This Week in History

HISTORY, 29 Aug 2016

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

TWH logo history

Aug 29 – Sep 4


“Thinking, studying and learning about death is not morbidity but wisdom.  Having said that, to be paranoid and trying to guess our or others’ death is pathological.  Relax and live each day as it were your last.  Then, go in peace with yourself, your God, and the world you are leaving behind.”   – Antonio C.S. Rosa



2007  2007 United States Air Force nuclear weapons incident: Six US cruise missiles armed with nuclear warheads are flown without proper authorization from Minot Air Force Base to Barksdale Air Force Base.

US Air Force Nuclear Weapons Incident of 2007:

2005  Hurricane Katrina devastates much of the U.S. Gulf Coast from Louisiana to the Florida Panhandle, killing an estimated 1,836 people and causing over $108 billion in damage.

2004  Michael Schumacher wins his 5th consecutive Formula One Drivers’ championship (and 7th overall) at the 2004 Belgian Grand Prix to beat the 47 year old record held by Juan Manuel Fangio.

2003  Ayatollah Sayed Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim, the Shia Muslim leader in Iraq, is assassinated in a terrorist bombing, along with nearly 100 worshippers as they leave a mosque in Najaf.

1997  At least 98 villagers are killed by the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria GIA in the Rais massacre, Algeria.

1991  Libero Grassi, an Italian businessman from Palermo is killed by the Mafia after taking a solitary stand against their extortion demands.

1991  Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union suspends all activities of the Soviet Communist Party.

1982  The synthetic chemical element Meitnerium, atomic number 109, is first synthesized at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany.

1970  Chicano Moratorium against the Vietnam War, East Los Angeles, California. Police riot kills three people, including journalist Rubén Salazar.

1958  United States Air Force Academy opens in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

195Korean War: British troops arrive in Korea to bolster the US presence there.

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1949  Soviet atomic bomb project: The Soviet Union tests its first atomic bomb, known as First Lightning or Joe 1, at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan.

First USSR Nuclear Test in 1949:

Soviet Atomic Bomb Project:

USSR Nuclear Tests (Overview):

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Semipalatinsk/Kazakhstan Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1946  USS Nevada is decommissioned.

194Slovak National Uprising takes place as 60,000 Slovak troops turn against the Nazis.

Slovak National Uprising of 1944:

194German-occupied Denmark scuttles most of its navy; Germany dissolves the Danish government.

194Tallinn, the Capital of Estonia is occupied by Nazi Germany following an occupation by the Soviet Union.

1930  The last 36 remaining inhabitants of St Kilda are voluntarily evacuated to other parts of Scotland.

1918  Bapaume taken by the New Zealand Division in the Hundred Days Offensive.

1916  The United States passes the Philippine Autonomy Act.

1914  Start of the Battle of St. Quentin in which the French Fifth Army counter-attacked the invading Germans at Saint-Quentin, Aisne.

1911  Ishi, considered the last Native American to make contact with European Americans, emerges from the wilderness of northeastern California.

1898  The Goodyear tire company is founded.

1885 Gottlieb Daimler patents the world’s first internal combustion motorcycle, the Reitwagen.

184Treaty of Nanking signing ends the First Opium War.

1831  Michael Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction.

1825  Kingdom of Portugal recognizes the Independence of Brazil.

Empire of Brazil (1822-1889):

History of Brazil:


1807  British troops under Sir Arthur Wellesly defeat a Danish militia outside Copenhagen in the Battle of Køge.

1786  Shays’ Rebellion, an armed uprising of Massachusetts farmers, begins in response to high debt and tax burdens.

1778  American Revolutionary War: British and American forces battle indecisively at the Battle of Rhode Island.

1758  The first American Indian reservation is established, at Indian Mills, New Jersey.

Native People of America (a.k.a. American Indians):

History of Native People of America:

1756  Frederick the Great attacks Saxony, beginning the Seven Years’ War.

1728  The city of Nuuk in Greenland is founded as the fort of Godt-Haab by the royal governor Claus Paarss.

1541  The Ottoman Turks capture Buda, the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom.





2003  While being towed across the Barents Sea, the de-commissioned Russian submarine K-159 sinks, taking nine of her crew and 800 kg of spent nuclear fuel with her.

1999  East Timor votes for independence from Indonesia in a referendum.

East Timor Referendum for Independence:

1998  Second Congo War: Armed forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and their Angolan and Zimbabwean allies recapture Matadi and the Inga dams in the western DRC from RCD and Rwandan troops.

Second Congo War:

First Congo War (1996-97):

Democratic Republic of the Congo:

Foreign Relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:

Economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:

History (1): Congo Free State (1885-1908):

History (2): Belgian Congo (1908-1960/1964):

History (3) Congo Crisis of 1960:

History (4): Democratic Republic of the Congo (1964- ):

1995  Bosnian War: NATO launches Operation Deliberate Force against Bosnian Serb forces.

NATO and Operation Deliberate Force:


History of Bosnia-Herzegovina:

Independence of Bosnia-Herzegovina:

War in Bosnia-Herzegovina:

Bosnian War on the Ground:

Timeline of the War in Bosnia-Herzegovina:

Foreign Relations of Bosnia-Herzegovina:

Economy of Bosnia-Herzegovina:

1988  France performs nuclear test.

France Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1984  STS-41-D: The Space Shuttle Discovery takes off on its maiden voyage.

1981  President Mohammad-Ali Rajai and Prime Minister Mohammad-Javad Bahonar of Iran are assassinated in a bombing committed by the People’s Mujahedin of Iran.

1974  A powerful bomb explodes at the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries headquarters in Marunouchi, Tokyo, Japan. Eight are killed, 378 are injured. Eight left-wing activists are arrested on May 19, 1975 by Japanese authorities.

1974  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests and Nevada Test Site:

1974  A BelgradeDortmund express train derails at the main train station in Zagreb killing 153 passengers.

1967  Thurgood Marshall is confirmed as the first African American Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

1963  The Moscow–Washington hotline between the leaders of the U.S.A. and the Soviet Union goes into operation.

1958  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at South Atlantic Ocean.

US Nuclear Tests and Operation Argus of 1958:

1957  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Tests and Nevada Test Site:

1956  The Lake Pontchartrain Causeway opens.

1956  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric test) at Semipalintinsk, Kazakhstan:

USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests in 1956:

USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests and Nuclear Test Site at Semipalitinsk:

1945  The August Revolution ends as Emperor Bảo Đại abdicates, ending the Nguyễn dynasty.

1945  The Allied Control Council, governing Germany after World War II, comes into being.

Allied Control Council:

Occupation of Germany:

1945  General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander of the Allied – Powers (SCAP), arrives at Atsugi Airfield, Atsugi City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

General MacArthur’s Arrival in Japan, and the Occupation of Japan:

Research Guide on the Occupation of Japan:

A Few Selected Books:

1945  British Armed Forces recaptures Hong Kong from Japan.

1942  World War II: The Battle of Alam el Halfa begins.

1940  The Second Vienna Award reassigns the territory of Northern Transylvania from Romania to Hungary.

1922  Battle of Dumlupınar: The final battle in the Greco-Turkish War (“Turkish War of Independence”).

1918  Fanni Kaplan shoots and seriously injures Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin. This, along with the assassination of Bolshevik senior official Moisei Uritsky days earlier, prompts the decree for Red Terror.

1917  Vietnamese prison guards led by Trịnh Văn Cấn mutiny at the Thái Nguyên penitentiary against local French authority.

1914  World War I: Germans defeat the Russians in the Battle of Tannenberg

1909  Burgess Shale fossils are discovered by Charles Doolittle Walcott.

1897  The town of Ambiky is captured by France from Menabe in Madagascar.

1896  Philippine Revolution: After Spanish victory in the Battle of San Juan del Monte, eight provinces in the Philippines are declared under martial law by the Spanish Governor-General Ramón Blanco y Erenas.

1873  Austrian explorers Julius von Payer and Karl Weyprecht discover the archipelago of Franz Josef Land in the Arctic Sea.

1836  The city of Houston is founded by Augustus Chapman Allen and John Kirby Allen

1835  Melbourne is founded.

1813  Creek War: Fort Mims massacre: CreekRed Sticks” kill over 500 settlers (including over 250 armed militia) in Fort Mims, north of Mobile, Alabama.

1813  First Battle of Kulm: French forces are defeated by an Austrian-Prussian-Russian alliance.




2014  Protests erupt after China issues a decision to not allow free elections in Hong Kong, instead requiring government approval of any candidate running for office.

2010  In Sudan, the People’s Liberation Army announces it will demobilize its child soldiers by the end of 2010.

Sudan and Child Soldiers:

2006  Edvard Munch‘s famous painting The Scream, stolen on August 22, 2004, is recovered in a raid by Norwegian police.

2005  A stampede on Al-Aaimmah bridge in Baghdad kills 1,199 people.

1999  The first of a series of bombings in Moscow kills one person and wounds 40 others.

1998  North Korea (DPRK) reportedly launches Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1, its first satellite.

Kwangmyŏngsŏng of DPRK:

1997  Diana, Princess of Wales, her companion Dodi Fayed and driver Henri Paul die in a car crash in Paris.

Death of Princess Diana:

1996  Saddam Hussein‘s troops seized Irbil after the Kurdish Masoud Barzani appealed for help to defeat his Kurdish rival PUK.

Iraqi Troops and Iraqi Kurdish Civil War:

1994  The Provisional Irish Republican Army declares a ceasefire.

Ceasefire of the Provisional IRA of 1994:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

IRA’s Terrorism:

History of the IRA:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1992  Pascal Lissouba is inaugurated as the President of the Republic of the Congo.

Republic of the Congo:

1991  Kyrgyzstan declares its independence from the Soviet Union.


1986  The Soviet passenger liner Admiral Nakhimov sinks in the Black Sea after colliding with the bulk carrier Pyotr Vasev, killing 423.

Admiral Nakhimov and Its Fate:

1982  Anti-government demonstrations are held in 66 Polish cities to commemorate the second anniversary of the Gdańsk Agreement.

Martial Law and Solidarity on December 13, 1981:

History of Solidarity Trade Union of Poland:

History of Poland:


Foreign Relations of Poland:

Economy of Poland:

1982  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests in 1982:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1980  Flood in Ibadan after 12 hours of heavy downpour killed over 300 people and properties worth million destroyed.

1980  After two weeks of nationwide strikes, the Polish government was forced to sign the Gdańsk Agreement, allowing for the creation of the trade union Solidarity.

Solidarity – A Trade Union of Poland:

History of Solidarity Trade Union of Poland:

Martial Law and Solidarity on December 13, 1981:

History of Poland:


1978  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1965  The Aero Spacelines Super Guppy aircraft makes its first flight.

1963  North Borneo (now Sabah) achieve a self governance.

1962  Trinidad and Tobago becomes independent.

Trinidad and Tobago:

1958  A parcel bomb sent by Ngo Dinh Nhu, younger brother and chief adviser of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem, fails to kill King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia.

1957  The Federation of Malaya (now Malaysia) gains its independence from the United Kingdom.

Malaysia and Its History:

1949  The retreat of the Democratic Army of Greece in Albania after its defeat on Gramos mountain marks the end of the Greek Civil War.

Greek Civil War:

Modern History of Greece:

1945  The Liberal Party of Australia is founded by Robert Menzies.

1941  World War II: Serbian paramilitary forces defeat Germans in the Battle of Loznica.

193Nazi Germany mounts a staged attack on the Gleiwitz radio station, creating an excuse to attack Poland the following day thus starting World War II in Europe.

Gleiwitz Incident of 1939:

History of Poland:


1935  In an attempt to stay out of the growing turmoil in Europe, the United States passes the first of its Neutrality Acts.

1936  Radio Prague, now the official international broadcasting station of the Czech Republic, goes on the air.

1920  The first radio news program is broadcast by 8MK in Detroit, Michigan.

1920  Polish-Bolshevik War: A decisive Polish victory in the Battle of Komarów.

Battle of Komarów:

Polish-Bolshevik War:

Relations between Poland and Russia/USSR in Modern History:

History of Poland:

1918  World War I: Start of the Battle of Mont Saint-Quentin, a successful assault by the Australian Corps during the Hundred Days Offensive.

1907  Count Alexander Izvolsky and Sir Arthur Nicolson sign the St. Petersburg Convention, which results in the Triple Entente alliance.

1897  Thomas Edison patents the Kinetoscope, the first movie projector.

1895  German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin patents his Navigable Balloon.

1888  Mary Ann Nichols is murdered. She is the first of Jack the Ripper‘s confirmed victims.

1876  Ottoman Sultan Murat V is deposed and succeeded by his brother Abd-ul-Hamid II.

1813  At the final stage of the Peninsular War, British-Portuguese troops capture the town of Donostia (now San Sebastián), resulting in a rampage and eventual destruction of the town. Elsewhere, Spanish troops repel a French attack in the Battle of San Marcial.

1803  Lewis and Clark start their expedition to the west by leaving Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania at 11 in the morning.

1798  Irish Rebellion of 1798: Irish rebels, with French assistance, establish the short-lived Republic of Connacht.

Irish Rebellion of 1798:

History of Ireland:

Irish War of Independence:

1795  War of the First Coalition: The British capture Trincomalee (present-day Sri Lanka) from the Dutch in order to keep it out of French hands.




2004  The Beslan school hostage crisis commences when armed terrorists take children and adults hostage in Beslan in North Ossetia, Russia.

1991  Uzbekistan declares independence from the Soviet Union.

Uzbekistan and Its History:

Independence of Uzbekistan:

1983  Cold War: Korean Air Lines Flight 007 is shot down by a Soviet Union jet fighter when the commercial aircraft enters Soviet airspace. All 269 on board die, including Congressman Lawrence McDonald.

Korean Air Lines Flight 007:

1983  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1982  The United States Air Force Space Command is founded.

1981  A coup d’état in the Central African Republic overthrows President David Dacko.

Coup in the Central African Republic of 1981:

1980  Major General Chun Doo-hwan becomes President of South Korea, following the resignation of Choi Kyu-hah.

1980  Terry Fox‘s Marathon of Hope ends near Thunder Bay, Ontario.

1979  The American space probe Pioneer 11 becomes the first spacecraft to visit Saturn when it passes the planet at a distance of 21,000 kilometres (13,000 mi).

1977  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests in 1977:

USSR Nuclear Weapons Test and the Novaya Zemlya Test Site:

1974  The SR-71 Blackbird sets (and holds) the record for flying from New York to London in the time of 1 hour, 54 minutes and 56.4 seconds at a speed of 1,435.587 miles per hour (2,310.353 km/h).

1970  Attempted assassination of King Hussein of Jordan by Palestinian guerrillas, who attack his motorcade.

Assassination Attempt of King Hussein of Jordan of September 1970:

1969  Trần Thiện Khiêm becomes Prime Minister of South Vietnam under President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu.

1969  A coup in Libya brings Muammar Gaddafi to power.

Coup in Libya of 1969 and Gaddafi:

1967  The Khmer–Chinese Friendship Association is banned in Cambodia

1962  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests in 1962:

1961  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1961:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

1961  The Eritrean War of Independence officially begins with the shooting of the Ethiopian police by Hamid Idris Awate.

Eritrean War of Independence:

Eritrea and Its History:

1958  Iceland expands its fishing zone, putting it into conflict with the United Kingdom, beginning the Cod Wars.

Cod Wars:

1952  The Old Man and the Sea, the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Ernest Hemingway, is first published.

The Old Man and the Sea:

1951  The United States, Australia and New Zealand sign a mutual defense pact, called the ANZUS Treaty.

ANZUS Treaty:

1939  Switzerland mobilizes its forces and the Swiss Parliament elects Henri Guisan to head the Swiss Army (an event that can happen only during war or mobilization).

1939  The Wound Badge for Wehrmacht, SS, Kriegsmarine, and Luftwaffe soldiers is instituted. The final version of the Iron Cross is also instituted on this date.

1939  General George C. Marshall becomes Chief of Staff of the United States Army.

1939  Adolf Hitler signs an order to begin the systematic euthanasia of mentally ill and disabled people.

Nazi/Hitler’s Systematic Euthanasia of Mentally Ill and Disable People:

Adolf Hitler:

1939  World War II: Nazi Germany and Slovakia invade Poland, beginning the European phase of World War II.

Nazi Germany and Slovakia’s Invasion of Poland:

History of Nazi Germany:

1934  SMJK Sam Tet is founded by Father Fourgs from the St. Michael Church, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

1928  Ahmet Zogu declares Albania to be a monarchy and proclaims himself king.

1923  The Great Kantō earthquake devastates Tokyo and Yokohama, killing about 105,000 people.

1914  St. Petersburg, Russia, changes its name to Petrograd.

1906  The International Federation of Intellectual Property Attorneys is established.

1880  The army of Mohammad Ayub Khan is routed by the British at the Battle of Kandahar, ending the Second Anglo-Afghan War

Second Anglo-Afghan War:

1878  Emma Nutt becomes the world’s first female telephone operator when she is recruited by Alexander Graham Bell to the Boston Telephone Dispatch Company.

1873  Cetshwayo ascends to the throne as king of the Zulu nation following the death of his father Mpande.

1870 Franco-Prussian War: the Battle of Sedan is fought, resulting in a decisive Prussian victory.

Battle of Sedan:

Franco-Prussian War:

Timelines of the Franco-Prussian War:

1804  Juno, one of the four largest asteroids in the Main Belt, is discovered by the German astronomer Karl Ludwig Harding.




1998  The UN‘s International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda finds Jean-Paul Akayesu, the former mayor of a small town in Rwanda, guilty of nine counts of genocide.

UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and Jean-Paul Akayesu:

1998  Swissair Flight 111 crashes near Peggys Cove, Nova Scotia. All 229 people on board are killed.

1992  An earthquake in Nicaragua kills at least 116 people.

1990  Transnistria is unilaterally proclaimed a Soviet republic; the Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev declares the decision null and void.


1981  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests in 1981:

USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests:

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalitinsk, Kazakhstan, Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1972  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1972:

1970  NASA announces the cancellation of two Apollo missions to the Moon, Apollo 15 (the designation is re-used by a later mission), and Apollo 19.

1968  Operation OAU begins during the Nigerian Civil War

Nigeria and Its History:

Nigerian Civil War:

1963  CBS Evening News becomes U.S. network television‘s first half-hour weeknight news broadcast, when the show is lengthened from 15 to 30 minutes.

1962  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1962:

Novaya Zemlya Test Site:

1960  The first election of the Parliament of the Central Tibetan Administration, in history of Tibet. The Tibetan community observes this date as the Democracy Day.

History of Tibet:

Tibetan Uprising of 1959:

Economy of Tibet:

Tibetan Issues:

14th Dalai Lama:

1958  United States Air Force C-130A-II is shot down by fighters over Yerevan in Armenia when it strays into Soviet airspace while conducting a sigint mission. All crew members are killed.

1957  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

United States Nuclear Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1957  President Ngô Đình Diệm of South Vietnam becomes the first foreign head of state to make a state visit to Australia.

1946  The interim government of India is formed, headed by Jawaharlal Nehru as Vice President with the powers of a Prime Minister.

1945  Vietnam declares its independence, forming the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

History of Vietnam:

Independence of Vietnam:

1945  World War II: Combat ends in the Pacific Theater: the Instrument of Surrender of Japan is signed by Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu and accepted aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.

Instrument of Surrender:

1939  World War II: following the start of the invasion of Poland the previous day, the Free City of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) is annexed by Nazi Germany.

1935  Labor Day Hurricane of 1935: a large hurricane hits the Florida Keys killing 423.

1912  Arthur Rose Eldred is awarded the first Eagle Scout award of the Boy Scouts of America.

1901  Vice President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt utters the famous phrase, “Speak softly and carry a big stick” at the Minnesota State Fair.

1898  Battle of OmdurmanBritish and Egyptian troops defeat Sudanese tribesmen and establish British dominance in Sudan.

1885  Rock Springs massacre: in Rock Springs, Wyoming, 150 white miners, who are struggling to unionize so they could strike for better wages and work conditions, attack their Chinese fellow workers killing 28, wounding 15 and forcing several hundred more out of town.

1870  Franco-Prussian War: Battle of SedanPrussian forces take Napoleon III of France and 100,000 of his soldiers prisoner.

Battle of Sedan:

Franco-Prussian War:

Timelines of the Franco-Prussian War:

1867  Mutsuhito, Emperor Meiji of Japan, marries Masako Ichijō. The Empress consort is thereafter known as Lady Haruko. Since her death in 1914, she is called by the posthumous name Empress Shōken.

1864  American Civil War: Union forces enter Atlanta, Georgia, a day after the Confederate defenders flee the city, ending the Atlanta Campaign.

1862  American Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln reluctantly restores Union General George B. McClellan to full command after General John Pope‘s disastrous defeat at the Second Battle of Bull Run.

1859  A solar super storm affects electrical telegraph service.

1856  The Tianjing Incident takes place in Nanjing, China.

1833  Oberlin College is founded by John Jay Shipherd and Philo P. Stewart in Oberlin, Ohio.

1811  The University of Oslo is founded as The Royal Fredericks University, after Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway.

1807  The Royal Navy bombards Copenhagen with fire bombs and phosphorus rockets to prevent Denmark from surrendering its fleet to Napoleon.

1806  A massive landslide destroys the town of Goldau, Switzerland, killing 457.

1792  During what became known as the September Massacres of the French Revolution, rampaging mobs slaughter three Roman Catholic Church bishops, more than two hundred priests, and prisoners believed to be royalist sympathizers.

1752  Great Britain adopts the Gregorian calendar, nearly two centuries later than most of Western Europe.




2014  Heavy monsoon rains and flash floods leave over 200 people dead across India and Pakistan.

2004  The Beslan school hostage crisis ends on its third day with the deaths of over 300 people, more than half of whom are children.

2001  In Belfast, Protestant loyalists begin a picket of Holy Cross, a Catholic primary school for girls. For the next 11 weeks, riot police escort the schoolchildren and their parents through hundreds of protesters, some of whom hurl missiles and abuse. The protest sparks fierce rioting and grabs world headlines.

Northern Ireland Conflict:

Timelines of the Northern Ireland Conflict:

Catholic Church, Sinn Féin, IRA:

1994  Sino-Soviet split: Russia and the People’s Republic of China agree to de-target their nuclear weapons against each other.

Sino-Soviet Split:

1987  In a coup d’état in Burundi, President Jean-Baptiste Bagaza is deposed by Major Pierre Buyoya.

Burundian Coup d’etat in 1987:

History of Burundi:

1976  Viking program: The American Viking 2 spacecraft lands at Utopia Planitia on Mars.

Viking Program:

1971  Qatar becomes an independent state.

Qatar and Its History:

Independence of Qatar:

Foreign Relations of Qatar:

1967  Dagen H in Sweden: Traffic changes from driving on the left to driving on the right overnight.

1954  The German U-boat U-505 begins its move from a specially constructed dock to its final site at Chicago’s Museum of Science and Industry.

1954  The People’s Liberation Army begins shelling the Republic of China-controlled islands of Quemoy (a.k.a. Kinmen), starting the First Taiwan Strait Crisis.

First Taiwan Strait Crisis:

Quemoy a.k.a. Kinmen:

History of Taiwan:

1945  A three-day celebration begins in China, following the Victory over Japan Day on September 2.

1944  Holocaust: Diarist Anne Frank and her family are placed on the last transport train from the Westerbork transit camp to the Auschwitz concentration camp, arriving three days later.

Anne Frank:

The Diary of a Young Girl:

Final Days of Anne Frank:

Anne and Margot Frank and the Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp:

The Holocaust and the Auschwitz:

Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp:

1943  World War II: The Allied invasion of Italy begins on the same day that U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Italian Marshal Pietro Badoglio sign the Armistice of Cassibile aboard the Royal Navy battleship HMS Nelson off Malta.

Armistice of Cassibile, 1943:

1942  World War II: In response to news of its coming liquidation, Dov Lopatyn leads an uprising in the Ghetto of Lakhva, in present-day Belarus.

Ghetto of Lakhva:

1941  The Holocaust: Karl Fritzsch, deputy camp commandant of the Auschwitz concentration camp, experiments with the use of Zyklon B in the gassing of Soviet POWs.

Medical Experiments with the Use of Zyklon B:

The Holocaust and the Auschwitz:

Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp:

Gas Chamber at Auschwitz:

Case Study (1): Medical Experiments of POWs by Japan’s 731 Unit:

Case Study (2): CIA’s Project UK-Ultra:

Case Study (3): Contemporary Medical Ethics?

1939  World War II: The United Kingdom and France begin a naval blockade of Germany that lasts until the end of the war. This also marks the beginning of the Battle of the Atlantic.

1939  World War II: France, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia declare war on Germany after the invasion of Poland, forming the Allies.

German Invasion of Poland of 1939:

1935  Sir Malcolm Campbell reaches a speed of 304.331 miles per hour on the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, becoming the first person to drive an automobile over 300 mph.

1933  Yevgeniy Abalakov is the first man to reach the highest point in the Soviet Union, Communism Peak (now called Ismoil Somoni Peak and situated in Tajikistan) (7495 m).

1916 World War I: Leefe Robinson destroys the German airship Schütte-Lanz SL 11 over Cuffley, north of London; the first German airship to be shot down on British soil.

1914  World War I: Start of the Battle of Grand Couronné, a German assault against French positions on high ground near the city of Nancy.

1914  William, Prince of Albania leaves the country after just six months due to opposition to his rule.

1879  Siege of the British Residency in Kabul: British envoy Sir Louis Cavagnari and 72 men of the The Guides are massacred by Afghan troops while defending the British Residency in Kabul. Their heroism and loyalty became famous and revered throughout the British Empire.

Siege of the British Residency in Kabul, 1879:

Anglo-Afghan Wars:

History of Afghanistan

1870  Franco-Prussian War: The Siege of Metz begins, resulting in a decisive Prussian victory on October 23.

Siege of Metz of 1870:

Franco-Prussian War:

Timelines of the Franco-Prussian War:

185American Indian Wars: In Nebraska, 700 soldiers under United States General William S. Harney avenge the Grattan massacre by attacking a Sioux village and killing 100 men, women and children.

Wars of Native People of North America:

Genocides Committed against Native Americans:

Genocide Committed against Native Caucasians:

Indigenous Peoples and Their Rights:

1843  King Otto of Greece is forced to grant a constitution following an uprising in Athens.

1838  Future abolitionist Frederick Douglass escapes from slavery.

1812  Twenty-four settlers are killed in the Pigeon Roost Massacre in Indiana.

1802  William Wordsworth composes the sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802.

1798  The week long battle of St. George’s Caye begins between Spain and Britain off the coast of Belize.




2007  Three terrorists suspected to be a part of Al-Qaeda are arrested in Germany after allegedly planning attacks on both the Frankfurt International airport and US military installations.


1998  Google is founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, two students at Stanford University.

1996  War on Drugs: Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) attack a military base in Guaviare, starting three weeks of guerrilla warfare in which at least 130 Colombians are killed.

1989  In Leipzig, East Germany, the first of weekly demonstration for the legalization of opposition groups and democratic reforms takes place.

1985  The discovery of Buckminsterfullerene, the first fullerene molecule of carbon.

1982  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1981  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

United States Nuclear Tests:

Nevada Test Site:

1977  The Golden Dragon massacre takes place in San Francisco.

1975  The Sinai Interim Agreement relating to the Arab–Israeli conflict is signed.

1972  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

1972  Mark Spitz becomes the first competitor to win seven medals at a single Olympic Games.

1970  Salvador Allende is elected President of Chile.

1967  Vietnam War: Operation Swift begins when U.S. Marines engage the North Vietnamese in battle in the Que Son Valley.

Vietnam War in 1967:

Operation Swift:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement or Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War:

1957  American Civil Rights Movement: Little Rock Crisis: Orval Faubus, governor of Arkansas, calls out the National Guard to prevent African American students from enrolling in Central High School.

History of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States – Overview:

Civil Rights Movements of Various Ethnic Minorities in the United States:

1951  US President Harry Truman addresses opening of the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference.

Truman’s Speech on the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference:

1951  The first live transcontinental television broadcast takes place in San Francisco, from the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference.

The First Transcontinental Live Television from the San Francisco Peace Conference:

Peace Treaty with Japan of Sep 8, 1951:

“Peace Treaty with Japan” and the “Security Treaty between the US and Japan” [Be aware that the “Peace Treaty with Japan” and the “Security Treaty between the US and Japan” were signed on the same day in San Francisco.]:

1949  The Peekskill Riots erupt after a Paul Robeson concert in Peekskill, New York.

1944  World War II: Finland exits from the war with Soviet Union.

1944  World War II: The British 11th Armoured Division liberates the Belgian city of Antwerp.

1941  World War II: A German submarine makes the first attack against a United States ship, the USS Greer.

1939  World War II: A Bristol Blenheim is the first British aircraft to cross the German coast following the declaration of war and German ships are bombed.

1923  Maiden flight of the first U.S. airship, the USS Shenandoah.

1919  Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who founded the Republic of Turkey, gathers a congress in Sivas to make decisions as to the future of Anatolia and Thrace.

191Albanian rebels succeed in their revolt when the Ottoman Empire agrees to fulfill their demands.

1888  George Eastman registers the trademark Kodak and receives a patent for his camera that uses roll film.

1886  American Indian Wars: After almost 30 years of fighting, Apache leader Geronimo, with his remaining warriors, surrenders to General Nelson Miles in Arizona.

Native People of America (a.k.a. American Indians):

History of Native People of America:

Wars of Native People of North America:

Genocides Committed against Native Americans:

Genocide Committed against Native Caucasians:

Indigenous Peoples and Their Rights:

1882  Thomas Edison flips the switch to the first commercial electrical power plant in history, lighting one square mile of lower Manhattan. This is considered by many as the day that began the electrical age.

1870  Emperor Napoleon III of France is deposed and the Third Republic is declared.

181War of 1812: The Siege of Fort Harrison begins when the fort is set on fire.

1800  The French garrison in Valletta surrenders to British troops who had been called at the invitation of the Maltese. The islands of Malta and Gozo become the Malta Protectorate.

1797  Coup of 18 Fructidor in France.

1781  Los Angeles is founded as El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora La Reina de los Ángeles de Porciúncula (The Village of Our Lady, the Queen of the Angels of Porziuncola) by 44 Spanish settlers.

1774  New Caledonia is first sighted by Europeans, during the second voyage of Captain James Cook.

1666  In London, England, the most destructive damage from the Great Fire occurs.

1479  The Treaty of Alcáçovas is signed by the Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon on one side and Afonso V and his son, Prince John of Portugal.


(Sources and references:   to_september_4;   to september/4;   to september_4.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 29 Aug 2016.

Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week in History, is included. Thank you.

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