the next day, after which the Pope described himself as a Prisoner in the Vatican.

1870  Franco-Prussian War: The Siege of Paris begins, which will result on January 28, 1871 in the surrender of Paris and a decisive Prussian victory.

1868  Spanish revolution: La Gloriosa.

1846  Two French shepherd children, Mélanie Calvat and Maximin Giraud, experience a Marian apparition on a mountaintop near La Salette, France, now known as Our Lady of La Salette.

1799  French Revolutionary Wars: French-Dutch victory against the Russians and British in the Battle of Bergen.

1796  George Washington’s Farewell Address is printed across America as an open letter to the public.




2011  The United States military ends its “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy, allowing gay men and women to serve openly for the first time.

2008  A dump truck full of explosives detonates in front of the Marriott hotel in Islamabad, Pakistan, killing 54 people and injuring 266 others.

2007  Between 15,000 and 20,000 protesters marched on Jena, Louisiana, in support of six black youths who had been convicted of assaulting a white classmate.

2003  Maldives civil unrest: the death of prisoner Hassan Evan Naseem sparks a day of rioting in Malé.

2001  In an address to a joint session of Congress and the American people, U.S. President George W. Bush declares a “War on Terror“.

2000  The United Kingdom’s MI6 Secret Intelligence Service building is attacked by individuals using a Russian-built RPG-22 anti-tank missile. The perpetrators remain unidentified.

1990  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1990  South Ossetia declares its independence from Georgia.

South Ossetia and the South Ossetia War:

History of South Ossetia:

1984  A suicide bomber in a car attacks the U.S. embassy in Beirut, Lebanon, killing twenty-two people.

1979  A coup d’état in the Central African Empire overthrows Emperor Bokasa I.

1978  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1977  The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is admitted to the United Nations.


History of Vietnam:

1970  Syrian tanks roll into Jordan in response to continued fighting between Jordan and the fedayeen.

1962  James Meredith, an African American, is temporarily barred from entering the University of Mississippi.

1961  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

1961  Greek general Konstantinos Dovas becomes Prime Minister of Greece.

1960  UN General Assembly admit 13 African countries & Cyprus (96 nations).

African Countries and Their Independence:


History of Cyprus:

1958  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

For more pertinent information, see1961  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR”, mentioned above.

1942  Holocaust in Letychiv, Ukraine. In the course of two days the German SS murders at least 3,000 Jews.

1930  Syro-Malankara Catholic Church is formed by Archbishop Mar Ivanios.

1920  Foundation of the Spanish Legion.

1909  The Parliament of the United Kingdom passes the South Africa Act 1909, creating the Union of South Africa from the British Colonies of the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, Orange River Colony, and the Transvaal Colony.

1893  Charles Duryea and his brother road-test the first American-made gasoline-powered automobile.

1871  Bishop John Coleridge Patteson is martyred on the island of Nukapu, a Polynesian outlier island now in the Temotu Province of the Solomon Islands. He is the first bishop of Melanesia.

1857  The Indian Rebellion of 1857 ends with the recapture of Delhi by troops loyal to the East India Company.

1854  Battle of Alma: British and French troops defeat Russians in the Crimea.

1848  The American Association for the Advancement of Science is created.

1835  Ragamuffin rebels capture Porto Alegre, then capital of the Brazilian imperial province of Rio Grande do Sul, triggering the start of ten-year-long Ragamuffin War.

1792 French troops stop allied invasion of France, during the War of the First Coalition at Valmy.

1737  The finish of the Walking Purchase which forces the cession of 1.2 million acres (4,860 km²) of Lenape-Delaware tribal land to the Pennsylvania Colony.

1697  The Treaty of Ryswick is signed by France, England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the Dutch Republic ending the Nine Years’ War (1688–97).



Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, audio/visual documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

(Sources and references:   to _20;   to september/20;   to _20.html; and other pertinent websites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace” through peace journalism.

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 14 Sep 2015.

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