This Week in History

HISTORY, 24 Aug 2015

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

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August 24-30


Hasten slowly and ye shall soon arrive.” – Milarepa


2006  The International Astronomical Union (IAU) redefines the term “planet” such that Pluto is now considered a dwarf planet.

2004  Eighty-nine passengers die after two airliners explode after flying out of Domodedovo International Airport, near Moscow. The explosions are caused by suicide bombers (reportedly female) from the Russian Republic of Chechnya.

2001  Air Transat Flight 236 runs out of fuel over the Atlantic Ocean (en route to Lisbon from Toronto) and makes an emergency landing in the Azores.

1998  First radio-frequency identification (RFID) human implantation tested in the United Kingdom.

RFID, Ethics, and Privacy/Human Rights:

1994  Initial accord between Israel and the PLO about partial self-rule of the Palestinians on the West Bank.

1991  Ukraine declares itself independent from the Soviet Union.

1991  Mikhail Gorbachev resigns as head of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

1989  Tadeusz Mazowiecki is chosen as the first non-communist Prime Minister in Central and Eastern Europe.

1989  Colombian drug barons declare “total war” on the Colombian government.

1981  Mark David Chapman is sentenced to 20 years to life in prison for murdering John Lennon.

1978  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

1967  Led by Abbie Hoffman, the Youth International Party temporarily disrupts trading at the New York Stock Exchange by throwing dollar bills from the viewing gallery, causing trading to cease as brokers scramble to grab them.

1966  USSR launches Luna 11 for orbit around Moon.

1963  Buddhist crisis: As a result of the Xá Lợi Pagoda raids, the US State Department cables the United States Embassy, Saigon to encourage Army of the Republic of Vietnam generals to launch a coup against President Ngo Dinh Diem if he did not remove his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu.

1962  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1954  Getúlio Dornelles Vargas, president of Brazil, commits suicide and is succeeded by João Café Filho.

1954  The Communist Control Act goes into effect, outlawing the American Communist Party.

1950  Edith Sampson becomes the first black U.S. delegate to the United Nations.

1949  The treaty creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organization goes into effect.

History of NATO:

Problems of NATO:

The United States and NATO:

1944  World War II: Allied troops begin the attack on Paris.

1942  World War II: The Battle of the Eastern Solomons. Japanese aircraft carrier Ryūjō is sunk and US carrier USS Enterprise heavily damaged.

1941  Adolf Hitler orders the cessation of Nazi Germany’s systematic T4 euthanasia program of the mentally ill and the handicapped due to protests, although killings continue for the remainder of the war.

1937  Spanish Civil War: Sovereign Council of Asturias and León is proclaimed in Gijón.

1937  Spanish Civil War: the Basque Army surrenders to the Italian Corpo Truppe Volontarie following the Santoña Agreement.

1936  The Australian Antarctic Territory is created.

The Australian Antarctic Territory:

Pertinent Legal Issues of the Australian Antarctic Territory

The Antarctic and International Law:


1932  Amelia Earhart becomes the first woman to fly across the United States non-stop (from Los Angeles to Newark, New Jersey).

1931  Resignation of the United Kingdom’s Second Labour Government. Formation of the UK National Government.

1931  France and the Soviet Union sign a neutrality/no attack treaty.

1929  Second day of two-day Hebron massacre during the 1929 Palestine riots: Arab attacks on the Jewish community in Hebron in the British Mandate of Palestine, result in the death of 65-68 Jews and the remaining Jews being forced to leave the city.

1914  World War I: The Battle of Cer ends as the first Allied victory in the war.

1914  World War I: German troops capture Namur.

1909  Workers start pouring concrete for the Panama Canal.

1898  Count Muravyov, Foreign Minister of Russia presents a rescript that convoked the First Hague Peace Conference.

1891  Thomas Edison patents the motion picture camera.

1875  Captain Matthew Webb became first person to swim the English Channel

1870  The Wolseley Expedition reaches Manitoba to end the Red River Rebellion.

1857  The Panic of 1857 begins, setting off one of the most severe economic crises in United States history.

1821  The Treaty of Córdoba is signed in Córdoba, now in Veracruz, Mexico, concluding the Mexican War of Independence from Spain.

1820  Constitutionalist insurrection at Oporto, Portugal.

1816  The Treaty of St. Louis is signed in St. Louis, Missouri.

1815  The modern Constitution of the Netherlands is signed.

1814  British troops invade Washington, D.C. and during the Burning of Washington the White House, the Capitol and many other buildings are set ablaze.

1690 Job Charnock of the East India Company establishes a factory in Calcutta, an event formerly considered the founding of the city (in 2003 the Calcutta High Court ruled that the city has no birthday).



2012  Voyager 1 spacecraft enters interstellar space becoming the first man-made object to do so.

2003  The Tli Cho land claims agreement is signed between the Dogrib First Nations and the Canadian federal government in Rae-Edzo (now called Behchoko).

1997  Egon Krenz, the former East German leader, is convicted of a shoot-to-kill policy at the Berlin Wall.

1991  Linus Torvalds announces the first version of what will become Linux.

1991  The Battle of Vukovar begins. An 87-day siege of a Croatian city by the Yugoslav People’s Army (JNA), supported by various Serbian paramilitary forces, between August–November, during the Croatian War of Independence

1991  Belarus gains its independence from the Soviet Union

1990  UN Security Council (Resolution 665 (1990)) authorizes military action against Iraq.

1989  Mayumi Moriyama becomes Japan‘s first female cabinet secretary.

1989  Voyager 2 spacecraft makes its closest approach to Neptune, the second to last planet in the Solar System at the time.

1984  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

1981  Voyager 2 spacecraft makes its closest approach to Saturn

1980  Zimbabwe joins the United Nations.

1967  George Lincoln Rockwell is assassinated.

1966  Sayyid Qutb is executed in Egypt.

1962  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1962  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

1961  President Jânio Quadros of Brazil resigns after just seven months in power, initiating a political crisis that culminates in a military coup in 1964.

1950  President Harry Truman orders the U.S. Army to seize control of the nation’s railroads to avert a strike.

1948  The House Un-American Activities Committee holds first-ever televised congressional hearing: “Confrontation Day” between Whittaker Chambers and Alger Hiss.

1945  Ten days after World War II ends with Japan announcing its surrender, armed supporters of the Chinese Communist Party kill U.S. intelligence officer John Birch, regarded by some of the American right as the first victim of the Cold War.

1944  World War II: Paris is liberated by the Allies.

1942  World War II: second day of the Battle of the Eastern Solomons. A Japanese naval transport convoy headed towards Guadalcanal is turned-back by an Allied air attack, losing one destroyer and one transport sunk, and one light cruiser heavily damaged.

1942  World War II: Battle of Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea.

1939  The United Kingdom and Poland form a military alliance in which the UK promises to defend Poland in case of invasion by a foreign power.

1933  The Diexi earthquake strikes Mao County, Sichuan, China and kills 9,000 people.

1921  The first skirmishes of the Battle of Blair Mountain occur.

1920  Polish–Soviet War: Battle of Warsaw, which began on August 13, ends with the Red Army‘s defeat.

1916  The United States National Park Service is created.

1914  World War I: The library of the Catholic University of Leuven is deliberately destroyed by the German Army. Hundreds of thousands of irreplaceable volumes and Gothic and Renaissance manuscripts are lost.

1912  The Kuomintang, the Chinese nationalist party, is founded.

1898  Seven hundred Greek civilians, 17 British guards and the British Consul of Crete are killed by a Turkish mob in Heraklion, Greece.

1894  Kitasato Shibasaburō discovers the infectious agent of the bubonic plague and publishes his findings in The Lancet.

1883  France and Viet Nam sign the Treaty of Huế, recognizing a French protectorate over Annam and Tonkin.

1875  Captain Matthew Webb became the first person to swim across the English Channel, traveling from Dover, England, to Calais, France, in 22 hours.

1835  The New York Sun perpetrates the Great Moon Hoax.

1830  The Belgian Revolution begins.

1825  Uruguay declares its independence from Brazil.

1768  James Cook begins his first voyage.

1758  Seven Years’ War: Frederick II of Prussia defeats the Russian army at the Battle of Zorndorf.

1630  Portuguese forces are defeated by the Kingdom of Kandy at the Battle of Randeniwela in Sri Lanka.

1609  Galileo Galilei demonstrates his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers.

1580  Battle of Alcântara. Spain defeats Portugal.



2013  Nationwide protests are held across the Philippines over the Priority Development Assistance Fund scam.

2002  Earth Summit 2002 begins in Johannesburg, South Africa.

1999  Russia begins the Second Chechen War in response to the Invasion of Dagestan by the Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade.

1997  Beni Ali massacre in Algeria where 60 to 100 people were killed.

1980  John Birges plants a bomb at Harvey’s Resort Hotel in Stateline, Nevada, US.

1978  Sigmund Jähn becomes first German cosmonaut, on board Soyuz 31.

1978  Papal conclave: Albino Luciani is elected as Pope John Paul I.

1977  The Charter of the French Language is adopted by the National Assembly of Quebec

1972  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1970  The then-new feminist movement, led by Betty Friedan, leads a nationwide Women’s Strike for Equality.

1966  The Namibian War of Independence starts with the battle at Omugulugwombashe.

1957  USSR announces successful test of intercontinental ballistic missile.

1944  World War II: Charles de Gaulle enters Paris.

1942  The Holocaust in Chortkiav, western Ukraine: At 2.30 am the German Schutzpolizei starts driving Jews out of their houses, divides them into groups of 120, packs them in freight cars and deports 2000 to Bełżec extermination camp. Five hundred of the sick and children are murdered on the spot.

1940  Chad becomes the first French colony to join the Allies under the administration of Félix Éboué, France’s first black colonial governor.

1920  The 19th amendment to United States Constitution takes effect, giving women the right to vote.

1914  World War I: During the retreat from Mons, the British II Corps commanded by General Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien fought a vigorous and successful defensive action at Le Cateau.

1914  World War I: The German colony of Togoland surrenders to French and British forces after a 20 day campaign.

1914  In Brazil, Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras is founded.

1883  The 1883 eruption of Krakatoa begins its final, paroxysmal, stage.

1821  The University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is officially opened.

1814  Chilean War of Independence: Infighting between the rebel forces of José Miguel Carrera and Bernardo O’Higgins erupts in the Battle of Las Tres Acequias.

1813  War of the Sixth Coalition: An impromptu battle takes place when French and Prussian-Russian forces accidentally run into each other near Liegnitz, Prussia (now Legnica, Poland).

1810  The former viceroy Santiago de Liniers of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata is executed after the defeat of his counter-revolution.

1791  John Fitch is granted a United States patent for the steamboat.

1789  The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen is approved by the National Constituent Assembly of France.

1778  The first recorded ascent of Triglav, the highest mountain in Slovenia.

1768  Captain James Cook sets sail from England on board HMS Endeavour.

1498  Michelangelo is commissioned to carve the Pietà.



2013  The riots between two religious communities started at Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India.

2009  Internal conflict in Burma: The Burmese military junta and ethnic armies begin three days of violent clashes in the Kokang Special Region.

2003  The first six-party talks, involving South and North Korea, the United States, China, Japan and Russia, convene to find a peaceful resolution to the security concerns as a result of the North Korean nuclear weapons program.

2003  Mars makes its closest approach to Earth in nearly 60,000 years, passing 34,646,418 miles (55,758,005 km) distant.

1993  The Rainbow Bridge, connecting Tokyo’s Shibaura and the island of Odaiba, is completed.

1991  Moldova declares independence from the USSR.

History of Moldova:

Independence of Moldova:

1991  The European Community recognizes the independence of the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

History and Social Issues of Estonia:

Independence of Estonia:

History and Social Issues of Latvia:

Independence of Latvia:

History and Social Issues of Lithuania:

Independence of Lithuania

Russia and the Baltic States:

1985  The Nigerian government is peacefully overthrown by Army Chief of Staff Major General Ibrahim Babangida.

1982  Turkish military diplomat Colonel Atilla Altıkat is shot and killed in Ottawa, Canada’s capital city. Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide claim responsibility, saying they are avenging the massacre of 1.5 million Armenians in the 1915 Armenian Genocide.

Regarding the Armenian Genocide of 1915, visit relevant web pages of This Week in History, including, April 24, 1915  The arrest of 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders in Istanbul marks the beginning of the Armenian Genocide.”, May 6, 1975  During a lull in fighting, 100,000 Armenians gather in Beirut to commemorate 60th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide.” , and/or the TMS Search on the Armenian Genocide.

The Armenian Genocide of 1915:

Why Does Turkey Deny the Armenian Genocide? :

1979  A Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb kills British retired admiral Lord Mountbatten and three others while they are boating on holiday in Sligo, Republic of Ireland. Shortly after, 18 British Army soldiers are killed in an ambush near Warrenpoint, Northern Ireland.

1975  The Governor of Portuguese Timor abandons its capital, Dili, and flees to Atauro Island, leaving control to a rebel group.

Timor-Leste (East Timor):

Timor-Leste, and the Vatican:

1971  An attempted coup d’état fails in the African nation of Chad. The Government of Chad accuses Egypt of playing a role in the attempt and breaks off diplomatic relations.

1964  South Vietnamese junta leader Nguyễn Khánh enters into a triumvirate power-sharing arrangement with rival generals Trần Thiện Khiêm and Dương Văn Minh, who had both been involved in plots to unseat Khánh.

1962  The Mariner 2 unmanned space mission is launched to Venus by NASA.

1957  Malaysia’s constitution comes into force.

1943  World War II: Japanese forces evacuate New Georgia Island in the Pacific Theater of Operations during World War II.

1939  First flight of the turbojet-powered Heinkel He 178, the world’s first jet aircraft.

1933  The first Afrikaans Bible is introduced during a Bible Festival in Bloemfontein.

1928  The Kellogg–Briand Pact outlawing war is signed by the first fifteen nations to do so. Ultimately sixty-one nations will sign it.

For the Kellogg-Briand Pact, visit also, JUNE 24, 1929 The Kellogg–Briand Pact, a.k.a. the Pact of Paris, renouncing war as an instrument of foreign policy, goes into effect (it is first signed in Paris on August 27, 1928 by most leading world powers).” of This Week in History.

The Kellogg-Briand Pact:

“Kellogg-Briand Pact” and “Article 9 (Renunciation of War) of the Constitution of Japan”:

Frank B. Kellogg, and Aristide Briand:

Bibliography on the Kellogg-Briand Pact:

1927  Five Canadian women file a petition to the Supreme Court of Canada, asking, “Does the word ‘Persons’ in Section 24 of the British North America Act, 1867, include female persons?”

1922  Greco-Turkish War: The Turkish army takes the Aegean city of Afyonkarahisar from the Kingdom of Greece.

1921  The British install the son of Sharif Hussein bin Ali (leader of the Arab Revolt of 1916 against the Ottoman Empire) as King Faisal I of Iraq.

1918  Mexican Revolution: Battle of Ambos Nogales: U.S. Army forces skirmish against Mexican Carrancistas and their German advisors in the only battle of World War I fought on American soil.

1916  The Kingdom of Romania declares war on Austria-Hungary, entering World War I as one of the Allied nations.

1914  Battle of Étreux: A British rearguard action by the Royal Munster Fusiliers during the Great Retreat.

1896  Anglo-Zanzibar War: The shortest war in world history (09:00 to 09:45), between the United Kingdom and Zanzibar.

1859  Petroleum is discovered in Titusville, Pennsylvania leading to the world’s first commercially successful oil well.

1832 Black Hawk, leader of the Sauk tribe of Native Americans, surrenders to U.S. authorities, ending the Black Hawk War.

1828  Uruguay is formally proclaimed independent at preliminary peace talks brokered by the United Kingdom between Brazil and Argentina during the Cisplatine War.

History and Culture of Uruguay:

Independence of Uruguay:

1813  French Emperor Napoleon I defeats a larger force of Austrians, Russians, and Prussians at the Battle of Dresden.

1810  Napoleonic Wars: The French Navy defeats the British Royal Navy, preventing them from taking the harbour of Grand Port on Île de France.

1798  Wolfe Tone‘s United Irish and French forces clash with the British Army in the Battle of Castlebar, part of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, resulting in the creation of the French puppet Republic of Connacht.

1793  French Revolutionary Wars: The city of Toulon revolts against the French Republic and admits the British and Spanish fleets to seize its port, leading to the Siege of Toulon by French Revolutionary forces.

1776  Battle of Long Island: In what is now Brooklyn, New York, British forces under General William Howe defeat Americans under General George Washington.

1689  The Treaty of Nerchinsk is signed by Russia and the Qing Empire (Julian calendar).



1998  Second Congo War: Loyalist troops backed by Angolan and Zimbabwean forces repulse the RCD and Rwandan offensive on Kinshasa.

1998  Pakistan‘s National Assembly passes a constitutional amendment to make the “Qur’an and Sunnah” the “supreme law” but the bill is defeated in the Senate.

1990  Iraq declares Kuwait to be its newest province.

History of Kuwait:

Iraq and Kuwait:

UN Security Council Resolutions:

1984  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

1982  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

1979  An IRA bomb explodes at the Grote Markt in Brussels.

1976  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1973  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

1972  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

1968  Riots in Chicago, Illinois, during the Democratic National Convention.

1964  Anti-Vietnam war protesters and police clashed in the streets of Chicago while the Democratic National Convention nominated Hubert H. Humphrey for president.

1964  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1963  The Evergreen Point Bridge, the longest floating bridge in the world, opens between Seattle and Medina, Washington, US.

1963  Emily Hoffert and Janice Wylie are murdered in their Manhattan apartment, prompting the events that would lead to the passing of the Miranda Rights.

1963  March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom: The Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. gives his I Have a Dream speech.

1957  U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond begins a filibuster to prevent the Senate from voting on Civil Rights Act of 1957; he stopped speaking 24 hours and 18 minutes later, the longest filibuster ever conducted by a single Senator.

1955  Black teenager Emmett Till is brutally murdered in Mississippi, galvanizing the nascent American Civil Rights Movement.

1945  150 US personnel land at Atsugi, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, after Japan’s surrender.

1944  World War II: Marseille and Toulon are liberated.

1943  World War II: In Denmark, a general strike against the Nazi occupation starts.

1924  The Georgian opposition stages the August Uprising against the Soviet Union.

1917  Ten Suffragettes are arrested while picketing the White House.

1916  World War I: Italy declares war on Germany.

1916  World War I: Germany declares war on Romania.

1914  World War I: German troops take the city of Namur in Belgium.

1914  World War I: The Royal Navy defeats the German fleet in the Battle of Heligoland Bight.

1913  Queen Wilhelmina opens the Peace Palace in The Hague.

1909  A group of mid-level Greek Army officers launches the Goudi coup, seeking wide-ranging reforms.

1901  Silliman University is founded in the Philippines. The first American private school in the country.

1879  Cetshwayo, last king of the Zulus, is captured by the British.

1867  The United States takes possession of the (at this point unoccupied) Midway Atoll.

1859  The Carrington event disrupts electrical telegraph services and causes aurora to shine so brightly that they are seen clearly over the Earth’s middle latitudes.

1849  After a month-long siege, Venice, which had declared itself independent as the Republic of San Marco, surrenders to Austria.

1833  The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 receives Royal Assent, abolishing slavery through most the British Empire.

1810  Battle of Grand Port: The French accept the surrender of a British Navy fleet.

1789  William Herschel discovers a new moon of Saturn: Enceladus.




2007  2007 United States Air Force nuclear weapons incident: Six US cruise missiles armed with nuclear warheads are flown without proper authorization from Minot Air Force Base to Barksdale Air Force Base.

2005  Hurricane Katrina devastates much of the U.S. Gulf Coast from Louisiana to the Florida Panhandle, killing an estimated 1,836 people and causing over $108 billion in damage.

2004  Michael Schumacher wins his 5th consecutive Formula One Drivers’ championship (and 7th overall) at the 2004 Belgian Grand Prix to beat the 47 year old record held by Juan Manuel Fangio.

2003  Ayatollah Sayed Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim, the Shia Muslim leader in Iraq, is assassinated in a terrorist bombing, along with nearly 100 worshippers as they leave a mosque in Najaf.

1997  At least 98 villagers are killed by the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria GIA in the Rais massacre, Algeria.

1991  Libero Grassi, an Italian businessman from Palermo is killed by the Mafia after taking a solitary stand against their extortion demands.

1991  Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union suspends all activities of the Soviet Communist Party.

1982  The synthetic chemical element Meitnerium, atomic number 109, is first synthesized at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany.

1970  Chicano Moratorium against the Vietnam War, East Los Angeles, California. Police riot kills three people, including journalist Rubén Salazar.

1958  United States Air Force Academy opens in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

1950  Korean War: British troops arrive in Korea to bolster the US presence there.

1949  Soviet atomic bomb project: The Soviet Union tests its first atomic bomb, known as First Lightning or Joe 1, at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan.

1946  USS Nevada is decommissioned.

1944  Slovak National Uprising takes place as 60,000 Slovak troops turn against the Nazis.

1943  German-occupied Denmark scuttles most of its navy; Germany dissolves the Danish government.

1941  Tallinn, the Capital of Estonia is occupied by Nazi Germany following an occupation by the Soviet Union.

1930  The last 36 remaining inhabitants of St Kilda are voluntarily evacuated to other parts of Scotland.

1918  Bapaume taken by the New Zealand Division in the Hundred Days Offensive.

1916  The United States passes the Philippine Autonomy Act.

1914  Start of the Battle of St. Quentin in which the French Fifth Army counter-attacked the invading Germans at Saint-Quentin, Aisne.

1911  Ishi, considered the last Native American to make contact with European Americans, emerges from the wilderness of northeastern California.

1898  The Goodyear tire company is founded.

1885 Gottlieb Daimler patents the world’s first internal combustion motorcycle, the Reitwagen.

1842  Treaty of Nanking signing ends the First Opium War.

1831  Michael Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction.

1825  Kingdom of Portugal recognizes the Independence of Brazil.

1807  British troops under Sir Arthur Wellesly defeat a Danish militia outside Copenhagen in the Battle of Køge.

1786  Shays’ Rebellion, an armed uprising of Massachusetts farmers, begins in response to high debt and tax burdens.

1778  American Revolutionary War: British and American forces battle indecisively at the Battle of Rhode Island.

1758  The first American Indian reservation is established, at Indian Mills, New Jersey.

1756  Frederick the Great attacks Saxony, beginning the Seven Years’ War.

1728  The city of Nuuk in Greenland is founded as the fort of Godt-Haab by the royal governor Claus Paarss.

1541  The Ottoman Turks capture Buda, the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom.




2003  While being towed across the Barents Sea, the de-commissioned Russian submarine K-159 sinks, taking nine of her crew and 800 kg of spent nuclear fuel with her.

1999  East Timor votes for independence from Indonesia in a referendum.

1998  Second Congo War: Armed forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and their Angolan and Zimbabwean allies recapture Matadi and the Inga dams in the western DRC from RCD and Rwandan troops.

1995  Bosnian War: NATO launches Operation Deliberate Force against Bosnian Serb forces.

1988  France performs nuclear test.

1984  STS-41-D: The Space Shuttle Discovery takes off on its maiden voyage.

1981  President Mohammad-Ali Rajai and Prime Minister Mohammad-Javad Bahonar of Iran are assassinated in a bombing committed by the People’s Mujahedin of Iran.

1974  A powerful bomb explodes at the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries headquarters in Marunouchi, Tokyo, Japan. Eight are killed, 378 are injured. Eight left-wing activists are arrested on May 19, 1975 by Japanese authorities.

1974  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1974  A BelgradeDortmund express train derails at the main train station in Zagreb killing 153 passengers.

1967  Thurgood Marshall is confirmed as the first African American Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

1963  The Moscow–Washington hotline between the leaders of the U.S.A. and the Soviet Union goes into operation.

1958  US performs nuclear test at South Atlantic Ocean.

1957  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1956  The Lake Pontchartrain Causeway opens.

1956  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric tests).

1945  The August Revolution ends as Emperor Bảo Đại abdicates, ending the Nguyễn dynasty.

1945  The Allied Control Council, governing Germany after World War II, comes into being.

Allied Control Council:

Occupation of Germany:

1945  General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander of the Allied – Powers (SCAP), arrives at Atsugi Airfield, Atsugi City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

General MacArthur’s Arrival in Japan, and the Occupation of Japan:

Research Guide on the Occupation of Japan:

A Few Selected Books:

1945  British Armed Forces recaptures Hong Kong from Japan.

1942  World War II: The Battle of Alam el Halfa begins.

1940  The Second Vienna Award reassigns the territory of Northern Transylvania from Romania to Hungary.

1922  Battle of Dumlupınar: The final battle in the Greco-Turkish War (“Turkish War of Independence”).

1918  Fanni Kaplan shoots and seriously injures Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin. This, along with the assassination of Bolshevik senior official Moisei Uritsky days earlier, prompts the decree for Red Terror.

1917  Vietnamese prison guards led by Trịnh Văn Cấn mutiny at the Thái Nguyên penitentiary against local French authority.

1914  World War I: Germans defeat the Russians in the Battle of Tannenberg

1909  Burgess Shale fossils are discovered by Charles Doolittle Walcott.

1897  The town of Ambiky is captured by France from Menabe in Madagascar.

1896  Philippine Revolution: After Spanish victory in the Battle of San Juan del Monte, eight provinces in the Philippines are declared under martial law by the Spanish Governor-General Ramón Blanco y Erenas.

1873  Austrian explorers Julius von Payer and Karl Weyprecht discover the archipelago of Franz Josef Land in the Arctic Sea.

1836  The city of Houston is founded by Augustus Chapman Allen and John Kirby Allen

1835  Melbourne is founded.

1813  Creek War: Fort Mims massacre: CreekRed Sticks” kill over 500 settlers (including over 250 armed militia) in Fort Mims, north of Mobile, Alabama.

1813  First Battle of Kulm: French forces are defeated by an Austrian-Prussian-Russian alliance.


Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, audio/visual documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

(Sources and references:   to August_30;   to august/30;   to august_30.html; and other pertinent websites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace” through peace journalism.


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2 Responses to “This Week in History”

  1. […] For some pertinent information on the Occupation of Japan, visit “AUGUST 30, 1945    General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander of the Allied – Powers (…. […]

  2. […] some relevant information, visit: August 30, 1945  General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander of the Allied – Powers (SCAP), arri…; and/or September 2, 1945  World War II: Combat ends in the Pacific Theater: the Instrument of […]